Newspaper Page Text
VOLUME 1, NUMBER 212 Weaklr, ErtaUIikei 1M0| DmDy, Jaa.lt, Itu, ANDERSON, S. C., SATURDAY MORNING, SEPTEMBER 26, 1914 PRICE FIVE CENTS 85.00 PER ANNUM
TURKEY S Elf
THE FAR REACHING EFFECT
OF RUSSIAN PORTS IS EV
MANIA INDICATES'THAT ?
ITALY-BULGARIA IS FRI
OPED AS TO THE PROE
TURKEY AND BALKAN CC
. (By Associated Press.) .
WASHINGTON, Oct. 30.-Turkey's
attack on RUB Bia. reports of which*
were confirmed tod ey in official dis-j
patches to ths Amie* lean sovc-rnmsstj
and the Russian embassy, was view
ed by officials and diplomats gener
ally here today na likely to produce
gravest complications throughout the
Balkans, northern Africa and Asia
The announcement of a state of war j
between Fucsia and Turkey was ex-j
pected eventually to bring Greece
Italy, Roumanie and Bulgaria into]
the lut ot belligerents.
Ambassador Mergenthau in a brief
cablegram from Constantinople late
today made no mention of a declara
tion ot. war by Turkey o& Russia
but said the British ambassador had|
Informed bim of the bombardment o
Odessa,'br' three Turkish torpedcj
boat destroyers and thc sinking of nj
Russia gunboat. Previously the-Amer
ican consul at Odessa had reporter
that. during the, bombardment. some\
American property, .waa destroyed.
While these dispatches and - prev
ious .indications from the.Levant, off!-j
oj al?? feared the long expected confia-j
gration tn Turkey was at hand. The; ]
preparen to use me American cruls
era North Carolina and Tennessee tc'
assist American missionaries if nec
essary, and to setup motion measure* I
ope 'were plunged 'into war.
.??e Pir reaching effect of Turkey'
bombardment jot Russian ports - WSB
everywhere admitted. White it wa-,
suggested io some quarters that the
Ottoman government might repudiate
the raid of the Turkish', destroyers
and the former . German cruisers
Gooben and Breslau, attributing the
acta -to the initiative of the German
officer- -vnd crewe- manning them, th?
bells 'jvailed that Russia would I
hot passively accept this view, br
wyUlu v?SSivir, u?r?ci? lu a otntu u? j
war .with Turkey.
The complications in Albania,)
where Greece'has sent troops io oe
cupyt Bplrus supposedly incurring thc]
displeasure of Italy, is believed to al
ter nnmnwhai the alignment which!
would have resulted a month- agc
from Turkey's entrance into the wari
The news from Athens that Grtccc
entered Albania with the consent ot |
the triple entente waa a puzzling de
velopment for Washington officials
The feeling for months bad been that j
Italy would side with the entente i
Turkey declared war on ; Russia, but)
that bad been baaed largely on th<
supposition that the Mussulmen lr
Egypt, rising against British rule,
would incito their brethren in Tri
poli to attempt to cast off Italian
domination. 'Italy, to remain neutral
must eventually reach some under
standing with the triph entente coa i
corning the partitioning ot Albania or ]
the activities of Greece in that coun
try. . ._
The far Eit?
Wf th a Lessening in H^etSittes in I
(By Associate Press.
The Par East, for the moment at
least, has taken the center ot tho Stage
ir? the war drama being enacted la
Europe, Asia and Africa and on the
high seas: With a leasehiag ia the hls
tilitica in northern Belgium ?eli
mace, and with the Situation ceased ?
by Turkey's use bf her , warships
against ostensibly friendly nations nbt
ii* *t*a? enough to reveal what Ita
outcome will he, comes the announce
ment that the Japanese and British
have began a general attack on Ger
many's fortified bas? at Tslng-Tau. .
The shelling of Tsing-Taa began
with tile dawn ot the Japsaeee emper
or's birthday sad at iaat accounts waa
proceeding vigorously. T^Ing-Tan has
been invested by land end sea virtu
ally since th* commencement of hos
tlilrke Ia Europe.
Severe fighting con ti nc es in Belgi
um, but tisera'.la no mention of ? re-'
a emption of the sanguinary encoun
ters o? the early week. Tito british
troops arc gaining ground or? the
westarn wlaff, but that &e 1 German <
rgs<?whT A ii - .rai-,''.".;.
OF TURKEY'S BOMBARDMENT
JHE WILL ALLY HERSELF WITH
ENDLY TO T?KXEY AND AUS
S?CES OF OPINION HAS DEVEL
ARLE COURSE OF EVENTS IN
I Fomnania has indicated in official
I communications that she will ally
I herself with Italy in whatever course
i the latter takes. Bulgaria is a under
stood to be friendly te Tsrhcy and
I Austria, thougn recent reports have
spoken of the wavering attitude o
the government at Sofia because of
popular demonstrations in behalf of
Striking differences of opinion de
veloped today among the diplomatic
representatives here as to the prob
able course of events in Turkey and
the Balkan countries. In some quar
ter? it was suggested that Turkey
must have had some assurance from,
Greece that the latter would remain
neutral before she dared to attack
Russia. One of the military attaches,
only recently in Constantinople, held
that Bulgaria would line up against
Turkey. While the government of thc
former country was pro-Turkish, bc
raid, the people were strongly Rus
: inn in their sympathies.
British officials pointed out that
Oven if war actually broke ont be
tween Russia and Turkey, Englauc
did not declare war upon Austria un
til it waa established that Austriai
troops w.ere Agutine in France.
" Persons familiar with the geograph
leal conditions of tho country scout
the idea of .the Turkish Invasion of
would make it almost impossible to
march 'an array overbind.
?The Miami Arrives.
KEY WEST. Fla., Oct: 30.-The re
venue cutter Miami arrived here to
night with Captain W. L. Finder, ot
the American schooner Henrietta, J.
Powell, and his crew of seven men,
rescued at sea October 27 by the Brit
ish steamship Belgian and traaferred
today to the Miami at Sand Key.
Altitude W?1 Oe
? waiting Une
(By Associated Press.(
BORBEAUX, Via Paris. Oct. 31.
1(1:35 a. m.-Speculaten waa rife
here today aa to tho consequences
Turkey's entrance into th?'war would
have on the European situation.
In official circles lt was stated that
the attitude of the French govern
ment1 tor the present will be a wait- .
lng one. Complete solidarity exists
among England, Prance and Russia ,
ft was said, in the face of the situa
tion created by the action of the Turk
ish warships in the Black sea. but nc
decision as-to what move will be made
is expected for a few days.
According te advices received by
the French government there are I.?
300 German military officers and ea?
gineers in Turkey'.
t Is Now
forthera Belgian ?nd France, and
?lesya Use of Warships Against
Not Clear Enough to Reveal
me Wu! Be.
. Of operations along the line In
northern Frc nee the French report a
recrudescence of the activity n?var
Rheims along the heights of ihe
Meuse and south of Fresnos on the
Germany claims successful attacha
in the region ot Nleuport and Ypres
and occupation of allied territory la
the Argonne forest. Of the situation ia
the east. Berlin offers nc report.
Petrograd claims continued success
on the east Prussian front and beyond
A news agency gives a report from
Constantinople that a naval battle be
tween tho Turks and the Russians la
in progress off Odessa.
Another, dispatch from the .*
source reported manifestations
Damascus la favor of a war aga
Christians md said Bedouins wera
tug mossed, along the Egyptian "
tier. Turkish cavalry divisions are
ported to be la the neighborhood of
the Gulf of Akabah on the Bed Sea. ?
It is VkffbfaUy announced that in
dian troops we fighting both fa Ba
rope ead Tslng-Trewfeh the Allies.
Cruiser Flying Russian
Colors Soddenly Hoists Ger
man Flay and Open Fire.
(By Associated Press.
PARIS. Oct. 30. (11:14 p. m.)-It
waa the French torpedo destroyer
Mousquet, it Was learned today, which
with the Russian cruiser Zemtchog,
waa sent to ute bottom yesterday at
Penang Strait Sc y einen ts. by the
German cruiser Emden. * The Matin
says the Emden entered 'Penang fly
ing the Kuaiun coiors and Uten sud
denly hoisted the German dag. and op
ened fire on the Zemtchug, which was
taken by surprise and unable to de
tend herself, was sunk in a few min
utes. The Emden then dashed out to
sea, the M?usquet following. The tor
pedo boat destroyer tried to torpedo
the cruiser, but was herself sent to
The Matin's correspondent adds
that all the cruisers of the allied fleet
in the vicinity of Penang, notably
those of Japan now are pursuing tbs
The minister of marines in an offl
announcement says survivors of tho
Mousquet were picked up by the Em
den ne fore the German cruiser de
parted from the scene. The number of
rescued was not given.
IFor War Sufferers
(By Associated Press.)
DETROIT, Mich., Oct. 30.-A week's
trompai gp nore VJ collect clothing, for
war sufferers of Belgium has produc
ed more moro than fifty thousand gar
ments for men, women am? children,
than 250 era tc 3 were rcq
Sail? With Horses
For French Armyl
?(By Associated Press.)
NEW ORLEANS. Octt 30.-The Brit
ish steamer Anglo-Patagonian sailed
from,here today with a cargo of 1,000
horses said to be for the use of the
Frehcn army. The vessel cleared for
RordeaS. France. Including today's
shipment nearly 5.000 horses have re
cently been exported from here for
military sse ia Europe.
Lost Boat of
V? Season Departs
(By Associated Presa.)
NOME, Alaska, Oct 30.-The steam
ship Victoria, the last boat ot the sea
son, departed for Seattle tonight with
SOO passengers and transportation be
tween here and the rest of the world
ls discontinued until ."une. Dog teams
will carry letter mali thia winter be
tween Prince William Sound and
Twenty-six hundred people will
pass the winter here, about the same
number that remained leal winter:
"Geed-Bye te CtrfllsatJea."
LONDON, Oct. 80.-"We must re
member that lt Germany and Turkey
succeed.in this war we may as well
Bay good-bye to civilization," declar
ed Admiral Lord Charlea Beresford,
retired, in a speech at Chesterfield to
"We must not underrate ute situa
tion," he said. "I hope the government
will take efficient steps tc meet it."
Carrying Food For
Although Confutations Haw?
Reached $265,000 the Need
of Cash is Pressing.
(By Associated Press.)
NEW YOFJK, Oct. 30.-A special
Bteamer carrying food for the starv
ing ?olglans soon will be sent tc
Rotterdam, according tc thnnounce
nteat today by the Belgian relief com
mittee. The step was decided on af
ter several days communication b?
cabie with Ambassador Page in Lon
don and Minuter Van Dyke in Hoi
The American London commute*
already has distributed lo Belgium
?.0S0 tons of food purchaaed at ?
boat Of $100,000 but Ambassador Page
has cabled that additional suppllet
are not obtainable in London. Wheat
rice, beans and peas are most needed
The Belgisa committee has received
several o3Srs of foodstuffs in carlo*/
Although contributions to the fund
yesterday brought lt nf- to shout
$2*5.006 the need i f cash ls press
RESOLUTION) PASSED AU
THORIZING JECRETARY TO
HAVE TOEM MADE
BOND ISSUE BILL
Tho Govem?rjias Right to Hold
B!U Unt?llBay Night-Oth
er Doings^Bf Lawmaker?.
COLUMBIA,-t?a?. Oct. 30-AB a pre
cautionary iSM?nrP; the Senate ?atc
tonight, passed' ajfresolution authoriz
ing the S?cret?rj|of State to have
tickets printed 'tfigight to be sent out
tomorrow to ttiayommiBslonere of
election for thejMfction of the bond is
sue of $2S;900^U?o loan the farmers
on cotton; The est is resting with the
Governor. Tha^Hction will be held
Tuesday. The OJmernor has. the right
to hold tha bOhdjfrsue bill until Mon
day night .fc
of the vetoed I
les,, while o
claims and d
lng the foreel
this State pr
by a' vote of 4
adopted hy tile
., Oct. 30.-The
House a message
LS ia the General
[this morning. Most
were clerks salar
iais were approved
in public printing,
the bill, offered by
of mortgages in
November 1, 1916,
ice report on the
warehoutj bill waa
i'll miling mir H ul Messages.
COLUMBIA, Oct 30,-Gover
nor Bisase dccl?fi to stat? definitely
whether or not he.'would veto thc bond
tssmrmeasure -?Hgm communicated
BIB&i aim fcJ?iri' IM11 " ?iana?ou lai*
"preparing several messages for the
General Assembly, bat I don't know
what they are all about."
Elected Warehouse Commissioner.
COLUMBIA. S. C., Oct 30.-John
L. McLaurin, senator from Marlboro,
former United States Senator and fa
ther of tho cotton warehouse bill, was
tonight elected State warehouse com
missioner by the > General Assembly.
The Governor approved the bill for
the system of warehouses to store cot
The ornee win pay a salary of f a,
000 a year and expenses.
Maimer in Which Germans
Threw Their Manees at Allied
(By Associated Press.) 1
PARIS. Get SO.-(11.41 p. rn)- <
Officers returning from the hattie
front declare success for the Allies j
bsa grown oat ot the aeries of furious
conflicts near the coast is well as
In tba vicinity ot Ypres and Arras.
Everywhere, they say, the Belgian,
French and British forces have re
sisted the German onslaughts and
have counter attacked so vigorously
that they are moving forward in the t
movement to,capture Belgium. I
The unhesitating manner in which (
the Germana .? threw their masses at \
the allied positions, these : officers de- i
blare, caused astonishment The im- i
pression prevails that the Germans |
had determined to break through at <
The opening of the dikes by the Bel- <
glana near the mouth of the River
Yeer placed a formidable obstacle In
the way of tba Germans, who were
compelled to re-cross the river and
during thia, operation suffered severe
ly from the Allies' artillery.
German attacks today were report
to have been lesa violent than prov- i
lons assauts. The opposing forces
were constantly tn contact.
The behavior of all the Allied troops
nn?er the terrine strain has'' been i
wonderful. Battalions of French
marines formed of supernumeraries
from t\e fleet covered themselves with
glory In the great bayonet charge
along tho coast lin" which did mach
towards forcing tK. Germans to re
Around La Bass ec both the Allies
and the Germana have displayed in
domitable bravery in the hand-to-hand
fighting whfoh hes been going on day
sod night for two wooka. The line}
there baa swayed nome time? w*?<
way and somo tt*nes that Thick;
hedges and ditches make operations j
^Qo^the entgehe bed lino ^ of tho >
* iC????*M* on Page ?T~
Bili For An Issue of $24,000 in
SUte Bonds Still in the Gov
(By Associated Press.
COLUMBIA, SC, Oct. 30.-Gover
nor Blease today signed the cotton
acreage reduction hill, this becoming
law immediately thereafter.
The main provision of the act ls that
not more than one-third of the land
cultivated in 1916 shall be planted In
cotton. Fer violation a ?ne of not ir uro
than $100 nor less than $25 for each
acre In excess shall be imposed.
The' bill for an lsBue of $24,000,000
In State Bonds, to make provision for
loans on cotton If ratified by the peo
ple at the general election Tuesday,
still is lu the governor's hands. He
oas made no announcement regnr?linz
lils course. Under the law he can hold
lt for three days,- which will permit
lilm to withhold action until Monday
night, on the eve of the general elec
tion at which, under the terms ot the
bill the popular ratification must be
For Relief of Destitute.,
WASHINGTON. Oct. Sp.-Red Cross
afficials announced tonight they were
planning to divert part of the money
usually spent for Christmas extrava
gances to the relief Of the destitute
people of Europe.
No Efforts Made
To Float Paulding
(By Associated Press.)
NORFOLK, Va., Oct, 30.-No effort*
were made to float the stranded tor
pedo boat destroyer Paulding today
?*M??? ??? s?5i?k. ??i.?n?. band ia. Lynns
lava? Inlet, Abe government taurus
turned the Joh over to a wrecking
company. A crew will leave this city
it 3 o'clock today on the tug Rescue
Captain Sims, U. S. N" command
ing the Atlantic torpedo boat flotilla
will superintend the work, represent
ing the government
The Well-to-do Are
Buying Cheap Clothing
i ( Rv A amn?iataA Prjoo \
LONDON, ?cL 80,7(t ~? m)'-Econ
>my belt; g practiced by English worn.
tn is causing lack of work in certain
branches of trade. At a meeting ot
relatively unemployed people here In
sight lt was stated that one-third ot
the sixty bousand dressmakers in Lon
lon are' on short time because even
the well-to-do are buying cheap, ready
Steam Roller In Action.
RENO, Nev., Oct 30.-Senator Key
Pittman, of Nevada, here for the elec
tion campaign, was felled by a blow in
ut encounter on a rrinclpal street
lere today. Several men were struck
before Senator Pittman was knocked
lown, including P. A. Mojtrran, Jus
tice of the Nevada Supreme Court; II.
k. vraley. a political leader; United
Stated Marshal A. B. Gray; Deputy;
Sheriff Lee Updike, and several oth
Cotton Needed Badi?
(By Associated Press.)
COPENHAGEN, via London, Oct 30.
(10 p. m.)-Cotton is needed badly at
bis place and manufacturers are anx
ious tb learn whether American ship
pers are willing to risk sending cot
ton here. To avoid all possibility ot
breaches of neutrality in connection
ivl th shipments, the Danish govern
heat has prohibited the re-exporta
ion of cotton.
Waiting for $1 ii
Dozen For Their; Eggs
(By Associated Press.)
NEW YORK, Opt. 30.-Western far
ners, holding back eggs for war
prices, and the stringent rules of the
?lew York board of health were hell
responsible for the rise of local but
er and egg prices in testimony today
it Attorney General Parsons' invss
igfction of an alleged monopoly in
hese products. Willard P. Brown
?ho sells more than $1,000,000 worth
nf butter and eggs annually, testi
ied that farmers had waited for $1
i dozen for their eggs and thee three
matters of the food condemned bj
be board of health here in 1018 wai
it for consumption.
Anderson Maa Here.
Editor W. W, Sm oak, ot The An
iejteon Intelligencer; Editor Claude
K. Graves of the Bolton Journal, and
Hr. T. B. Curtis, commercial agent ot
he C. and W. C., are spending tbs day
tere literally "taking In" the fair,
THE FATE OF THE PHYSICIAI
OF THE CAPTAIN AND CR
PEOPLE ON BOARD IS ES'
ING, GALE BLOWING AN
WHEN VESSEL HIT ROCK
ING BOATS WERE CRUSHI
(ny Associated Press.
WHITBY, England, via London. Oct
30-The loss of life on the British
icspital ship Rrmiila, which crashed
on the rocks of the Yorkshire coast
near here before dawn today, waa a
matter of doubt tonight. The vessel
is a total wreck, having broken in two
while life savers on share were shoot
ing lines and trying vainly to make
one fast to the ship.
Bearing physicians, nurses and hos
pital supplies, the Rohiila was pn her
Way to a Belgian or French port when
driven ashore. It ls understood all wo
men on board were saved, including
a survivor of the Titanic disaster. The
fate of the physicians ls uncertain as
is that of the captain and crew. The
total number of people on board ls
estimated at 200.
When the striken vessel broke eight
men could be seen climbing to a piece
of wreckage from the after part of the
ship and it ls assumed that they were
swept to their death In the boiling sea.
Fourteen bodies bad been Washed
ashore this evening.
: Rain was falling In torrents, a gale
was"blowing and the seas were moun
tainous when the.veks?r hit the rocka.'
Distress roc?ete immediately flared
aoove the RohliM attracting the coast
guards, but aa the sea continued vio
lent lt was Impossible to launch only
two boats from ashore. These boats
brought back all the peaple they could
ffSWli I C'?a?ffl
^?Mosfcot-the ship's beau*wore'mijilt
ed in attempts to launch them and on
ly one got away, bearing a handful
bf survivors. Even these had to be
dragged up the beach, ss the boat
capsized In the breakers. '
Four four boura members of the
Bill for Rehabilitation
of The Spanish Fleet
(By Associated Press.)
PAF'IS. Oct. SL-(?:?? a. m.l-Tin
Spanish minister of marine, Admiral
A. Miranda, on the openelng of the
chamber of deputies at Madrid yes
terday. Introduced a bill for rehabili
tation of the Spanish fleet, according
to a Havas dispatch.
; The bill provides for the construc
tion of four fast cruisers at a cost bf
$12,000.000; six torpedo hosts at a
Cost of $6.000.000, twenty-eight sub
marines and three gunboats. . The
measure also provides for coast and
submarine defense and other protec
MEXICO CITY, Oct. 30.-Paul May,
Belgian minister to Mexico, was hand
ed bis passports today by Minister of
Foreign Affairs Fabela. Senor Fabe Ia
declared he was compelled to take
this course because of certain aggres
sive and disrespectful notes directed
to the Mexican government by the
Belgian repiesentotlve._t . .u. jrLn-L-.r
British Authorities Will Be Asked
She Orrie? Conditional Coni
and Austrian Reservi
(By Associated Press.)
WASHINGTON, Oct. 30.-The state
department baa decided to protest to
Great Britain against detention of the
American steamship Krooaland. held
np at Gibraltar with some 1,200 pas
seagers and a cargo of copper' bound
from New York for Italian and Greek
The British authorities will be ask
ed whether the yessel ls held because
she carries conditional contraband,
or because German and Austrian re
servists are among her passengers.
Full lnformaUon ia th? case ls lack
ing but department officials believe
the ?hip either should be released or
taken forthwith into a prise court
It ls contended the United States
has a right to demand full' protection
for' American cargoes shipped in
American or neutral bottoms to neu
tral ports, leaving it to Great Britain
to obtain guarantees from the neutral
countries to which the or goes are
consigned that conditional contraband
will not be reexported to a bc'.ll<>rent.
Italy already bas placed an embargc
upon exports of Sil war supplies but]
vS IS UNCERTAIN AS IS THAT
EW -THE TOTAL NUMBER OF
IT MATED AT 200-RAIN FALL
D SEAS WERE MOUNTAINOUS
S-MOST OF SHIPS LIFE SAV
ID AND ONLY ONE GOT AWAY
crew and others could be seen cling
ing to the rigging, their plight be
coming more desperate as the tide
In an effort to reach them the life
savers shot many rockets. Then at
8:30 otciock the Inevitable came-the
ship's back broke. It is bellend that
most of thoao on board perished. Elev
en physicians were among them, lt is
The rescuers kept vigil on the beach
tonight but their work waa at a stand
still, one of the two turf beats being
disabled and tee ot&er unable to ap
proach the wreck1, although aided by
tugs. . ;W.
The middle part of the Hebilla was
all that remained above water at mid
night and on this were the survivors,
whose number waa variously estimat
They were signalled to swim for lt
but seemed to hesitate.', Several died
Whether the remnant of the ship
could last until morning unless the
sea abated seemed doubtful. '
< ' Most of the population of Whitby
stood on the shore all day itching
the attempts at rescue; ..
1 au numbers of the ship's crew, who
reached the shore said ihfcv tout at
tempted to drag a line with ?fem but
tho heavy stiffened, them to ?at it.
The strong-wind invariably swept
I wide of their mark the rocket lines
but the cheer wept a? when one fla?
ovoriand* and*" olin
I but it was smashed on the rocks.
? Saddle? and Hames?
For War Department?
* - 'i .
I (By Associated Press.)
SPRINGFIELD. Mo.. Oct. ?0.-Shln
menta of 1,600 horses for the French t
army .will begin hara tomorrow. Th?
horses cost from WO to $140 each.
They go via New Orleans, where they
will bo put aboard transports.
A local manufacturer today receiv
ed from representatives of the'French
war department an order tor several
hundred officers' saddles and as mopy
sets ol artillery harnees.
ST. PAUL, Minn., Oct. 30.-An order
for 6,000 English type artillery sad
dles waa received today by a local
concern from a Chicago firm and la
said to be part ot an order that .will
Iba placed for 2t00Q full sots ot artil
lery harness for Europe.
Appointed Magistrate. .
COLUMBIA, Oct 80.-The governoi
has apponted William D. McWhlrtet
of Cherokee Falls magistrate for.
Cherokee county, vice J. Itt Plaxlco ?
Whether Vessel is Haid
trabend, or Beean
ste Are Among Her
eo far as ls known$$llfegta?et hae
def taken such action.
It was pointed oat tonight that tba
ELroonland sailed for Now Torte 19
days before Great Britain added cop*
per to the list of conditional contra
band and made no stops en route ta
Gibraltar, and therefore should not
be subject to aetaute on account ol
So far no official communication
had been received concerning the. ta*
ported detention of the Italian steam
ers 8en Giovanni and Regina d'Itali*,
but a? these resale earry American
copper cargoes, the state department
probably will protest also against
their detention st Gibraltar, especial
ly as they are bined to Italian porta
The stat? department ban baas got
tfled of several changes In tba rales
aa to contraband -?pet mada by the
British privy eouneft. Av new ral?
providing that a neatrsl vessel may
be held responsible on ea? voyage
for what sb? did ott a preceding voy
age w?* mach commented OR aa a rad
ical departure from the long esme*;
llshed practice. ,