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The Pickens sentinel. (Pickens, S.C.) 1911-current, July 11, 1912, Image 4

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Persistent link: http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn93067671/1912-07-11/ed-1/seq-4/

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POTATO SCAB
A New reise Correspondent writes:
"I find that im potatoes are badi!
infested with what seems to me tc
asser the description of potatoscab.''
In treating potatoes for scab It Is
best to use one pound of formalin te
thirty gallons of water. This treat
ment should be given the seed before
the potatoes axe cut, and after treat
ing they should be scattered out and
allowed to dry unless you are ready to
plant them Immediately. A fter using
the solution for two or three hours it
should be replenished, because when
left open it loses Its strength very
rapidly.
We can see no reason why the kero
sene barrels would in any way hinder
this treatment. We believe It will be
all rght to use them in treating your
potatoes. As far as disinfecting the
planter sconcerned we ado not believe
this till be necessary If you treat the
plan properly.
The fungus disease called scab has
been Known to live for at least six
years in the soil, even though no
potatoes were grown in that field.
ecase of this, it is a good plan to
rotate your crops and to plant your
treated seed in fields where potatoes
hare not been grown for at least four
or five years.
The soil that contains an acid is
Injurious to the growth of potato
scab, hence the application of sul
phateof ammonia, sulphate of potash,
kanit, or acid phosphate will tend to
free the soil of the scab'fungus. On
thothoerhand, the presence oflie
, or argo quantities of
. ure, will aid or encourage
e row iiofpotato scab.
- ITTLE THINGS ABOUT THE HOUSE
Dy Gxaca Keuue.x Sxm of the 1 H C Service
Time was when people who could
not abord expensive jewelry and real
ace, owned no jewelry and wore their
garments untrimmed. Our ancestors,
witha foolish pride supposed to indi- 1
cate birth and breeding, eschewed:
Imitations. This was aprotest against
pretense, but the medicine became
worse than the disease. Gaud,cheap,
shoddy material Is an offense against
good taste, but Inexpensive things
need not be inartistic. Because you
cannot take a trip to Europe Is no
reason for refusing a day's outing.1
You cannot afford the original Ange
ius, but you can have a good print of
It, anti most of us with untrained
eyes will see quite as much in the
print as we would In the original.
There Is a difference between the
Inexpensive and cheap, so don't let us
- derldea thing simply because it didn't
cost a mint of money.
How many things are you going with- 1
out that you could buy for a very
modest sum? Suppose It is nothinga
more than a sharp knife for paringa
vegetables and you have wasted time,i
wasted vegetables, spoiled your own
tamper, and annoyed the men folks
bytrj t ean edge on a knifei
h.....Uwas worn ot years ago. Yet for 1
Sten cents-ten cents-you can buy a g
paring knife that will last at least a d
year. t
You have spent hours beating up a
eggs with a fork. A Dover egg-beater
costs a quarter, and a whip ten cents.
You are short of pans, of crocks, of
kettles, which can be purchased foi
from ten to thirty-five cents. You
are going without spoons enough to
set the table when there are guests, I
because you can't afford to pay eight
dollars -for them, but you can buy ~
artistic spoons of white metal which c
no one unless accustomed to seeing 1
them would distinguish from real '
silver. Sometimes It Is china towels- 3
you are using worn, linty rags; you I
can get all the towels you need for tern I
cents apiece. Or, you are wearing an J
old dress, too heavy and warm, Instead C
of the cool, fresh-looking one you
could buy ready-made for from aity ~
cents to one dollar. e
io, I am not advisinlgcheap, shoddy S
things. Always buy the best you can 8
afford. If your means are limited buy ~
the inexpensive yet most satisfactory I
articles that you can. Only don't I
make the mistake of complaining be- I
cause these inexpensive things don't
last as wel as the more 'costly ones.
"The fir: thing you forget about an
ar~jele Is at you paid forit." So if
jtlssemthing you are going to keen
relyworth while, or somb- x
higwhh Is costing you almost as I
mauch as the better article, buy the s
jiest. But at the same time It Is not t
. a odpliyt et along without
work just because you cannot buy the t
mrost expensite inade.
C
Hay at the present market prices, C
orseven considerably lower, is a very C
good money crop. Farmers are now
planning on feeding corn fodder and 0
selling their hay. I believe this 1s a t
good plan. Dont you?
GKASSES a:
Eeplyto inquiry received from R. T. t
bostwick, Parshall, Colorado: "Will al
you be kind enough to furnish me di
'with what Information you have avail- al
able on the subject of grasses suitable c.
for this location; best methods of seed
lug; preparation of the soil, etc.?"
In the vicinity of Parshall, Colorado,
the best grass for haying purposes is re
timothy. A much better combination ti
Is made by using timothy and alsike. W
poanu l aGe tuaLe a uy pr
mixture.
Besidesthese twocrops. bromne ir.,-1
Dr Bromis inermnis, does well in your
locality. Upon the farm of Loiris Fick,
situated within a short distance of
your farm, brome grass has been doing
wonderfully well. Meadow Fescue
will do well also in your locality.
From our experience with the grasses
and from an observance of the native
vegetation, we would say that the
timothy and brome grass are the two
best members of the grass family foi
your locality. The brome grass will
thrive with timothy and alsike undez
good conditions of irrigation which
usually prevail on the developed farms
of that community.
A disk grain drill with grass seedez
attachment is as good a tool to be
used as any. The soil should be pre
pared by deep plowing. The plowing
should be followed with the disk and
peg tooth harrow, if possible the same
half day, in order to work the furrow
slice down into a good, well-mellowed
seed bed before it has time to dry out
or lose its tilth. If seeded alone.
about 20 pounds of brome grass should
be used per acre. If seeded with the
other combination, the amount varies
with the proportion it is desired to
obtain. A very good combination is
brome grass 15 pounds and alsike Z
pounds. Another good combination
Is brome grass 12 pounds, timothy 10
to 12 pounds, and alsike 5 to 6 pounds.
It Is well to harrow lightly after the
drill.
The land should be well irrigated
but should not be kept flooded. There
Is a notion prevalent In the vicinity of
arshall that hay can only be grown
where it is kept flooded. This view is
erroneous. The land shoild be well
Irrigated, then the water should be
withdrawn until the crop is needing
moisture when it should be irrigated
again. Although this is contrary tc
the views of many ranchimen, it is
borne out by experience and experi
ment.
FEEDING CALVES
Reply to W. T. TURNER, Chilo, 0.
We have your letter of recent date in
which you ask for some information
on feeding calves, but you do not state
how old your calves are. Young calves
should be fed on whole milk for some
time, and changes in their feed should
be made gradually. After a week or
ten days the whole milk feed may be
changed to one of half skim and
half whole milk. Decrease the whole
milk until you are feeding the calf
entirely on skim milk. It is well to 1
have a quantity of grain convenient i
so that the calf will have an oppor- i
tunity to learn to eat as early as I
possible. It probably will not learn to 1
eat grain for some little time. This]
may be hastened. however. by mixing I
a small amount of bran with the mn2J,)
r you may add a small qfu.6y of
low-grade flour.
Skim milk Tiltins some more
' ~oyrt than whole
milk, so for feeding it is best to pick
a grain that will not supply large I
quantites of these materials. In someC
nstances calves may do very well on t
bighlyconcetrated feed, but thesei
reeds are usually very expensive, and
there are other substitutes that are
just as good. Usuallyno10bet terresults 1
can be obtained from high-priced con-1
entrates than from feeding such grain 1
1s corn, katlir corn, sorghum, barley or
ats. The following mixtures haveJ
been found to give very good satis
faction:.a
Whole oats and bran.
Whole oats, corn, barley, and
bran.
a mixture of 15 pounds of whole
ats, 9 pounds of bran. 3 pounds of
torn meal, and 3 pounds of linseed
seal is also a very good feed for calves.
Together with these concentrates
the young and growing calf should
ave plenty of fresh water, and be
allowed to play in the sun. It should
lso have free access to good clover or<
lfalfa hay. if these are not avail
ble, timot-hy hay and corn fodder are<
erhaps the next best. If you have a
gilo, small quantities of ensilage will
ceep the calf in good condition during
ihe winter months.
if the calf does not gain when taking 1
1he whole milk. it shoujld be weaned.
['ry half skim and half wvhole milk fora
while. b.ometimes the addition of a
poonful of lime water to each feed E
ill correct the diIsculty. C
Calves may suffer from scours whera t
iut on grass but ust'ally there will be ~
'ery little difficulty if they are allowed i
o feed but a short time at ti rst, then ~
-adually increasing the period eachc
ly until they become accustomed to
he change. Sudden changes of feed
re not good and should be avoided._
ROTATION Oy CROPS
Reply to a Michigan Correspondent
"I am growing sugar beets and my
and seems to be decreasing in produc-.
Ion. What rotation can I- use?"
In some localities it has been found
hat beets do best following alfalfa,
orn and small grains. A very good
otation is as follows: First, wheat;
econd year, beets; then clover for two
ears, lest crop being plowed under;
hen potatoes, and the rotation re
eated. if alfalfa can be grown in
our locality it is a good plan to in
lude this In the rotation.
In Montana the best rotation for
eet raising is as follows: Wheat,
lover, oats, sugar beets, barley and
eas. n Utah the followIng rotation
'Ives good satisfaction: First year,
ugar beets: second year, peas and oats
or forage; thIrd year. sugar beets;
ourth year. oats, sceded to alfajfa;
.fth year, alfalfa.
THREE-HORSE HITCHES
A Kansas correspondent writes: "In
aking a three-horse evener for a disk,
would like to know where the hole
hould be bored. Should two- thirds of
he evener be given to the single horse
o' make an even distribut!;n of the
nl, or should it be measured from
he outside of the singletree?"
You will experience but little diff
ulty in dividing the load equally ,
mong the horses if you take into
onsideration the fact that the amount es
f work each horse does Is in propor.1 th
ion to the lever arm or the pronm
f the doubletree given to him. In th
te case of three horses tihe third b(
orse, or (ne which works singly, In i
rder to do the same amount of work tL
s the other two. should be given fo
wice the length of lever arm as the
lam. The length of the evener and s
lso the length of the singletrees will a
spend upon the size of the horses and lei
so whether you desire working them pt
ose together or somewhat spread out. en
or summer work the horses will it
and the heat a little better if giveni wI
tenty of room. This is advisable TI
here conditions are such that more pa
m can be given and at the same m
me not hinder accomplishing the wi
ork satisfactorily. Ce
v um noJLDtO in illustration .I0. 1. m
: at the tLVId i~s is kiveri thirty
nches uP the lever arm, while the
>ther twaare given buly tifteei. This
listance is satisfactory for medium
ized horses. Where larger teams are
:o be used, it shotild be increased
Lecordingly.
3' I
A common three-horse evaner
Sometimes it is necessary in working
oung animals, or light horses, to give
them an advantage. This can be done
by increasing the length of the lever
Lrm. There is no set rule for deter
mining the amount of advantage to be
given in the case of small horses. The
most satisfactory way is to use a num
ber of holes and simply shift the clevis
until the small horse is able to carry
the load the entire day without be
coming more fatigued than the other
horses. Some claim that the amount of
lever arm or advantage given the small
horse should be in proportion to the
weight, but this is not always satisfac
tory because it is not taking into con
sideration the physical condition of
the horses. which is a very important
factor. However, to begin with, this
method of adjustment does very well;
other changes can be made as occasion
requires.
DISEASES OV CUCUMBERS
Reply to C. V. Fox
"I have trouble with my cucumbers
dying too early. They get some kind
of yellow spots in the leaves and the
vines die before they get done bearing.
I have been using Bordeaux mixture.
I used blue stone. Is this the sam
as copper sulphato? W4en should
lime be added to the soil?"
The disease attacking our corre.
spondent's cucumber vines is known as
"downy mildew," a parasitic fungus.
Bordeaux mixture is the best remedy
ou can use; but this will have no
efect if the fungus has gained con
dderable head way. Bordeaux mixture
should be made as follows:
For young plants-3 lbs. copper sul
phate, 6 lbs. lime to 50 gallons of water.
W~hen the plants get older, use 4 lbs.
wpper sulphate. 6 lbs. lime to 50 gal
ons of water.
Blue stone is the commercial name
or copper sulphate.
The beneticial element In lime is
:alcium, and it should be applied on
ols that are acid in nature. On sois
hat are not in this condition, lime
vill be of little or no benetit. Tb!W
6cidity of the soil may beAdtermined
)y the use of litmus.-pper, which may
>e obtained at alrnost any drug store.
?ress the ihioist soil around the blue
ttiis paper for ten or fifteen minutes.
[f the paper is now red or pink In color
t will indIcate that your soil Is acid.
There are eight or ten different kinds
f commercial lime, but where it is
ossible to obtain - finely ground lime
tone, this is the most desirable fornw
b use. It supplies the necessary cal
ium, and yet the action on the vege
able matter is not as severe as it is
ith other forms of lime.
We regret to say that the Service
3ureau does not have Farmers' Bulle
ins for general distribution, b.ut you
ill be able to obtain these by writing
he 3. S. Department of Agriculture,
)ivison of Publications, Washington,
). C.
If we can be of further service at
,ny time. we will be pleased to hear
rom you.
THE SEL.ECTION OF A GREAM
SEPARATOR
By T. F. WIr...ouonaBr of th~e I H C Service
Bureau
The selection of a separator Is not a
litlicult matter if the farmer will
ear in mind a few simple facts.
Cream and skim milk are separated
n the cream separator by the action
f centrifugal force. Centrifugal force
s a force exerted outward from the
eter of the separator bowl and Is
~roduced by revolving the bowl at a
migh rate of speed. Just what the
,ction of centrifugal force is can be
>est explained by a simple and often
Lsed illustration.
When a ball attached to the end of
,string is swung around in a circle.
he ball, because of its weight, will
xert an outward pull. The force
xerted on the ball, which makes It
ry to get away from the cen tral point
round which it is whirling, is centri
ugal force. When whole milk enters
be separator bowl it is acted upon by
entrifugal force and the heavy milk
:lids are thrown to the outer wall of
e bowl. The butter fat, which is
be lightest part of milk, is not so
brongly affected, and gathers near
de center of the bowl where it mixes
-ith a small amount of skim milk and
arms cream.
The interior of a modern separator bout
The amount of centrifugal force
erted outward from the center on
e milk in a sed'arator bowl is deter
ied by the speed and diameter of
e bowl. As the diameter of the
w is decreased the speed at which
is revolved must be Increased or
ere will be a loss of centrifugal
This can also be illustrated by
inging a ball attached to the end of
string in a circle. The greater the
2gth of the string, the greater the3
11 exerted. As the string is short
ed. it will be noticed that the pull
exerts decreases unless the speed at
iich it is whirled is increased,
ierefore,in a bowl. wich hasacom
ratively large diameter, the maxi
m centrifugal force Is secured
thout running the bowlI at an ex
-sively high rate of speed. This
tans gre te.duraiitty becau~se It'
A
reaucestne s tw :cJ; tc c'peracr
mechanirn
Centrifug-l force is what caus,
separation in al! cream separate
bowls. but there are several conditiol
which atteet the thoroughness of 1
work. The !irst .separator bowls mad
were hollow and centrifugal force wa
required to act upor the :iulk e
masse. It was ne'ce.ar thar thes
bowls be revolved at ain exc-ssivel
high rate of speed to iner:: sumtiej:e
centrifugal rorce being dev!l.ped t
force the mitk solids. other than bul
ter fat, thr.ugh the ihie: m all of rmil
to the ouier edge of .e bowl. Fu,
thermore, uhe ialls were uncertat
as there '.:Ls n, :.re.;isiun made~ I
these bowis to Pre'.c:t thn intermin
ling of cream and m m!hk that ha
been separated.
Most sepa ratur bowls are now equil
pad with an interior device compose
of a central milk-feeding shaft and
number of disks. The disks divid
the milk into thin layers or sheets an
centrifugal force acts upon each shee
of milk Independent of the other.
The disks Increase the capacity of th
bowl and reduce the speed at which i
must be revolved by eliminating th
necessity of forcing the skim mil
solids through , thick wall of mill
The use of disks has now become
standard feature of separator coz
struction.
While it is true that the separatc
bowl does the actual work of separa
tion, the mechanism which revolve
the bowl Is of the utmost importance
In fact, the design and constructio
of the operating mechanism will dE
termine the length of time the ma
chine will do good work.
Good material and workmanship ar
necessary to a separator, The trut]
of this is often overlooked when th
machine is new, but the farmer whii
buys a high grade separator will appre
elate it after he has used the machin
a few years as he will realize that h
has a Inachine that will do good wori
for many years. That is the real tes
of a separator after all. Any separ
ator that will develop centrifugal fore
will do good work for a time, but fo
Spiral gears of a cream separator
long service it must contain the high
est quality of material and workman
ship and be designed to accomplish
thorough separation of cream antd skirr
milk without tearing itself to pieces
Spiral cut gears are now used in thi
best separators because they rur
smoothly and prevent jarring, loose o1
unsteady motion, or back-lash. The)
do this because they have four teett
in mesh where spur cut gears have
one tooth in mesh at a time. ThE
slightest jarring or unsteady motlor
in theg ears will be transmitted to the
bowl and will cause it to vibrate andc
do poor work. Hence. theC value ol
smooth-running spi:al gears can easily
be appreciated.
The quality of material used in
making the gears will materially affect
the amount of wear they will stand.
Tough, close-grained iron is t be best
material for this purpose as it wearys
smoothly and does not grind or cut.
The shafts, spindles. anel frame of a
separator are among the mjost expen
sive parts of the machIne and should
be protected fronm wear as mnuch as
possible. In the better grade of cream
separators, phosphor bronze bushinrgs
are used to protect the frame and
operating mechanism. This is a very
smooth, tine-grained metal which does
not cut the parts moving in It. It is
slightly softer than the steel shafts
and spindles which move in it, and
consequently bears the burden of wear.
Herein lies its value as the bushings
can be replaced at a very s:.n!!l cost
whereas it would be a conl'ierabae
expense to replace the shaf ts, spidles.
and frame.
The bowl spindle or neck bearing of
a separator is one of the features a
farmer should carefully investigate.
The purpose of this bearing is to keep
the bowl properly centered and to pre
vent shocks or vibrations from being
transmitted to the howl from the
gears. This bearing to be satisfactory
must be strong. simple. and free from
the necessity of ditlicult adjustments.
The fewer parts the bearIng has the
better, providing, the parts are prop
erly made.
Every farmer naturally wants a sep
rator that is easy to turn. By all
mean a separator should be easy to
:perate, and many of them are, but
unfortunitely for the purchaser this
uality is often secured by building
~he machine light -- by sae rificing
urability. It is poor business sense
to buy a light, flimsily constructed
separator simply because it is easy to
turn. Such a separator wvill not stand
p under the work for a long enough
period to be a pl'otitale investmuent.
Milk as It comes from the cow is :ne
f the purest articles of food, but it is
,lso very easily contaminated.. There
ore the separator bowl mni-* be kept
n a clean, sanitary condition. Don't
udge the easy-cleaning qualiities of
separator by the number of pieces5
he bowl contains. What is infinitely
nore important is the conistructioni of
he parts. A plain, smooth surface is
~asly cleaned, whereas. intr-icate crev
ces and corners are hard to- get at and
ill often be improperly cleaned.
In selecting a se.parator do not be
nisled by the price. Those who try
o sell a machine and uise as their
~trogest argument its low price, ou1 en
se this argument because they have
o other. The man who is selling low.
riced machines is, makIng just as
uch profit as the 'man who .w-lis a
tgh grade machine at a slight ly higzhem
rice. The difference is in the qua.iii)
f the mach ine.
HF.l .M E ~. ME
The cream .separatc: is one of the3
~ew things wlhch specitically allevi.
te the drudgery of the woman whose
t has been cast on the farm. Nc,
etter argument can be advanced for
he increased sale and extended use
f these machines. The man who!
laces a separator on a farm has done
~omethng for humanity. in the city.
rhen -a housewife has cooked the
eals, washed the dishes, and other-i
rse cared for a little flat with run.
I dr~e ~ :I the countrv
* i ma s~ u:; ne ver tnished. G
>r | h erage f;r's ife only 1
slhousework t. c;. a::d whe would thi
45 she was on a ito;. It is this
e equality )f lao he tart ; coun,
S giris cit.aamnta
2 commemary ' a -:e i ( of chialrv
e min but. inl , y ra communit
V Which the wri.er hs vii- 1.
average 1:i w is
0 ioney to : -a ma1-i
fur in. . th
tuhlyat upt '..-atr. i tat but w
the carpet Swe. .e waar
h and the l ightin la; are a. hai
by the junio.r:rwr.L~nds ar. a!'
d sow. TFhis cpnmil, !n is nt -o ba:i
it U-Sed to 1 preoeity has op,2
C the pur:I: :nxs but there are si
opportuniti:-s for bettermnent. I
3, cream separtor is one of tihemn.
e fills a need felt by eVe ve womaan fr<
I Leah down to tho 1911 Ames co
t and even if it did not increase t
. farmer's dairy profit une iota, it
e worth its weight in gold for the lal
It saves the nothers, wives, and
e ters on the farm.
By .. E. WAcooxaR, o; the I X C Servi;e Bur
r A great deal has been said in a j
. ular way about the razor-back hog a
s his sun-splitting abilities, but it I!
very encouraging fact that he is rs
a idly becoming extinct. His hap
hunting grounds consist now of oz
a small part of the total hog prodi
ing area. He has been succeeded
3 the more domestieated and mc
highly developed type of -hog, whi
someone has properly dubbed "t
mortgage raiser." Many farmers c
easily attribute the possession
homes, wealth and all that g.es thei
with,to the domesticated hog. His pla
in the scheme of industrial progre
has been won not by any unusual tral
but is largely due to the fact that h
profitableness is a result of instincti
economical habits. By nature I
seems to fit into the whole schern'.
farming as a utilizer, to the lx:st pc
sible advantage, of many of the far
products that wxid otherwise be
total loss. -
daw a very viluable less(
f TQm this all but artistic anim
whose only language is his squeal
disapproval and his sturdy grunt
satisfaction. He saves where othe
waste, and makes his living by rootir
around -sometimes in places whe.
wanted, sometimes not. If there
anything within reach that he ilk<
he usually tinds it and proceeds 1
make good use of the opportuni1
without any manifest concern or e:
citement. le seems to make it h
business to look after small thing
even the holes in the fenice if the ou
side looks more Inviting.
Profitable farming is becoming mo:
and more a business proposition I
which it is necessary to look afte
the small things and to use to the bei
advantage every opportunity to pri
duce more economically. The be:
and most profitable farmers haa
adopted systems ot farm accountinj
or, in other words. they have becom
bookkeepers,-have kept such con
plete records as to enable them to di
termine which fields were profitab]
and which were not. To begin witl
it is not absolutely necessary to folio
up all little details, but it is a goc
plan to doso as comnpletely as possible
if we were to go into a imanufactui
ing plant, one of the first things 1
impress us 'would be the~ system<
doing things and the strict principle
of economy that are followed. A
products that can be used for othe
purposes are saved, properly store<
and used when the time comes. A
the end of each month, and possibl
each day, the manager knows th
exact status of affairs-the amount<
stock on hand, and the <iuantity
finished product ready for the markel
Every part of a great nmachinei
numbered and each must bc accounte
for. -
If the same unsystematic method
were practiced in factories as are use
on some farms, they would soon los
their identity with the world's pr<
gress, and become nothing but idI
monunients to some man's failurE
On careful consideration it is plain t
see that with farming it is as impor1
ant, if not more so, to keep definit
and strict records of all expenditure
of time, money and labor.
The space alloted to this artici
will not permit a detailed explanatio)
of all the possibilities of an account
irig system on the farm and whati
will accomplish. but carefully kep
records will be an index finger to poin
the farmer t~ n op holes through whici
the profits are necw slipping. H
would know :.!e are the protitabl
fields; which are the most profi
producing crops: which cows wer
boarders, that he might at. the end o
the season sell such animals to pa:
their hoard hills; lie would knov
whether he was utilizing his horsi
power to the best possible advantage
In this connection it might be salt
that one of our foremost universitiei
has just found that on a 160-acre farm
equipped with six splend-id head o:
work stock, the average daily labo>
per horse was only a little over threE
hours for the entire year --- a ver)
small average labor record, indicating
a lack of eflicienicy.
Well kept accounits v.':;1 :;a un
to determine the imo-t satislactorj
way of ut ilizing our dairy products
Experimenit Stations have found tha1
the cream separator reduces the losr
of butter fat pier cow to one-eighti:
that of the deep setting: one-twenty
first of the shallow pan, and one.
thirty-third of the water dilutior
methods of creami separation. This
shows thiat v i1 h the ordiuiary farme:
who is mlilk ;nV tenl a verage cows,
tiguring but ter at the market price,
will save nere than the price of a
separator ini a singie seasoni. It not
only is econ .:nicld Irom the stand
pit orf'~* iun ingr miore or the hut-ter
fat from ihbe milk arnd other methods
of cream separation. but makes it
Dossible to utiiz/e the milk before it
has underntone the aetion of detri
mnntal bacteria, to which it is very
suscept ih!". E very f ar ine r knows
that milk as it comnes fresh from the
separator is in thenn most wholesome
condition for feedin;; poun~g pigs and
younig calire.=.
We hear a great deal said nowadays
about miaintaining~ the feril itly of the
soil. We all know that if grain is
sold direct on the nmatr g hat we
deplete ?he fertnlity or the land very
rapidly. The it: best system of
farming is stoc2k raisinig for mieat pro
duction. and theu best 'f all systems
for maintaining thne productivity of
the land, arid at the same time re )
protits thnerefrom. is dairying-not
selling thne whole milk but selling
butter only.
only by following some system of
farm ac"ounn!ing~ can we know these
things ami U, ale to weigh in tne
balance the returnx from each tield
from ea kind o stock and from
'" HARVESTIN OATS AND PLANTfNG
a I
[re i LEGUMINOUS CROPS IN
he THE SOUTH
nk
in- By G- H. ALFotD of the I H C Service Bureau
It. is now time to plan for the har
'vesting of our oat crop. If we do not
in own a good mowing machine, or better
still. a good binder. now is the time
to buy one. The cradle is too slow
e and! the waste when using a cradle is
r- enormous.
One binder will harves.t from A0
en to 100 acres-eight acres per day. One
or more farmers in every neighbor
in, hood should own a good binder. The
ed binder will generally pay for itself in
LVSL
one season.
ed A mowing machine will often do
ill the work for several farmers in a
li neighborhood. Where one farmer can
not afford to buy a. mower for his own
use. several farmers can purchase one.
d. One farmer will of ten find it profitable
ha to own a mower or binder and work
j for his neighbors at a reasonable price.
) Now Is the time to get our mowers
is- and binders ready for work. Let us
sharpen the sickles, oil the bearings
and test the machines on the grass be
fore our oats are ready to cut. It is
also advisable to have an extra binder
tongue, a knife,and several extra wings
and arms for the reel ready beforehand
yo- for repairing breakages.
ad We should harvest our oat crop early.
a Cutting should begin as soon as about
75 per cent of the field has turned
yellow-just as soon as all the grain is
in the dough stage. Oats should not
be cut while wet from dew or rain.
There should be a thresher in every
neighborhood for threshing all kinds
rE of seeds such as oats, wheat, rye,
3 barley, kaflir corn, sorghum, grass
de seed, beans, and peanuts.
u Many farmers will find it profitable
of to own a thresher for use on their own
e. farms and they can at the same time
ce be of great. service to their neighbors
ss by threshing for them at a reasonable
t, price.
is The oats should be threshed as soon
re as possible, but should not be threshed
ie when grain is wet from either rain
3f or dew.
S. Store oats in bulk and not over three
m feet deep. Be sure and examine grain
a daily for at least three weeks and
turn with shovel, if there are any Indi
a cations of heating.
1, The packed, crusted soil should not
)f be exposed to the sun's rays a single
yf day after oats are cut. We should use
ra a disk harrow and make the surface
ig for two or three inches as line as
% possible for a cowpea, soy bean or
is peanut crop. By the use of the disk
% harrow, we can thoroughly prepare
a several acres of stubble land every day
,y for these crops. At this season of the
E. year we are usually very busy and are
is often unable to spare the necessary
a, time to break the stubble land with
L. a plow.
These leguminous crops are valuable
.on account of the nitrogen and the
n humus-making organic matter they
~r co'ntain. When they are harvested to
t be fed to live stock, nearly half the
~nitrogen and humus-making materials
t are left in the roots and in the bottom
'e of the stems and In the leaves, and
other portions of the plants not ob
etained in gathering the crops. The
~. results of the Calhoun, La., experiment
~. station show that one acre of Spanish
e peanuts grown on poor pine land con
tained 192 pounds of nitrogen; an acre
Sof cowpeas, 108 pounds; and an acre of
d soy beans, 190 pounds. These crops
~made from two to three and a halt tons
of feed stuff, richer in food elements
athan wheat bran. When such feed
Sstuff can be grown after oats and fed
s to stock without serious loss of fertiliz
1 ing value, is there any excuse for cuiti
r vating poor land and for having poor
, livestock?
t The advantages of growing cowpea
y crops are briefly summarized by the
e Louisiana experiment station as fol
f lows: First, the cowpea is a nitrogen
'f gathierer;second,it shades the soil in the
~. summer, keeping it in a condition most
s suitable to the most rapid nitrifica
d tion and leaves it friable and loose and
in the best possible condition for fu
a ture crops; third, it has a large root
d development, and hence pumps up
e from a great depth and a large area
Sthe water, and with it the mineral
e needed by the plant; fourth, its adapt
.ability to all kinds of soils-stiffest
a clays to the most porous sand, fertile
Salluvial bottoms to barren upland; tifth
* it stands the heat and hot sunshine
s of hot climates; sixth, its rapid growth
enables us to grow two crops on the
a same soil; seventh, when sown thickly,
2 it shades the soil effectually, smother
,ing out all weeds and grasses, and
a thus serves as a cleansing crop; eighth,
e it is the best preparatory crop known
a to the southern farmers- every kind
i of crop growvs well after it; ninth, it
a furnishes a most excellent hay and a
Smost excellent food in large quantities
Sfor man and beast.
SThe following is a summary of Far
Smers' Bulletin, No. 326: In 190.5 the
farm described in this bulletin pro
duced one-fourth bale of cotton and
fifteen bushels of corn per aere. In
1906, after a crop of cowpeas, it pro
duced one-half bale of cotton and
thi'rty-four bushels of corn to the acre.
After cowpeas and an application of
300 pounds of commercial fertilizer,
nearly three-fourths of a bale of cot
ton to the acre; and after cowpeas and
clover continuously for two years, one
bale of cotton per acre.
This moving machine, thresher and
hay press made it possible to utilize
the cowpea grown on this farm not
only for feed and seed but also as a
source of considerable revenue. The
mowing machine, the thresher and the
hay press will make the cowpea one of
the most profitable crops that can be
grown.
The following is a summary of Far
mers' Bulletin No. 372: Where inten
sive farming is followed, the soy bean
is the best annual legume to grow for
forage in the southern part of the
cotton belt. The soy bean whether
used as hay, grain, or ensilage is a
very valuable live stock feed. Soy
bean hay is practically identical in
feeding value with alfalfa and yields
from two to three tons per acre.
Soy-hean grain is more valuable than;
cot ton seed meal as a supplementary
feed in the produiction of pork. mutton.|
wool.,iheef. miilk and butter. A bushel
of soy' beans is at least twice as val
uab~le for feedi as a b)ushe of!~' corn.
As the grain is hard. it is ius:UilY
desirable to) grind it i nto e:d a
feeding. Thbis is best don~:e by to
with corn before grinding to 07-.: v
peanuts on the les and ec:ti a; e 'a
the level with a disk~ barrAon. a s.ring
tooth hbarrow, a one or 1.wo-horse e Hti i
vator or a i:eel sneel,. We can then
cut two or three rows at one time withI
Iour mowing mac~.hinecS.
We should grow more oats and other
Ismall grain crops. and letenm~inoiscropsf
to enrich our lands and furnIih fed
for more good livestock: and use wore
labor-saving~ machinery suchi as mnow- I
ing machines. hay ratkes tedders,
binders a nd hay presses. I
LFor Infants and ChClErenN
The Kind You Have
oi ....... .. ....... Always Bought
-pv1ALCOHL 3PER CENT.
AV egetabe ParationfrAs
,P- similating theFoodaadftegidt a-s th
tingtte tomathsandoawisaof
Signature
PromotesDigesionthee of
S ' nessandRes'.Containsneitter
Opium.Morphine norMineral
NOT NAR COTiC.
In
I- Use
111I4- Apeifed Realedy for Olistp
tjOn, Sour Stomach.D1anii~m
WormsConvuLsions.Feverish
SndLSSFSMP For Over
1 acs mae signa=r or
i~4~~~SE~ Thirty Years
NEW YORK
CASTORIA
E=CpofWrappe. ,. UmUT.nSWYu OlYoome.
I Th e In Yo HaT
9' 'eIn
hares divngran r noFcnntrifOudeerem
Wonct Cplat o raper.n wnstorms TUOMre also TOf, will
Ou Po Ml GRe
SThNey intrlock and overlap each oer in such a way the
ha.re ding rain town ot wil code n.
o t pat e re rtlooing wtnd- tro s Thdey' as repof
bu ast ap toadte blwadving onvr Aned airs. haesenho
pATr BRUht , feRRw dros0.,hi ipensh applie
So henwete ll yutawe.betOeskin, Stakes rers"th ithn
foun some eczman red alknd thaoesaty hecrsalse ob
stand back of it with the manufacturer's emant
iron clad guarantee. backed by ourselvesD.Pecito mdeb th
advice not inode tpo tsel a few bottlescopsd fth olgyern, ilf
of medicine to skin sufferers, but be- itrre n terhaig otig
caus-e we know how it will help ourcoln igrdnt. Adiyuae
business if we help our patrons. js rz'wt th o ilfe
We keep in stock and sell, all the welaheawytemenyoapld
known skin remedies. But we will saythsDD.D
ths f yok resuffering from ani ehv aefs red fmr
kin u sin robl, ezeap~oiai t the sn fa k b y omedn tin
rashor ttter we ant outtry a tl y. dy t hesi feure r hemro and
size bottle of D.pe a.en. Prescription, hr n ew n made tot y th e
And U~tdos nt o hBwok, hi oi umpositive noa guacrnee.
Entrnceexamnalons t al t intergren riad other hen, t hing, m
IC ofer corse in ncint nd oder n in gediatets. Anditry yo l-r
Cou..~sfo l. A. . . n~13.S.deroowth ad Egn eitthh. lt
A fre tutioschlarhip o wch shedt of a So th e maoliaeVnt yo le
schlashis ivig 10 a ea an feetiin en to mett fieedsiofmor
dyntoSkpn erirher.
Expesesreaonale.Ters adc t hee ond e pliatintWyou to tyi o
HARRISEO RADLH PRESt
~ 27h EA IC EPTEBE BAN
Entanc exminlios a al th contysaKENSa Jl, at. C
n SProptPowrfubPrmaen
Expensesreasonbe Trch red, -ctaure bonapplieation. rt e etr
HARRInccS N DLPH digesiondner
F. V. LI CAlo, SVNAH ..
PICPICKENRUGACK
URS A L SHINGLS AN
J.LVNIcD Bre PROFING
-i:. I.i. . * ad in r as eer
P. r. .:i.:7, . a. .- --- . .p io to n.
(Pricly As,IPoexotian oihuthhv
- - It beeia ef- Stubbor caesn Good b r hesul ra
- iects ar usal yiel o P. Pt. - a aing-th ce o h
fel veyqiky hnor m outosaycue
JOHNe r useRLEsasa
*PP1Fj..
F. TV.BURRPMAN, S NA, A.drpS

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