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W. W. Lour?, Farm Demonstratio
Raising Blacks From Shifless
Would Establish Lo
lAd?)teas on "Tenant Problem," de
livered by \V. W. I,one of Clemson
College at the recent conference for
education in the south held at Louis
in order to discuss intelligently the
tenant problem lu the south, one finds
it impossible to ?io so without discuss
ing ni thc name time, the nice prob- ,
Nearly half of the farm lands in
South Carolina are in Hie hands of
negro farmers, as tenants or share
croppers. A condition similar to this
exists in most of the southern states,
though the percentage is rmi generally
as gnat. Considering this situation,'
it ls- plain t hat no people can afford
lo have one-half or even one-fourth nf ;
all their farm lauds In the hands of a
? lass of people unskilled in the care !
of land or the production of profit 1
from it. When we-consider that ev- |
cry acre of farmed land that does not !
produce a paying crop means so much 1
loss to thu wealth of a state or a sec- ,
lion, wo realize that the state of af
fairs now existing is intolerable. j
Hut we have the negro here und ?
We shall always have him here There
are il.OOO.OUfl or him in the south to- j
day, nearly one-third of our total pop- !
ulation. Wt? can not get him off ot'
?mr land:; now. and we shall never be j
able to gel bim off. not for many. '
many years at any rate. Let us get'
il:at settled in our minds at once amil
allow it to give us no further concern, j
ll ls only the short-sighted man in !
the south who talks of getting rill of!
What Is to be Hone.
What, therefore, is the logical >
cours?? for our people to take? Wet
have on our hands and our lands an
enormous number of ignorant negro !
fa r mer F, who are lhere, so far as we
can tell now, to stay. To a sensible,
logical people, the only answer is that
we must make the negro a better far
mer. Just here I desire to say that
I shall not discuse this question from
the humanitarian standpoint, hot from
Hie white man's standpoint. And so
I ray, we must make the negro a bet
ter funner, not if you please, because
humanitarian principles demand it of
us, but in order to protect and bene
ilt ourselves and our children.
In malting the negro a better farmer
th going to mean educating him, let us
educate him. If it means renting our
lands to him for a term of years, let us
rent him our lands for a term of years.
If il means giving him cheaper mon
ey and not endeavoring to squeeze out
of him unsuriously every dollar that
we can, let us give htm cheaper mon
ey. If it means treating the negro
fairly and honestly let us be tslr and
honest, with him. And since I believe
that making the negro a bette? farmer
will require these four changes of at
titude on the part of our people. 1 shall
limit myself to discussing these four
things in the order in which I have
named them, which I believe to be the
logical e rd er of the negro farmer's
.betterment at the bunds of our white
Believes in Education.
I have always tielicved in negro edu
cation. 1 have heard it said, and be
lieve lt to be true, that you can knock
a man down and keep him down by sit
ting on bim. But just as lone as,
you sit on him you will be una ole to
get up yourself. This seems to nie
to be our situation with respect to I he
nogro. Those who oppose educating
the negro on the ground that lt ir .> >t
lead 'o something like social equa ity
oe nu at tc m nt at it, can hold the n'.-gro
down so lona as they wish to. But
they have to stay down with him. The
wisdom of the sages and the experi
ence of the ages assure us beyond cav
il that Ignorance is detcrlmental to a
community no matter in what portion
of the community ignorance may exist.
The south can never achieve its des
tiny until it has reduced its present
enormous percentage of illiteracy. It
cnn never do this until it educates its
Wheu the white people of the south '
squarely face the fact that they will I
have to educate the negro and leave off
quibbling abont it, much of our prob
lem will have been solved. I dr> not
believe in giving him the same educar
r Hon that a white child receives. ThlB
would not he practicable, anyway, be
cause of his, at this time, inferior or
der ot Intellect. But educate him in
* the rudiments of culture, train him to
do useful work inculcate in him the
fundamental of right living, make bim
by practical and sensible means, a de
. .Thc nex: point I wish to make is,
th?t in order tc make the negro a het- j
ter farmer we shall, have to make
.radical changes in our prosont tenant
.system. At present our lands aro be
lng robbed of their fertility and future
urefulness by shiftless, short-term
tenants to whom we have offered no
inducements to improve our . lands.
Why should he improve the land he
' plants? He knows that the chances
are that, at the end of the year ho will
,ho turned off and another tenant taken
h. his place, or the land taken over
by the owner. And If he improves
the soil by planting legumes or ny oth
er methods, he fears, and rightly, ?that
the landlord will raise the rent of'the
- land .because of the improvement the.
tenant has made on lt. It ls not po.i
\ albie, under ? present conditions, to
make the negro tenant use. proper ag
agricultural methods. In the low coUh
ties of South Carolina, men have giv
!CT THE WHITES
ri Agent, Points Out Need of
Class to Thrifty Tenants
ng Lease System.
on their tenants fertilizers ?UK! made
tin m cowpeas for planting and mnde
lin ni promise to use Ul em, ami thus
the negroes have sold tin- materials
furn lilied them and have kept the
The Iteul Solution.
Hut 1 believe there ls a solution to
this problem and nut a very difficult
one lither. Let us lease land tu Hie
[negro for a terni of say. live years. ?
making a binding contract with bim
to permit him to stay nu tin- land for
Ibis length of time, without any in
crease in rental, provided he will plant '
winter cover crops, ami use other soil
building methods which must lie set,
for"li in Hie contract. Make a nagrec
nii nt in Hie contract further, that at I
Hie end of live years the tenant will
have tin- option of re-routing tile laud
for another terni ol' years at a reason-'
able increase in rental. I .believe that '
if the farmers of Un- south will do this'
it will benefit our lauds und increase!
the community wealth to an extent
impossible now for us to estimate. j
Hut having rented the land to him '
on eiiuituble terms ami having made;
provisions which will permit bini to.
become a good larmer and our lands I
to become better lands, shu) we de
stroy what we lia ve done by refusing
to let liim have money except at a
ruinous rate of interest? If the white j
fanner rises in arms against the mun j
wini wishes to charge him 10 ami 12 ,
per cent, for money, what must bi' the!
feeling of Hie negro who has to pay
the enormous rate which Hie majority |
of our people are guilty of charging
him? It is little to be wondered thai
he does not care to do anything tn Im- j
prove hit- landlord's place. Such ?sage j
is not calculated to make men feel ,
kindly toward those who use th?Vi so.
Money Question a Factor.
Let us therefore make up our j
in i inls once and for all time that an i
essential step in solving the negro
tenant problem is the changing of our '
rystctn of loaning him money anil let I
us give him money on thc saine terms
on which white fnrmers receive it.
These are the two main steps, leas
ing land for a term of yours, and let
ting the negro have money cheaply. As
for our fourth requirement, that of
treating the negro fairly and honest
ly-when we have educated him. niven
him a reasonably permanent tenure on
our soil and dealt with him equitably
in fin; ucial matters, we shall be able
to ? la? .i with reason that we have ful
filled this-iourth requirement.
Before concluding my discussion of
this quotion, I wish to say, and I be
lieve it id be directly germane to the
tenant problem in its larger phases,
that 1 am very strongly opposed to ne
gro ownership of land. As I said
when I began, I am not dlsciiHsing this
matter from the broadest point of view
but purely from the standpoint of the
white man's best Interests. The owner
ship of ?aad is the very basis and
foundation of this and all other civil
izations. If th? negro is allowed to
continue to ncquire lt, nay, if he con- j
tinue to be diven to acquire land by:
a tenant system that offers the small
present system and those who oppose
est possible gain the devotees of flit*
negro education may then well fear
Mure y.'.vn LaadH.
In the state' of Virginia in 1910, 67
per cent, of the negro farmers owned
their own lands, the increase in ne
gro ownership being 21 per cent, from
1000 to 1910. In the 24 tidewater
counties of Virginia, negro land hold
ings have increased In ?0 years from
about 6.000 acres to 421,465 acres. Thc
total acreage of lands in Virginia
owned by negroes in 1910 was 1,629,
000 about 16,000 owned their own
farms. The percentages for other
states may be even higher and In some
cases probably are. Figures from
these two, however, suffice to show
^hat it is no mere possibility that faces
fcs, but an actual situation.
The negro knows that the acquisi
tion of land is the surest way for him
to raise himself to the level of the
white man. If he does not know it,
his leaders know it, and instruct him
in the ways that he should go. We'
find, for example, that Booker T.
Washington and other leading negroes
are constantly urging upon their peo
ple the Importance of buying land.
Furthermore, you will find that when
a negro hays a piece of land, as a gen
eral thing, he will starve himself and
his family for years ?n order to secure
.a clear title and pay off bis bidrtgsges.
He will pay for land with a willing
ness anil a persistence that he shows
In no other lian net ion. And when he
has acquired Hie land, he will not let
lt go. This tenacity ls going to be
one of cur future troubles if wc con
tinue to sci! him land.
I know that many'people consider
me hopelessly Inconsistent when they
hear me, on the one hand, plead for
education and fairer and more honest
treatment of the negro, and, on the
other hand set myself up in opposi
tion to the' acquisition of any land by
the negro. They will argue that lt is
impossible to make first class, tenant
farmers of the negroes -without in
spiring them with a desire to own
land, causing them ultimately to de
mand that land bc sold to them. They
will argue that lt is impossible to pre
vent negroes from buying land if they
wish to do so. Let .us see whether
these objections will hold water.
, , flood Tenant (Mass.
As fdr the first objection, we have
our anawer hV England, where for
j centuries a certain class t of people
: owned practically no land. The great
1 landed estates were in the hands of
o few and the land were parceled out
[among the tenantry. Yet the tenants
became good farmers and made good
farmers of their sons, and it was a
i li mi sa ml years or mort' before they
began seriously to insist that the gov
ernment reunir? the gentry to sell
land to them. If lt took tho sturdy,
intelligent British yeomanry a thou
sand years lo bring lo a head their
demands to be allowed lo own land,
would it not require a longer timi' for
the negro Itt reach tltis point? I ad
mit that my plan might leave a prob
lem for the far distant future, but
perhaps in a thousand years the negro
may be so different a being that the
problem will suive tisejf naturally.
At any rate, who are we that we
should endeavor to plan for the peo
ples oj' many centuries ahead? Shall
we not content ourselves rather with
doing what wi? consider to be for the
best interests of our posterity only
so far ahead as we can imagine our
lt is true that you" cannot legislate
the negro out ot" land ownership' lt
would not do any good to pass such
laws, even were they constitutional,
unless the sentiment of the community
were overwhelmingly against negro
ownership of land. Hut once you have
secured this sentiment, you need no
So it is plain thal if we educate
Hie public mind to tin* danger of the
acquisition of bimi by negroes, we
shall need no laws on the subject.
The Instinct of self-preservation runs
with as much virility and strength
in a community as in an individual
ami but allow the mind of the Com
munity to become sulilciently im
pressed with the danger of anything
that threatens its civilization, and the
community will turn against that
thing, ami will battle with it single
handed, no matter what may be the
odds against it. And so it will be with
the white people of the south.
A Mutual Hebt.
Let us recapitulate. When all is
said ami done, we owe the negro a
debt, and the negro owes us a debt,
and this mutual d"tu is permanent
and can never periiaps be fully liqui
dated. The presence of negroes in
such large numbers as tenants on
Southern farms has given us a prob
lem which stands in Hie way of our
agricultural development. I believe
thai th?? proper method of solving this
problem ls educating the negro, leas
ing him land for a term of years, with
the privilege of re-renting it, and let
ting him have money cheaply and on
equitable terms. I further believe
that we should so encourage the negro
to become a good and contented ten
ant farmer that he will not insist on
buying land when we make up our
minds not to sell ll lo him.
All that I have suggested here Vi?
advisable for our while people to do
hap. been suggested strictly from the
point of view of the interests of the
white race. But we find that nearly
all of these suggestions are also in
the interest of thc negro race. "Cer
tainly, if these methods were to be put
into operation our conduct "would
be very much more in acord ' with
humanitarian practice than it is at
present. If we do not allow the ne
gro to acquire lnnd, it is because
there is a point beyond which a race
ls not required, even by moral laws.
JW go. Freedom In land ownership
would ultimately place the negro so
cially on a level with the white man.
and the white race would suffer sub
stantial deterorlatlon because of this
No moral iaw or any other kind of
law requires a race lo jeopardize its
future integrity. c
Finally, it is my belief thut if we
fail to do Hie things now which I have
recommended, we shall have to do
them later, or our children will have
lo do them when doing ipay be much
more difficult than lt ls, now. It is
my ardent hope, therefore: that we can
convince the white man in the south
of the permanence of the negro ten
ant problem and canu influence him tc
take thosp steps which will at once
be for his own Interests and at tin?
same time permit him,to fulfill the
debt nnd the duty whkfo he o wes, the
COMBINATION OF MATERIALS
Plain white cotton crape with crape
5 su llied in red and .bordered with whlct
I mu? red dots makes a stuart and ef
J fective combination in t\.?? hummel
, .frock, which follows the summer rult
\ ot comt,ination oj hinterinls. The loos?
' lines, of the blouse, complemented bj
tb* ves tee of sheer embroidered hand
kerchief li ii en und the short Rossini
tnnlc. not ;? extruding nil the waj
around, bnve tue jlgbt touch of sum
ueriness. ' '.'
Photos copyright, 1914. by American Tresa Association.
kEROPLANES are proving of distinct utility to thc American army In
Mexico. douerai Fnnston is using tiiem constantly keep tracie of
the movements of tile ll nerta forces. The Illustration (top plvture)
slums un aviator coming nshoro In a hydroplane after n ro.'ijuutMltwr
lng trip, and ut the bottom ls Lieutenant Mustin, un army aviator, making lila
report after returning from scouting over the Vera Cruz suburbs.
Financial and Commercial
j New York Cotton
New York, .tune The cotton mar
ket was unsettled by heavy realizing
today, losing about ?half of yesterday's
big advance, and closing barely steady
ni a net decline of H to 21? points. A
very bullish weekly weather report
checked selling tinting the middle of
thc day. but failed to inspire any ma
t-rial broadening of fresh demand and
prices roached, the lowest point in the
late tradiug. -""'
Closing prices w? re the lowes! of
the day. with December contracts
showing a reaction cf 2T. paint ''- "U.
the .high level of yesterday. A tru\e'
lng crop expert wires ?ti from Dp* s
that the Texas crop was in hail riup(\
and the statement of the, Sv,'(''\'>'
weather bureau that a lar*-1 I,r',J1 in
Northern Texas had not ?"en PIa.nted
und Huit many fields hr1 b',<,n ?i,)!">
doned. was un" of th/polnts empha
sized bv bullish ir"''rL' ?round UM
lo al ring. On ti>' docline, how
ever, a report ne* received from Aus
tin claiming .-"?t with a favorable
weather the' Texns crop would .m
prove rapi'iy. although it might not
be able " overcome till tho damage
that lu?' been done, while l.kcr< ms>
also, lave been some selling c;? leenl
predictions pf showers in t'.ie eastern
heit, where needed.
Cotton futures closed barely steady.
August. 1322 l'.;0S
January.. .. 1277 1270
Spot cotton quiet; middling uplands
March... .123? 1272
137.".; gulf 1400. No sales.
Liverpool, June ?. -Cotton spot firm;
good middling ?48; middling TS?;-, low
middling 738. Sales 8.000: speculation
und export 500; receipts (5,000.
Futures quiet; Juno 744; June- July
727; July-August 726 1-2; August Sept.
711 1-2: October-November 686; Dec.
Jun. 677 1-2; Jan. Feb. 677; Mar. Apr.
Stocks *??d Bonds
New York, June 2.- A definite down
ward movement of stocks occurred to
day, with a larger volume of trading
tlian during the recent deadlock ses
sions in which the price level virtually
was unchanged. Tho market openc
ut fractional recession. On incree '?
offerings, quotations fell away ' ,, ."
ly. Pressure re laxed late by?; e
exhibited no recuperative J* ?,ORI\ "
Forcgin markets slio-'", UJC ,WI,.U"
euee of .he Ulster mir' an* ,r*t?n d'''
velopnienta in Fro-/ J??lilll?
don disposed of .-^luips B.t*0 shares
herc. , , . ,
Strength ' staU' u?d municipal
bonds Ta}^ to H;i8,amp railroad is
sues T?*u' sa,os i'ar ralue $1.750,00(1.
Unite- s,at"K 2s registered declined
Chicago, Jun 2.-Wheal prices turn
ed upward today, influence largely by
European novices of bullish rop con
ditions and of diminishing stocks on
hand. The market lu re closed steady
al an advance of 1-4 to :t-4e net. Other
leading staples, tooti all showed gains
corn :'.-4 a 7-8 to 1 .J-Hc, oats 1-4 a !l-8
a 1-2 anti provision:; 12 1-2 a 15 to 4?i
NEW ORLEANS COTTON
New Orleans, La., June 2.- Liqui
dation was the main influence in the
codon market today and it weighed
against l?ricos sufficiently to send
them 12 to 16 points under the level
close was at tho lowest. H. liing out
of yesterday's last quotations. The
was heavier, in the aft er noon than in
show of strength was made and thc
tho morning session when some small
trading months were put 3 to ."i points
over yesterdays dose.
While weather conditions were still
unfavorable there was improvement In
Texas and the trade appeared to be
looking for some elt up in the drouthy
conditions in thc eastern bolt. Sell
ing was based chiefly on the belief that
the extremely unfavorable conditions
of the recent past could not contin
ue indefinitely and that any chango
would l o for (he helter.
Tin weekly crop summary and wea
ther reports were regarded as highly
unfavorable but they did not cause
buying of any great importun?e.
Spot cotton steady unchanged. Mid
ti?r.g |3 8-4. Sale:; un the spot 78f?
lo arrive 750.
Cotton futures steady. Closing:
July 1850;. August 1.132; October
1277; ' December 1277; January 1278;
Program jgor Missionary Conference
8:45- Devotion. Mrs. J. M. Sullivan.
9- lllble cluny. Prof. C. M. Faithful.
10- Pcrconui service, Mrs. It. Lee
11- Mirsion study, Mrs. A. L. Smoth
12:15-Dinner study and rent.
^Wednesday AitcrnonoV .
3:30 - Ways and Meium Proposed
7:30-VoBper service. Miss Hermie
8:20-Address. Rev. W. T. Tate.
. Thursday Morning.
8--Breakfast." ' .
8:45-Devotion, Mrs. E. J. MeO< wu.
10 ^Personal nervlca.
12:15-Dinner, study and rest.
Tit II rs ila j Afternoon.
3:30- Ways and Means; business
7:30-Vesper service, Miss Helen
8:30-Address, Rev. Edward S.
Heaves, subject, "Stewardship, or
Christ's Teaching Concerning the
Itlght Use of Property."
?3:45-Devotion, Mrs. E. P. Gauibrc'.l.
10 - Porsonal service.
11 -M lesion study.
12- Noon devotion, Mrs. E. W. Mali
-, iff I;';'
Has recently saved two houses from tire. <~e
on Franklin Street, where Mr. Geisberg live?
on McCully Street owned by N. C. Burr0, 1 S
is well worth considering when you b a nexv
house or need a new roof. Insurance l?ss w?enV
vou use Burriss Shingles. We mal' a ?arn K?OT
that never leaks. No nails expos" to me sun* bee
us before roofing your houses ' Phol,e us and w?
will come to see you.
JON. T. BURKES & SON.
BUGG*^ <>r WAGON
H?)RSE or MULE
y^il you have seen the ones I have for sale. If
you want the best, say Piedmont Buggy or MH-.
Theo P. Watso?r
N. McPEFElE KT HF. FT
_; a . -.'._tm J.
?NOFBHON, 8. C.
We Have Buggies,
. coming in almost every day the
latest shipment being a car of
Come in and let us show thara.
They are 1914 Modela.
We have a nice Une of Pony
J. S. FOWLER
NIAGARA FALLS, CANADA.
<()l NT RV AND
Jl'LY 1 To 19, 1014
SEABOARD AIR LINE RAILWAY
Rapids of the 81. Lawrence
St Anne de Beaupre,
-Summit ML, Washington,
THREE BAYS IN BOSTON AND
TUREE BAYS IN NEW YOBK
A Complete Itinerary at Minimum
Cost for eighteen d?ys of Best, Recre
ation. Interesting and Instructive
Personally conducted by Mr. CH.
OfitUs and chaperoned by Hrs. Gattls.
GATTIN TOURIST AGENCY
Raleigh, N. C.
WE have arranged to p?ibli&
serially the remarkable amy
entitled. "The L\nd of F-token
Promise?,Mby Dane Coolidge. It it
a story of the Mexican resolution,
and a graphic p&ur?. pi .tt>n^tfag
in that country built upo? the advsr*
tures cf lv/o Americans and thc
ruiuauce of a beautiful Mexican
it h a Serial AU Witt
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