Newspaper Page Text
VOLUME 1, NUMBER 212 Weaklr, ErtaUIikei 1M0| DmDy, Jaa.lt, Itu, ANDERSON, S. C., SATURDAY MORNING, SEPTEMBER 26, 1914 PRICE FIVE CENTS 85.00 PER ANNUM
THIS WOULD BE A FATAL BLOW TO THE
INVADERS OF FRANCE
GEN. FRENCH EXPLAINS
WHY THE WAR IS DRAGGING
It is Because the Flanking or Turning Movements
Must Be Accomplished in a Deliberate Man
ner-Summary of the War News
While the French and British official statements intricate satis
faction with the situation along the battle front in France and con
fidence in the outcome, an unofficial report from Paris declares thc
German right has been broken and is being pursued by the allies.
This report also declares the Germans have been surrounded in
the Somme department and that Peronne had been recaptured.
The officiai press bureau at London, while makiig no objection
to the publication of these reports, have declined to take any respon
sibility for their correctness.
Announcement lats at night by both French and British officials
declared there had been no change in the situation which they pre-i
viously had reported as favoring the allied army to some degree.
A narrative from Field Marshal Sir John French's headquarters, issued
at London by the official press bureau gives the reason for the long
drawn out battle, which has lasted eighteen days.
Why the Battle Drags.
"The extent of the country covered," it says, "is so great as to
render slow any efforts to manoeuvers and march around the flank
in order to escape the costly expedient of a fronti. ttack against
heavily fortified positions." f
This refers to the fiercely contested operations of the allies'
ieft flank in an endeavor to outflank the German right wing under
General von Kluck. In these operations French and British, heavily
reinforced, have been engaged for several days, and the encounters
at times are reported to have been Unprecedented.
In the far east there are signs of much activity on the part of
the Japanese, who are engaged in a land and sea movement aeainst
the German concession of Kiao Chow, in Shan Tung provino;, China,
The Japanese have occupied the heights outside of Tsing Tau, the
capital overlooking the Gerrrr?rt*snrrta1n Une of defence.
/'>? ? Chinese 'troops have blown* up the railroad bridg? at Tayu-Ho,
srx miles west of Wei-Hsein, which also his been occupied by the
Japanese and thus are apparently opposing Japanese military opera
tions in Shan Tung province.
The Austrian Campaign.
Meagre reports of the Russian campaign against Austria and
Germany indicate a period of comparative calm while the great
armies of these nations are getting into position for offensive and
A British cruiser squadron under Rear Admiral Sir. Christopher
Craddock, v/ho. recently commanded British warships in Mexican
waters, ha? arrived ai Pur.ta Arenas, Strait of Magellan and is believed
to be on.its way to the Pacific.
The German cruiser Enden, which recently captured six British
steamers anet sank five of them in the Bay of Bengal, has sunk four
more and captured a collier.
O0 0 000 0 00000000000000/'0000000
ALLIES CLAIM VICTORY! ?o
London,/Sept 'S?.-rr-.l 2.1.5 a. m.-^A Paris dispatch
tb the Exchange Telegraph Company says:
"lt is said here tonight (Tuesday) that the German
right has been entirely broken, and is now being pur
sued by the allies, ' ... All the automobiles in Northern
France have been requisitioned for the purpose of pur
"Armored motor .cars with mitrailleuses also are
being used to pursue the retreting enemy.
"The official'communication issued at 3 o'clock
demonstrates unmistakably that the Germans have been
surrounded in the Somme department, the French front
extending farther east.
"lt is stated officially that Peronne has been recap
- The foregoing message has been referred to the
British official press bureau, which, while not objecting
to its publication, takes no responsibility for its correct
is Called a Thief
Paris. Sept. 29.-Crown Prince
Frederick William during the ?rat
days af the battle of the Marne, h?.d
headquarters at th? . chateau of the
BaVcmhess De Baye, near Chsmpauert,
Maree, famous Sor.ita art collection*.
Thfc^^rob?eS? Da Bey*? writes, says
tc* Paris Tetaos, thus:
"The crown prince plundered too
whole place. MS stole medsis. old
arma, rare and precious vases, tapes
tries, icons, cups and gold souvenirs
most dear to my family. He caused ta
he necked choice pictures and pieces
of furniture, hut some-of these cases
were left in the hasty flight ot the
The Baronnes* affirms, accorfllng to
the Temps, that the Goman crown
prince siantped with his heel upon the
portraits-of the Waaslhe. to?>*Tc# and
New York EUctJoa.
New York, Sept. 2?;- James W
Wadsworth, Jr., is probably the Re
publican nominee for the United States
senate, leading Calder by less than 1,
000 votes.. There are BOO districts to
be heard from, bat they will strengthen
Frederick M. Davenport has defeat
ed former Governor William Suitei
fer the Progressive gubernatorial boca
Gcrcraor ."?ly?n? District Attorney
Whitman and Ambassador G erard
continued to add tb their pluralities
Upstate tor the Democratic and Repub
lican gubernatorial abd Democratic
senatorial nominations, respectively.
With a majority ot almost 100,000 al
ready established, it appears that Gov
ernor Glynn would finish probably
125.000 votes ahead. Whitman's plu
rality probably wilt be between 60,'
?Mri "T&.aoA, Sererd's UttyS.
ANTWERP IN DANGER.
Amsaerdnm, Sept. 89.-(Via Lo?,
don. Midnight)- The Germans hine
commenced their attaek on the first
hw of defence of Antwerp, according
to dispatches received by the A mster.
dam paper?. Moll, an Important rail
way jonction near the Dutch border, I
was occupied by the Germans Snndny
und today the Germans who again <>r
cupy Mulinea, began a bombardment
of Lierre, directly fn front of Antwerp.
Rioting Ia Br?ssel?.
London, Sept. 29.-Americans who
arrived today from Brussels say most
of their countrymen aro leaving that
city, fearing outbreaks because of
strong ' feeling among the population
against the Germans. >
Germans In Belgium,
Rotterdam. Via London, Sept. 29.
I The Belgians were driven out of Moll,
a town 28 miles northeast of Lou.
vain, Sunday and the place Is occu
pied by Germans, according to a dis
patch to the Rotterdam Sehe Courant
Russia Is Formidable. (
London, SepL 29.-Having invest
ed Brzemsyl, the Russians are report
ed to be making their way hot only
through the Carpathians to sweep
aer?os the plains tn Northern Hun
gary, but In strength, toward Cracow,
which they may report before tbc
week ls out, unless the Austrian fiold
army checks the advance. Their ar
rival at Carcow would be the siana!
for n batu? along thc Passion -Ger
Canadians at tao Front,
Quebec. Sept. 29.-The farewell
mcrsago of Colonel-Samuel' Hughes,
ministe? o? militia, to the Canadian
troops now on their way to fight for
Britain tn continental Europe made
public hero tonight, shows that "in
wards ot M.COO C&nadtans of English,
Irish, French, Welch, Scotch, Ameri
can, and Gorman ancestry havo gone
to the dolors.
Austria Is Desperate.
London. Sept. 30.-2:10 a. m.l
"From the latest events in Galicia and
along the Carpathians thc conclusion
drawn ls that the Austrian army bas
abandoned Hungary to lt-, fate oud
has left the.route to Budapest]tc bc
'i-fended bv the Hungarian national
troops," saya the Petrograd correa-,
ponucnt of the Dally Telegraph.
Danger of Starvation
London', Sept. 29.-Tho scarcity of
food in Brussels has raised a grave
problem, accordln? to. R. C. -Hawkin, '
who has Just returned from- Bel g In m
after completing arrangemeou to
transfer a number of wounded Bel
gian soldiers to England. "The situ- .
ation la BruspolB 1B one of great un- j
certainty." saul Mr. Hawkin tonight. !
"There ls the gravest danger of fstar
N?w Orleans, Sept. 29.-Alter .dis
cussing cotton ncreage 'reduction- In
1915, during the most of today and un
til late tonight delegates to the'
Southern convention became hopeless- |
ly deadlocked on the question and ad
journed until tomorrow without tak- '
lng action. The whole matter was sent
back to t*2C r?solutions committee.
FOR FIRST TIME
Session WHS Be Held With Wast
Market Street School on Fri
day, October IO
! The first meeting of the Anderson
County Teachers Association to bo
hold during the 1914 Fall session will
take place in this, city on Sautrday, i
October 10. The meeting will be call- <
ed to order at 12 o'clock by the presi
dent of the association. t
While thc meeting will be very en- i
?jjyable In every respect, this meeting i
ls of moro than ordinary Interest be- i
ciuae of ?hs ?ict thai the officers for !
the coming year witt be elected at the I
first meeting. Prof. T. H. Hanna of <
Pendleton i- now president'of the aa-!,
sedation. ? !i
The first session ?rill ba held In the <
West Market street school and while!
pl?te program has not yet
boen announced, lt is understood that1
several new features will be announc-'
ed and Miss Maggie J. Carlington, su- i
pervisor ot rural schools for Anderson .
county, says that she expects this ?
first meeting to be one qt the best \
that the association will have during i
GOVERNORS AND CONGRESS
MEN FAIL TO DETERMINE
PLAN FOR RELIEF
VVui Attempt io Secure Legisla
tion To EncJble Planters to
Secare Loan* OD Crops
(By Associated Press)
Washington, Sept. ..<.). -Southern
governors and congressmen conclu
ded a series of ccfnfereucJ3 nere today
without determining upon any defi
nite plan for the relief of cotton plant
ers from conditions growing out of
the European war. While they re
solved that next year's cotton acreage
should be materially rc Heed, uo spe
cial means ot curtailment were agreed
The conferees agreed to attempt to
secure federal legislation that would
enable planters to obtal.i loans from
the banks on their surplus crop,
while prompt action was urged upon
the warehouse hill pending In the
house and upon the senate bil! pro
posing the renee! of ?*-.? ?en n?r cent
-u state banka wfil;4 VttC'rate
In t'.ie amended Aldrich-vreeland em
ergency currency' tcL They determin
ed to attempt to . maintain cotton
prices above ten Cent"?, J pound and a
committee was" named to submit the
conference resol tuto IIB IO President
Wilson. The resolution?, uuunltnous.
fy adopted, aro:
"Reeolve?, that it ld th? sense of
tbU cQufd-'on -e:
"That tho acreage of cotton to he
cultivated in tho United States m
1!. J."shall be materially reduced. That
to accomplish this end every legiti
mate meanB shall be employed.
"That the members of thia confer
crtco shall makto^PS?rj' possible C'fort
to secure federal l?gislation which will
upon snob part of the present crop
and under such conditions aa may be
prescribed' by law and by the rules
oi.r, re-gutntJou?:lawfully nuda by the
"Resolved that lt be tin sense of
'.hlB niejt::ig that there Nj ? ?ta bl nm d
hy joint repletion In ths house of
tho United States, a commission look
ing to the extension Of the consump
tion and marketing of cotton gooda,
and that Senator Hoke Smith prepare
irntre Klagt]? Currency.
"Resolved, that i? is thc nei.se ol
this conference that the house of rep
resentatives should pass the senate
bill, allowing thc state hanks to Is
sue emergency currency under the
provision of the Vreeland-Aldrich bill
as amended, without paying the ten
per cent. tax.
"Resolved by the governors, sena
tors and representatives in congress
from the cotton states, in convention
assembled In the city ot Washington,
September 29, 1914. that we will moat
earnestly endeavor tp maintain the
price of cotton aboi* ten cents a
pound, and to accomplish this end we
will bring- to bear, as far as we can
the power- of the national and stale
governments to restrict acreage tor
the year 1 DIG, and furnish govern
mental aid to handle the p?sent crop.
"Resolved, that this' conference re
quest rromp? action upon thc ware
house bill now pending In the house
.'resolved that a cprpnritne of three
be appointed to call upon the attor
ney general to lay tba fact?? aboul cot
ton seed before him. and to request
such action aa tue tizU nay Justify."
The committeemen' named were:
Representatives Sp/gaes? Q?ttp*.
and Ijever, aoutn Carolina, a?i Sena
tor B. D.'SartUv'of ?witli Carolina.
Representatives "Hardwick and
Lever and Senator Josoph T. Ttohln
Bon vcere appointed . ?..> submit the
resolutions to the ?r*?'..lent.
Alter Heated 1< hate
Adoption of the resolutions came
cfte.v roany hours of heated dehn'e.
Viperous objection hui the proposal
that the governors, pl*Ko thomeolves
to call special session*, of slate legis
lature to enact pron.HP'/o ??xt.a on
cotton .production lp r.?l? In excess
ot Gu per?ent of the rim crop. Many
Ot the governor* war* -mderptood to
have contended that.anch law* would
be an exercise of police power and
that state constitutions forbade ex
tension ot that power beyond a pre
scribed ?eld. A committee ba? re
ported that ft? state* had full au
thority but'.?t was ImpoHslbV? to re
concile divergent rle,WP
Thc ?niggestlon t*??t a fed*?al tax
ation law be enacted met with oppo
Hltlon from congresan* n.
That also was abandoned.
Lennox, Masa, BejK? ,!9.-The semi,
monal meeting of ta*\ National Aexo
-tnt'on nf cotton aa?j?n facturer* op
ined tonight with ?address by Pr ca
dent Ai'uert Gveeae. Duncan, of Bos
ton. Papera on t?car.
m pied much of t|W|j?.
ST. JOHN'S CHURCH HAVING
Rev. John W. Speake and Assis
tan!? Are Doing Good Work
With Revival In Procreas
The third meeting of the series of
revival services which are being ?con
ducted at St. John's Methodist church,
continued the same line of spiritual
earnestness that has been manifest
ed In the. two previous services.
The Kev. Mr. Danner feagan, the
praise service of song promptly at
eight o'clock His efforts to enlist all
of the 'people tn the singing met with
marked success, and was a great im
provement on tho singing ot thc pre
ceding evening. The choir . was also
much larger, having resolved many
additions from the other choirs of the
city. Mr. Danner is stressing the im
portance of this part of the service,
regarding it as a helpful preparation'
for the receiving of the preacher's
message. Under Mr. Danner's compp
tent leadership and with bis earnest
efforts it is confidently expected that
each night's singing will be better
than that of the preceding night.
Mr. Speak assumed elm go of the
services ut eight twenty and started
at once with , his jharucterlst'c
earnestness to present a moving gos
pel mecs?1 ye. As on tin proceeding
evening, bu stated that he did not ex
pect to teach or to explain, or even
to direct the minds of his . hearers
primarily to the sermon, twit rather to
preach, and especially to preach with
a view to convicting pf sin and of the
need of the Savior. He continued to
press his plea for a more -ital ex
perimental religion, illustrating the
lacks of ttys hy incident*- from an
easy-goiny ministry and from the- In
adquate religion ot the homo life of
The key-note of the entlra service
was "Salvation." Jesus /'Christ carno
to seek and ?o nave that which was
lost." Tba inefficiency of thc church,
the unfaithfulness of some ministers
and particularly the diffidence of
professing Christians, all onie in for
some sovere criticism. .The lose con
dition of the world,, tho op?n so o of
society and the Irr?ligion generally
of many communities, aro a sufucleut
challenge to the faith and efforts of
every, true Christian, and yet they are
carccly distrusted at all by these con
ditions. Not until tbp professing
ch rim ian world gets on fire with a
passion for souls, and Ulled with the
power of the Holy Spirit, can these
conditions be changed and ?Christ
crowned king.. In words bubbling ov
er with earnestness, Mr. Speake plead
with the Christians present to give
themselves to sacrificad prayer to*
the salvation of their lost loved ones
and friends and for the world.
In response of the appeal of the
preacher the altar rall was filled with
those who had the burden ot salvation
for themselves and others upon their
hearts. While they anett Mr.Speaue
raised the tune of the first song he ever
sang, "O, "How I Love Jesus." This
was sung softly by those around the
altar rail, and then Dr. Vines led the
congregation In a most earnest and
deeply spiritual prayer. Following
this prayer many of the . penitents
Joined in sentence prayers for God's
help. Rising from the altar nany Join
ed in the song, "Or Whore is My
Wandering Boy Tonight?" The scene
was deeply impressive and many un
der conviction were touched tc tears.
Following are the homes at which
meeting Till! bf* he'd on Wednesday
Cottage prayer meeting for Wed
At the homie of Mrs. O. P?erco
Browne, 640 West Market street, Mrs.
W. P. Wright as worker. Rev. D. W.
Dodge as leader; at the borne f Mr.
H. E. Wailaco, Bleckley street with
Mrs. Essie Kay as ?forker, R?V. J. W.
Speake, leader: at the homo of V7. A.*
Taylor, MoCully street, Mrs. W. G.
Martin as wo?ker and R. S. Ldgon es
loader; at Hie home of Mrs. fl- F.
Blgby, 42b. River ;?tre3t. Mrs. U. II.
Finley as Worker and Dr. John F.
Vines as, leader; at thc homo of Mr.
Reid Fowler. 117 Sayre street, Mrs.
J. P Noblltt ns leader; at the home of
Mr. W. Cl Hayo*,. 120 Sharp street,
Mrs. n. E. BurrtB? as ' worker and
Rev 8. W.: Danrift' aa leader; at the
home of Mr. Chfi' '-, Carlisle, North
Fsui bire6t, Mrs. t? W. Caca ?? -?erk
or aud ReV. W. T. Bel vin.
Meeting* For Thursday,
At the hom.} of Sf-. J. T. Bell, 730
Elizabeth stn et, Mrs. W. 8. Pierce,
os worker and Rfrv. J. H. Speake as
leader; at the home ot Mr. A. S.
Farmer, 781 W. Whitner street, Mrs.
W. E. "Casen as ?worker sad Rev. &
W. Danner as leader; at the home of
Mr. R. U Cheahfr?, -i5i Marshall
Avo., Mm. R. U';TetD(plcton SS* work
er. Wt T. Belvia as leader: at the
home of Mrs. J? W. Daniels, 344 8.
McDnffle street. Mrs. Mosley aa work
er and D', vv. H. Frazer as ?e.ifler;
o NO PORK BARREL o
o - o
o Washington, Sept. 29. o
-. The rivers and har
o hors appropriation bill, o
o in the form of a senate o
o substitute carrying only o
o a general fund of $20,- o
o 000,000 for continuing o
o present projects, was o
o passed ?ate today by the o
o house. The bilt originally o
o included appropriations o
o aggregating $53,000,000 o
o but a filibuster conducted o
o by Senator Burton result- a
o, ed in the adoption of the o
o 2'ibtitute. 0
FORMER RESIDENT OF
UNPERSON 15 KILLED
RAMSEY WEST LOST LIFE UN
Formerly Made Hb Home In An
derson and Had Brother Here
Accident wea ir? Greenville
IL Anderson people wore ?bocked yes
terday morning; whet? they learned
that Ramsey West, 10 years of ago,
Was^ instantly killed In Greenville
Monday night shortly after 9 o'clock
when he was ?triJCH by soulbbotisd ?
train No 41 cf the Southern Railway. [
Tho young man walked eui from be
hind some box cars right into the
oncoming engine and it ts understood
that be was instantly killed.
The first Information to reach An
derson of the sad event was a message
received by D. T. WoBt, proprietor of
the Ideal Grocery Company on North
Main street and a brother of the dead
Ramsey West at one time made his
home In this city, being employed as
collector for the Evans Pharmacies
here. About two years ago be left An
derson and returned to Greenville.
The following appeared In the
Greenville Dally News of yesterday:
"Rainsey West, a young white man
nineteen years of age. watt run over
and instantly killed last night by
Southern train No. 41 as it waa com
ing In the yards. The killing occurred
shortly after 9 o'clock, and .asar the
overhead bridge. According to the en
gineer, young West stepped within the
focus of his vision so close to the en
gine thnt he could not possibly stop'.'
The engine and two cars passed over
"Mr. West had recently been in the
employ . of Farley & Askln He ii the
son of Mr. and Mrs. R. L .West,' who
reside at Lownes Hill, a few miles
from the city. While living here ho
had boarded with Mr. W. M. Stan
"The circumstances leading up to
tho death of the young man could not
be explained last night. His father,
who was notified and who canto Im
mcultatalv tn th? Hty. unid ho thnnirht
lt likely his son misjudged the dis-,
tan of the engine, or stumbled over
the tracks, and fell lo front of it. As
the family does not desire an inquest,
it is possible no coroner's Jury will
sit on the case. Funeral arrangements
have not yet been announced, .though
it ls probable that burial will be had
thia afternoon frpm the botnie of thc
parents. The body, was taken last
night tb the undertaking, eatablisment
of Jas. F. Mackey & Son.
"The dead man is survived by bis;
parents, one sister and five brothers?
Two of his brothers are from Macon,
one being an engineer abd ono a con
ductor. Tho family formerly lived
near Spartan burg."
Tax on AaianMiafies.
Washington, Sept. 29.-The neuste
finance committee is considering a war
tax on automobiles. This would bring
la a revenue of $20,080,000.
at the home Mr. R, H. Henderson,
692 Marshall Ave., Mrs. J. C. Payne
sa worker and Rar. D. W. Oodge as
leader; at the home nf Mr. J. R. An
derson. N. Main street. Mrs. C. Ban
Allen ss worker, Rav. D. Wi jOodgs,
leader; at the home of Mr. Marshall
P. Orr, North Anderson, Mr?. 1). B.
Gossett worker and Rev. J. M. Gar
rlson ^a leader.
LAST MEXICAN CRISIS SEEMS
TO BE NEAR A
WHICH WILL BE
END OF ALL WAR
If Carranza Accede? to Effert? In
Behalf of Calder?n, the Re
public May Be Snared
Washington, Sept. 29.-Optimistic
dispatches today from Consul 81111
man and tho Braslltan ?ilrtster at
Mexico City caused Secretary Bryan
to Inform President. Wilson that the
prospects for restoration ot perman
ent peace In Mexico were nighter than
at any time since the overthrow of
Madero by Huerta.
In the light of all advices both from
Mexico City and Chlahusbua Cltv,
General Villa's headquarters* official?
here still are condom that the new
upheaval threatened by the breesh be
tween Villa and Carranca will be
averted by the letters retirement as
first chiof of the conr'Uutionallsts
and election of Fernando iglesias Cal
deron aa provisional president.
The state department was notified
today that the pence commissioners
appointed by the two constitutional
ist chiefs would hold their meetings
tomorrow at Torreon. Thl3 gave rise
to tho hope that ?ho conference would
be able to agree upon Calderon as the
provisional president before the con
vention to he held October l^at. Mex
ico City to set up the now govern
V/nshinjstoa. Sect SS,-Cesat2*i*re
between tho United States and "^r^e
rapidly is regaining normal propor
tions. Secretary McAdoo, of the treas
ury department, announced tonight
that in the last several days :reports
from shipping centers showed material ,
increases in export trade.
Yesterday 20,732 bales ot cotton wera
shipped to European ports. This ls the
largest amount shipped in a single
day since the war began. Of the 20,
732 bales, 2,350 were exported from
New York, 1,250 from Savannah and
117,132 from Galv<uton.
GEUSAS* Ol? WA TE H.
Ts Success?ul In Destroying British
London. Sept. 23. -Tho German
cruiser Eden again has been busy tn
East Indian waters and besides stok
ing four moro British steamers-mak
ing nine to her credit-has captured a
The British government is preparing
to put a stop.to the supplying of coal
to tue few German cruisers at large.
At different occasions the government
has been made representations to the
governments of countries. from which
these vessels get, their supplies and
also is hunting down the collier?.
t?! LOOK WHO'S HERE.
The Balkan States Ar? Agela Bagar
For the Fray .
London, Sept. 2ft.-There is talk bf
Turkey, Greece, Italy and Roumanie
becoming involved ir? tho war but for
the momen* Italy ls being held back
by the government. Turkey, hoverer.
wuuiti ?ike io ??Ve tt nouu in uro uupo
of recovering some of the territory she
lost in the Balkan wara hut the mo
ment she does Greece would be ha
arms against her, while, this also
would be the signal for Rou mania to
TO MOVE FALL URO Pa.
1 ^ashiSS^stp?^S:-The" treas
ury department has deposited 113,029,
74(1 in twenty-three states for fall
crop moving purposes to September 88,
according to an announcement tonight
by Secretary McAdoo.' Of thia sum
Missouri has taken tho largest amount
M.550,000, with M-t-i'and 6,-cond, 81.
(50,000. The ar Munta secured hy
3th?r states incl ide: Ncrth Carolina
S4C3,2sC: South OevoMna $82**?*;
Tennessee $675,00d; Virginia $708,760.;
? A Paper Ceder Baad. *
t? "London, Sept. atv-The Vor- e
? weerie, a Germe? SeClallst peu*-, o
? aaa bern suppressed aed its pub- a
? tie?tie* forever forbidden, ac. e
t rerdlag ta un Amsterdam dis?, e
v patch te the Kachana* Tetagranh e
? Oat nany. (The Socialist* are ea* e
> pesad te war. *
s a a a a o o a a . a a e