Newspaper Page Text
.. _- -______",=.-S?c|/ &\ I?rt ?St%?*?^%T
VOLUME II. NO. 42.
WeeUj, EtUbllaJie? I860; Daily Jan. lt, ?14. ANDERSON, S. C TUESDAY MORNING, MARCH 2, 1915.
PRICE FIVE CENTS
Will Attempt to Cut Of
tion and at the Sam
modi ties From
NO MENTION IS MAD
These Measure? Will Be Enforce?
meats Without Risk to Neutra
Combatant Life and in
(Dy Anaoriated Pren.)
LONDON. March 1.-If the combine
fleets of Groat Britain ' and Franc
can prevent lt no commodities of an;
kind except those now on the seat
henceforth until the conclusion of tb?
war shall roach or leaUe the shorei
t This is England's answer to Ger
raany'fl submarine blockade, and lt li
to be effective forthwith.
Prunier Asquith, reading from ?
prepared statement, made this an
nonncement in the house of common!
today at a session which will he his
tori -.. Studiously avoiding the termi
"blockade" and "contraband"-foi
those words occur nowhere in th<
propared statement-the premier ex
plained that the' Allies considerer
themselves justified in attempting am
would attempt, "to detain and tak<
hito port ships carrying goods of pre
sumed enemy destination, ownershi]
The premier emphasised, however
'hat v?asela add cargaos so. seife?
wore not necessarily liable Xo . *oo
fiBcatlou, and begged the patience o
neutral countries in the face of a stei
likely to Injure them. He addedtba
so-in ac?? defense. - . li"
lave Been Moderate.
"We are quite prepared," he wen
on, "to submit to the arbitrament-c
neutral opinion, and still more U
the verdict of impartial history, .tba
in the circumstances in which We havi
been placed we have been moderate
we have been restrained; we haw
abatatad from things that, wo .wen
provoked and tempted to do. and wi
have adopted a policy which com
nteada Itself to reason, 'to commo)
sense and to justice."
Every member of the house not a
the front in khaki, br unavoidably dc
fained, was In his seat and there wai
frequent cheering. The galleries wen
sacked. When the premier conclude!
hla set statement, and turning to th<
speaker, said: "That, slr, is our re
ply!" there was a\ tremendous ont
Stilt Considering Americas Note.
? Curiously, the German replyWrth?
American note seeking to solve th?
situation growing out bf Germany'
declaration ot a naval war son?, wai:
handed to Ambassador Gerard a
Berlin today and Premier, Asquith, ii
hie speech, said that Great ?rltaii
and her aims were still consido rta
carefully the American note to (hen
on the subject. That the British gov
ernment had rejected the proposals
he declared,? >faa "quite untrue."
Tremendous Cost. ot War.
The tremendous cost of: modori
warfare, which tho premier oattam-w
now at 17,500.000 daily to the Allie;
alone, and likely to grow to $8,500,00i
or more hy April, was the theme o
that part of the address not deallni
with the blocade. The premier gav?
'iWUi figures in asking for a supple
men ta ry vote of credit, making a tota
of $1,810,000,000 to prosecute the wa
ta March Si, 1916, which the hourn
The entire straggle with Napelrej
coat England only about $6,165,000,00!
and the South African war only VI.
eS5,e$9.eee according to Mr. Asqi-illi.
Newspapers Annoaaee A?a\r*r.
Before the premier had finished
the newspapers were on the street
proclaiming: "Our Answer to Ger
: many" tn big letters and it waa ap
parent everywhere that the entire na
tton had been chafing for reprisal
-against Ute ?inking of merchant erat
The premier prefaced the raadtaj
of his statement with these words
"Tho statement declares lc sufficient!;
plain and unmistakably terms th
vtew we take not only ot our rlghti
bat of our duties."
The statement le a* follows:
"Germany has declared that th
English Channel, tts? north and wad
coast of ?France and the water? aroum
the British Isles are . war area; oe
ba* officially notified that all enem;
ships found in ?hat aroa will be de
arrayed and that neutra* vessels ma.
be exposed to danger. This to la el
feet a claim to torpedo at sight, with
oat regard to the safety of the eren
TION OF W
F Supplies From That Na
te Time Prevent Corn
VDE OR CONTRABAND
I by the British and French Govern
1 Shipping or to Neutral OT Non
Spirit Observance of the
or passengers, any merchant vcsael I
li under any flag. As lt is not in the '
) power ot the German admiralty to <
' maintain any surface craft in these <
i waters this attack can only be Je- ,
i livered by submarine agency. ?
Duty of Attacking Ship.
"The law and customs of nations
' in regard to attacks on commerce have
always presumed that the first duty
of the captor of a merchant veseel '
; ia to bring it before a prise court
" where lt may be tried, where the
; regularity of the capture may be
! challenged-dud where neutrals may
recover their cargoes. Tho sinking
of prizes is in itself a questionable act
; to be resorted to only In ?xtrsor
[ dinary circumstances and nftur pro
, vision has been made fo rthe safety *
Of all the ere wand passengers. If 1
there are passae agers on board i he 1
' responsibility of discriminating be- 1
tween neutral and enemy vessels, and <
, between neutral and enemy cargo cb- 1
: vioualy reata with the attacking ship, i
whoey duty it is to verify the status <
f knd cn?rfccter tst the-reeset sud cargo*
ucd to preserve all papers before sink- \
i lng or ?yen capturing it So also .
the safety of the cr?ws of merchant j
ve8sele. whether neutral or enemy, an (
obligation on e*?fery belligerent. . i
? Geraany'es Method. ,
, "lt is upon this basis that all pre
t vious discussions of the law for regu- \
3 lsting warfare at sea have proceed- <
; ed. A German submarine, however, ,
g fulfills none of theae obligations; she <
a enjoys no local command of the wa- ,
9 tera in .which ahe operates; she does j
. not take her captures within the Juris- ,
I diction of a prize court; she carries
no prize crew which can be put on ,
t? board a prize; she uses no effective
. means of discriminating between a '
i neutral and an enemy vessel; sbe does 1
3 not receive on board for safety thc
I crew and passengers of the vessel ahe 1
3 sinks; her methods of warfare are 1
therefore entirely outside the acope of <
. any international instruments r?gul?t- <
lng operations against commerce in <
time of wer.- TH a German declaration I
substitutes indiscriminate destruction ?
Cor regulated capture. Germany la <
adopting those methods against peace- i
fut traders and the non-combatants j
. preventing commodities of ?ll kluds.
J including food for the civil population, ?
* -from reaching or leaving thc Brittan
t laics or northern . Prance.
? "Her opponents are therefore driven
to face retaliatory measures in order
in their" torn to prevent ?onimoditlcs
Z of ady kind from reaching or leaving
i AUJea? Method. i
1 "These measures will, however, bo 1
j enforced by the British and French i
I governments without risk to neutral <
t ?hips or to neutral or non-combatants J
? life and in strict observance of the j
s dictates of humanity. The British and !
. French governments-'will, therefore, (
I hold themselves. free to detain and
r take into port ships carrying gooda j
B of presumed enemy destination, own- <
erv hip or orlg'.n. It la not Intended to ,
, com?scate such veeoels or carrons un- .
j less they would otherwise be .'?obie !
. to condemnation. The treatment ot
vessels ..bien sailed before this d.-ta
wfl) not bc affected.
. "That is our reply."
" t The reading of the statement was
" interrupted frequently with loud
Cotton Pri?es at Hamberg.
. WASHINGTON. March 1,-Oood
middling cotton at Hamburg February
23 sold at 17 1-R cents a poundT Am
bassador Gerard cabled today. The
'Iwosnau weekly average was 17 U9
cents? pound. "The toss byj^fhange
pow amouutM to 15 per cent, of this.
Price.':, the ambassador added.
(ifftrs S??6? fer Frosh Baker.
. /MJeW YORK. March 1.-Colonel |
Jacob Ruppert part owner of the New
Y'trtr American League club, today
Confirmed a report that he had offer . i
ed Coomie Mac/ tas.OOO for Frank
Baker, the third baseman of the- Phil
adelphia Americans, who waa retired
to hts farm at Trappe, Md. Mack Ss
willing to let Baker go for $&ft,ft00.
Telephone Call Brings ]
to Light Mysterious Murder
(Dy Associated Pren.)
PHILADELPHIA. March 1.-A
nystcrlous telephone call from New
fork tonight, asking if there-had been
kn accident at a hotel here brought
o light an equally mysterious murder
audi suicide in one of the hotel's
'ooms. A couple who bsd registered
ks Charles C. St. Clair and wife, New
york, were four ? dead.
When the man on the New York
.nd of the wire was given a dcBcrip
ion of the woman he exclaimed that
ihe was his wife and added that he
would come to Philadelphia immed
iately The dead man clutched a re
router and the police said he evident
y hsd shot the woman and then him
Crew of American Steamer dacia |
Sent Back to New
(By Aannritried Pre??.)
NEW YORK. March 1.-Tbs, Ameri
can flag which flew over the steam
ship Dacia, captured last week by a
french cruiser and taken into BrestJ
las been hauled down and the Amer* ;j
nut consul at Brest is sending
Dacia's crew back to New -York
icoording to cablegrams received
A me?sag*-^mnn'Captain Dodd,
:he Dacia, to Edward N Breitungj
"Dacia detained here; flag down;
french official on beard; American !
ronsul sending crew to New York.
Will I remain and look after Inter
Captain McDonald was. instructed
.o remain and to insist also'upon the
:rew remaining. To the* American
consul at Brest Mr. Breitung address
ed a message Inquiring why the Dacia
-ras detained and why her flag was
liauled down and requesting, the con
mi to look after bis Interests there.
PARIS. March 1.-(11:50 p. m.)
rhe French foreign office is not as yet ]
officially cognisant of details of the j
Officials of the marine department j
?aid today the case would come be
t?re prise tribunals in Paris, which IA
accorded two months to arrive nt a
Jeclsion. This .tribunal ls presided
iver by Emile Mayniere. presdient of
Lb? council, ot state, and is composed
3i Admiral Lefevre; Marine Inspector
9eneral Payon, and State Councillors
Rene Worms and Fuelers, represent
ing the foreign office.
on Japanese Products
(By AKOciated PIMM.)
SAN FRANCISCO. March ?.-A na
i-wide and ultimately world-wido
boycott on Japanese products ls tho
announced aim of a Chinese society
organized here today. ' The embargo
has been startet" Chinese-Americans
In an attempt to torce dauan to recede
'rom ber demands on the Chinese
A propoganda-spreading campaign
tor tlie formation of similar societies
Lu all the larger cities of the United
Staten waa begun simultaneously with
the orgaaiisUun of the present' socie
Shortage in Binding
Twine is Threatened
(By A?aticUted Pf???.)
WASHINGTON. March 1-Several
american manufacturers brought to
the attention of the state department
today an embargo on exports ot sisal
fibre from Progreso, Mexico, which,
they said, threatened a shortage in tho
supply of twine for the 3016 American
harvest. The embargo waa imposed.
lt was said, because of differences be
tween Cavranta factions at the port.
I*he department is expected to take np
the matter with Carranga.
Florida Sp?cial Derailed.
MACON. Ala., March 1.-The Florida
special et the Southern Railway,
southbound, was derailed late today
sear thia'city. John Spearman, bag
wagejuan, of Atlanta. Ga., was killed.
None o? the passenger? wa? iniurcd.
PROVIDES SYSTEM CV??SSO
CITATIONS TO MAKE LOANS
ON FARM MORTGAGE
AGAINST SHIP BILL
Democrats Consider Abandon
ing Fight, Bot Pi i lUjjp
Would Not Approve1
iUy AinocuUd Pico.)
WASHINGTON, March l.~
loan plan was written into t
cultural appropriation bill
houBe tonight after, a long
oroua fight. Tho rural credits
naen'?, reported by the
committee and generally
having tho sanction of the
lion waa revised by a'
amendments which revolut!
"*e Bulkley-Hollls plan,
a * >yted, finally waa agreed
out roll call. It would prov
loan associations to make
farm mortgage notes. Th
tlooB would form federal
in districts corresponding
eral reserve districts to \
mortgages and loan to tho
an those mortgages. In these
the government would have a
vising ^r>ii under certain
atan ces a stockholding inte
would be authorized to IHBUS
on their farm mortajare.
cou promise on the naval
program was one of the iu
potents ot the day. C
o submarines, of the s
.and 16 coast defense
Tbe hxiuse hill ha
ly for the president aggregate an
outlay of 5314,411.223. These include
the sundry civil, rortliicnttoufc. Dis
trict of Columbia und military acad
emy billa. Nim; other biiis, exclud
ing the river anil harbor bill, as pas
sed by .the senate aggregate $074.
029.120. Added to these, in all prob
ability, will be a Joint resolution ap
propriating a lump sum of. $25,000.
000 to 130.000,000 for river and har*
Ivor improvement, which would bring
the total appropriation- for' the' next
fiscal year to-more than a billion dol
A filibuster by house Republicans
today against consideration of the
conference report on the ship pur
chase bill prevented action on the
Pemocratic leaders tonight consid
ered abandoning the right for the ship
purchase bill, but after a aeries of
conferences lt doveloped that the
president would not approve the plan.
Then Representative Underwood an
nounced that the continence report
would be.called up in tho house again
"The president thlnVs the bill ought
to be put through the house," aaid
I Ge? many Accept?
(By Ai*ocUted Proa*.)
BERLIN, March 1 (via Loudon. 6 p.
?m.).-Germany's reply to the Ameri
can note concerning thc naval war
?one waa handed tod av to Ambassa
dor Gerard.i It corresponds In gen
eral with t?*3 forecast of some days
The foreign office characterizes the
German repl}' as "acceptance with
few modifica tiona" of the American
Sigas Prohibition BUL
BOISE, Idaho. March 1.-Governor
. Alexander today signed the prohib?;
Mon bill, which makes the manufac
ture or aale of intoxicating liquor ta
Idaho unlawful after January 1. 101?.
I o LAW CONSTITUTIONAL o
o (By Associated Presa.) ?
o JACKSON. Miss.. Murch l - o
o The Mississippi supreme court o
o today upheld the constitutional!- o
o ty of the May-Mott-Lewia law o
o enacted at' the last session of the o
o legislature-' prohibiting the keep- o
o lng of intoxicants in social clubs, o
o In Ita decUlon the court quoted o
o the following: o
o 'Whiskey la a good thing In it? O
o place. There ls nothing like lt for o
o preserving H man when he ls dead.- o
o If yon want to keep n dead man 0
o put him in whiskey; if you want "6
o to kill a live mat. put whiskey ha o
o him." " o
LOCKED IN VAULT;
Robbers Enter During Coard
Meeting ?nd Escape With
(By As.<ocm'tiJ Pur??.)
WILLI AMVCILLE, Mo.. March I.
The preBidont. cashier and throe
directora, one ot them a woman, of
the Williamsville State <Bank were
locked in thc bank vault this afternoon
by two robbers who escaped with
about $1.500. Bloodhounds and s
posse immediately stat :d in pursuit
The robbers entered the bank dur
ing a meeting of the board of <1 i rec
tors. In locking the directors in tho
vault the robbers overlooked a large
amount of cash stored there, but they
took all the money in sight at the
Campaign to Established Law and
Order and Run Blind Tigers
Out Producr.-ig Results
r?. vi 1
Spcr-'ml to The Intelliirwirer.
COLUMBIA, i March 1.-Governor
Manning's campaign to establish law
and order everywhere and to run the
blind tigers out of business is produc
ing results.' A aberlff of ono of the
counties of the State made a raid on
an old offender against the law and a
few days later received the following
?otter fr*, u the. man he had raided:
> ""I beg to advise you that I am not
at present engaged in the Bale of
whiskey,) and under this administra?
?Mon will not eell it In any form
itirisf f tnfl '-?-^r-T-?* k" 1- u
BO you won't have any more reports, '
against me in. this line. Thanking you <
for your visit here in search of thin j <
matter, and you eau write Mr. Man- ( 1
ning that I will not sell anything that - '
is unlawful, aa I hope him a success
The sheriff sent this wry Interest
ing letter to the governor and he was
Very much gratified at this concrete
evidence of the result of his campaign
for law enforcement.
Capt. James M. Grahem of the 19th
Infantry, U. S. A., has been detailed
for duty with the South Carolina mil
itia and will begin work in this State
Tommie Grlce. the Florence negro
under death sentence for criminal as- j
sault, was not electrocuted st the !
State penitentiary today, having been |
granted a reprieve until June 1 by J.
Governor Manning In order to give ?
limo to look into the facts tn the case. ..
Threat of Food ?
(By A*?ori*te<l P>v.r.)
ROTTERDAM. Holland. March 1 -
(by. London, 3:45 p. m.)-A record
quantity of gifts from thc United
States to the destitute of Belgium ar
rived today at Rotterdam. The Great
City, carrying 9.400 tons of goods col
lected from every. Stale in the Union,
docked here, aa did the Sough Point,
which brought 7.000 tons of flour, con
tributed by millers of northwestern
States. The. threat of a food ?ho rta ge
during March ls now removed.
Effort to Prevent
Spread of Disease
(By Amoeiate-I Prrw.)
RICHMOND, Va.,Marchi- Federal.
State and county authorities have
combined In an effort to prevent thc
spread of foot and niouth disease, dis
covered tn a dalry'herd of cows-near
this city. Today the entire herd of
275, of which 125 had fully developed
of the scourge, waa killed and the
carcasses destroyed. Ko other casen
have beeb discovered, but a most rigid
quarantine ts being maintained about
the Infected farm and all other local
dairies. State Veterinarian J. G.
ieyhough said, tonijbt that he be
' the situation was under control.
Poer Theasaad Oatt Werk.
BARRE, Vt,. March 1.-Four thous
and granite workers quit work today
pending the acceptance of a new wage
and working agreement offered by the
manufacturers. Two fartions of the
granite workers'' miloo fought ia the
streets for poeaesstoa of the hallet
box to be used In taking a vote oe the
question of accepting the new agree
ment. Several were Injured.
Washington Officials Rej
ent?d and Novel Step ar
Injury to Commerce
NOTIFICATION CAN N
State Department Officials Admit 1
Problems of the War Has Ara
to and From German)
(Hy A NM in I ?-?1 Hiv??.) .'.
WASHINGTON. March 1.-All coiu-|,
ncrclal Intercourse by sea between
Jcrinuny and tho outside world was
ieclared prohibited today by Great i
Britain and France. Identical notes i
presented by the French and British 1
imboaaadors informed the United i
States of this drastic step by the Allies I
n reply to German's war cone procla
mation. The text of the notes was
lie same as the statement made by ?
Premier Asquith in the British parlia
ir. this policy is enforced it no long
sr will be possible to ship cotton,
manufactured articles and commodi
ties hitherto of non-contraband
character from the United States to
Berman directly or Indirectly, and
r-om Germany the supply of dyestuffs
.nul other merchandise for consumu
lion in this, country will.be cut off.
The impression was general in offi
cial circles tonight that-aoorong pro
test Would be' made. The Allies* action,
waa regarded as on .unprecedented
seal asrsi ?tsp', " oai??rlstMjintu? vary
that in thc reprisals'whicn the belli
gerents were making toward each
stlier there was singular forgetful
ness of the fact that whatever might
tie the violations of international cus
toms aa between those countries .at
var. this could not affect the status of
international rules ss between the 1
United Stales and countries with
which *she was at peace.
Sut a iteply to American Proposals. 1
Assurances given by Great Britain
that today's note was not a reply to
the recent proposals of the United
States for an adjustment of the entire
?it nat lon gave ground for hopes that
.he measures taken might be only
tempernry. In thli connection, the
state department issued the follow
"The British ambassador has pre
sented the following instructions from
" 'When presenting the joint Angle
Prench communication you should in
form the United States government
that the communication received from
them through the United States am
bassador in London respect jog a pos
sible limitation of use of submarines
md mines and an arrangement for
supplying goods to Germany is being
taken into, careful consideration with
their allies.' "
Motes Snit to President
Coplee of the notes were transmit
ted immediately by Secretary Bryan
tc President Wilson. State depart
ment officials admitted that one of thc
most complex problema of the war
liad arisen. Officials were unanimous
In the opinion that the notification
ould not be called a "blockake." al
though lt virtually had the aame ci
rer t. It was noted generally that the
communication did not use the word
blockade. The notes leave much,
therefore, to be explained.
It was regarded aa virtually certain
that the United States would promptly
Inquire as to how the step was to be
carried into practice.
If. M. Will laslst on nights.
Officials and diplomata were curious
on reading the text to know what
would be the disposition of cargoes
hitherto not listed aa contraband, auch
is cotton, which, if destined to Ger
many, the allied fleets purpose to take
Into British or French ports. An In
timation was conveyed in British.j
quarters that the Allies intended to
tray outright sll such cargoes, but it
sos said that auch a promise would
not affect.the' determination of. tho
United States to insist on its rights to
tend non-con trabrand articles to
Germany when the question fa argued
tn further diplomatic correspondence.
Just when the United States will act
On tbs latter note is dependent to
tome extent on when the.replies ara
received from the. Allies and Ger
many to the informal communication
looking to an abaolition or submarine
(tartsre on merchant ships and- the
lhtpment of foodstuffs to the civilian
population of belligerents. Germany's
Mtswer ia said to be on its way, sud
sard It As An Unpreced
id One Likely to Work
Between U. S. and
lations 5i v.?
:ALLED A BLOCKADE
hat One of the Moat Comptes
stn-Stopping of Commerce
r Viewed With Mach
Than . Blockade. ?
officials expect that lt will ba an ac?
quiescence In the principle ot the
American proposals. - Prom Great
Britain not a word baa come In sev
eral days until today's statement that
the matter waa under consideration.
This created a feeling of hope amona;
some officials that an understanding
might be reached.
In other quarters, however, there
waa a disposition to regard the Ameri
can informal communication su rgely
to fall of accomplishing anything be
yond ti possible amelioration otVcori
ditlons as to mines In th? opongas.
IHspleasan? Sot ?CeaeeaWfc>M
Displeasures over the latest Oevel
opments waa not concealed In- ?tate
department circles, where the'' stop
ping of commerce to and: frota ger
many i was viewed with much' more
Furiousness than a blockade, stace it
interfered also with cargoes pf
Sd to b? bound to a belligerent
in transit to a neutral country. r
aa the'doctrine of contluuouw
iviously has been invoke
i?r right to detain-cerf,
any stage in their journey if proved
ultimately to bo destined to a fcellf?
g?rent, auch a presumption is under
stood nov/ to include all articles of
merchandise, such aa machinery and
Implements, aa well as cottoa bound
between the United 8 tat es and nan
tra! countries, nnlesa an embargo on
re-exportation la put into e-ffect'by the
neutrale to whom the producta are
Will Increase Duties of ??overaSteak
Injection of an clement of suspicion
rm cargoes of goods hitherto un*
touched when hound betweea neutral
ports will greatly increase the duties
nf the American government in pro*
tcctlng the Interests of ita shippen
from undue delays and. detentions
without sufficient proof.
The entire question of the right,
sst up by Great Britain, to take neu
tral vessels into ports tor examina
tion and kindred subjects, such as
consignments "to order" and to nam
ed consignees, will be brought into
the field of discussion again, *?ecttn-f
materially the answer which (be'Unit
ed States was preparng to the cor
respondence with Great Britain on tho
subject of contraband begun wit
American note of December
contlnnued in a preliminary
plementary reply from Great
. Undecided Waat (Hep to
In approaching the questlc
ground on which tho Unite
should enter' protest against the ac
tion of the Alllea, officials were'.doubt
ful as to whether they* wouMjtaaks
their argument o the theory that a
blockade-in reality waa bolafc at
tempted, or whether they woe^e con
tenu for the uninterrupted)
of cargoes between thia coat
belligerents not listed as coat
Official* realized that ex?;
diplomatic correspondence tl:
of which might be eaaily
without remedy, there was no why tor
neutral governments to enforce their
protests and still maintain their neu
.....u... TI... i i iii iii, i II i ?fr"*- -u "
....Iii/. . >?~ ??-i i-j 11 r -
cedents, it waa'pointed out,
the position ot neutrals mor
In the present cireumstai
ever before, though a, nomewl
lar situation which led to
by the United States and i
tercourse act, arose. So the
Of the nineteenth century
Napoleonic wara. AJ bloc!
Blared hy Great Britain
coast from the Klvor Elbe
of Brest (Prgnce) Inclusive,
then in camp at Berlin, pr
counter blockade the entlr
coast. , and prohibited commerce wita
England. Great Britain has retaliat "
by issuing ?ti "order in connell os
hiblting neutra) v?asela froui
with tba porte of France and her all
and with atl ports of Burma from
which the British flag waa excluded
Questions Never flair ajfit',
"Against these various or?e*a "
decrees." writes Jobo Bassett 4soo?e~
former counsellor or the St?fe4e*?rt
ment, "the United bUtes JjwaUSUd
and as measures vt retaliation retort
ed to embargoes and ft hst tatt