Newspaper Page Text
Hundreds, Mostly Wo
ish in Chicago River
er Eastland C
MOST BODIES RECOYERED
Excursion Trip is Suddenly
Ended and All Chicago is
Thrown in Mourning
Chicago. --- Bodies of uore than
110 t hou sand persons have been
oun11d, most of themil woniiien and
.htldren, who were drowned within
. few feet of Lawd 'li the capsizinig of
be steel steamer' Eas!lind. as it was
.hotit to leave its wharf inl the Chicago
iver wit h 2,500 relatives anld frilends
f tIe erlniployees of tihle Western Etee
e compaLIny, for an excursioll across
,ake .liehigan. The ship rolled over
in its side in 25 feet of water and with
i five minutes after it began to list.
Tin' total (lead r-emained at approx
iately 1,000 accoirdiig to estimates
,y Coroner Iloffmaii, wliose i'reports
adicated that possibly 100 bodies were
eld in tll, mdil of tOi river by th
teaners supersruiture. Whih- ol.y
.002 of ithe 2.,W8 passeiirs of thi
lastlaid ha vf registered a.s saved, it
vas thoiight that. abot 475 s uvivors.
iilidin g tle crew of 72, had failed to
Smeveral per-sonis werev takien alive
rmin thev cabinls of thw Ahip after it hadI(
aild onl its side inl the river for four
lours. the ti( other's said to be in
ie lulk all ar' diad.
I'ideir ith I g'laie of searchlights at
i, scres of imn i worked in the
lill of the ivessel to remilove the bodies.
'he steamer lay on 'the bottom of the
Iver, one side protruding like a moinu
ient to- the hundreds it had drowned
s It tliriled Ove'.
Tho cause of the capisizing had not
een determined but federal, city and
tale officers were conducting investi
ations to determine whether the ship
*as top heavy from faulty designing,
'as impr-operly ballasted or was poor
handled in warping from the wharf.
Marine architects asserted that
le Eastlancd was faulty in design,
la-t the top dock had been removed
ecause of the tendency of the ship to
st and also poIn-ted to the possibility
mat the ship had been unevenly or in
afficiently ballasted. The Eastland
sod wa-ter ballast, so that It could
umip out some on entering shiallow
1ke harbors, so some investigators
ro working on a -theory that 'the bal
ist danks were not filled and the rush
mg of passengers to one side of the
e(ek caulsed it to roll over.
Under misaty skies, 7,000 men, wo
nen and (chidren wended their way
o the Clark street dock early in the
tay to fitl five large lake steamerers
vith holiday mirth in a trip to Michi
canl City. The steamiler Eastland
>r'oughlt to Chticago from Lake Erie,
after anl unisatlsfactory career, wa-s
thle first to 1be loaded.
Rlain) began to roll as tihe wharf su
pernttendent lifted the gang planks
from the vessel, dleclaring that the gov
ernment ilmit of 2,600 passengers had
'heen reachledl. White dresses peeped
-fromu raincats along the shore rails
na5 those abocard waved good-bye to
frIends on shore whlo were wvaiting to
hoar'd the steamer Roosevelt and oth
Then the passengers swarmed to the
left side of the0 ship as the other steam
era dIrew up tihe river towards -the
wharf. A tug was hitched -to the East
landf, roples were ordered east off and
'the steamer engines lbegan 'to hum.
Th'le h'astland had not budged, how
Instead, the heavily laden shlip wav
ered sidowise, leaning first towards
'the river bank. Thie lurchl was so
startling that many passengers join.
ed thle large concourse already on the
river side of tile decks.
The ship never hleeled back. It turn
ed slowly but steadily toward its left
side. Children clutched the skirts of
mhothers and sisters to keep from fall
'ing. 'rho whole cargo was Impelled
towards the failing side of tile shlip.
Water began to enter lower portholes
uend the hlaw-sers tore ouit the piles
'to whlich thle vessel was tied.
Screams from passengers at tracted
the attention of fellow excursionists
on the dock awaiting the next steam
er. Whlarfmen and picnickers soon
lined tile edge of the einbankment,
reaching oult hllplessly towards the
For nearly five minutes the ship
turned before It finally dlived under
the swIft current of thle rIver, which
owing ,to the drainage canal system
flows from -the lake. DurIng th
mlghlty turning of -the ship with Its
targe of humanity, lifeboats; chairs
aind other loose anpurtenances on
1the decks slipped down the slophrn'
floors. crushing the passengers tow-aid
the risinu' water.
Then there was a plhmne withl a
a yhi of air escanIig fromn the hold,
mlngled with crying of children and
men and Children, Per.
When Great Steam
apsizes at Pier
shrieks of women and the ship was
on the bottom of the river, casting
hiiundreds of living creatures to the
Many sank, entangled with clothin
and bundles and did not rise, but hun
dreds came to the surfec, seized
floating Chairs and other objects.
Those on shore threw out ropes and
dragged in 'those who could hold these
life lines. E0mployes .of commission
firns along the river threw crates,
chicken coops and other float-able
things into the current, but most of
these were swept away by the stream,
which runts five miles an hour.
Boats pitt out, tugs rushed to tile
scene with shrieking wistles and
inaiy tno snatched off ca ts and
shoes and siang into the ri r to aid
the ( rowting. WNith thousamiris of
si'(ctators ready to aid and the wharf
wivthin grasp. hundreds went to death
des)ite (very effort at rescue.
One imot her grasped her two chil
drtii in hr armis as sho slipped from
the steamer into the water. One child
was torn frot her but she and the
other were save d. Fathers were
dirowlied after aiding their wives and
children to safety.
Instances of heroism were almost
as nuimerous as the litnber of per
Soils 0 the scene. Boats aIs soonl as
ull took rescued passengers to the
wh arf or to the steanmer Tilcodore
Roose-velt. which was tied up oppo
site the Eastland.
In an hour the water was cleared
of excursionists. Those wrio had not
been taken to land had sunk or were
swirling down the river towards the
dtrainage canal locks at Lockport, Ill.,
many miles away. The locks were
raised to stop the current and ar
rangements were made to.take bodies
from the river along its course
through the southwest part of Chi
Shortly after the water was clear
ed, city firemen, ship engineers and
helpers were on the exposed side of
the Eastland's hull, cutting through
its steel plates with gas flames. Div
ers were hurried into underwater
suits. A tug was moored as a bridge
between the pier and the capsized
As the divers gained entrance to
the hull, the scene of distress moved
for the time being from the river
to the extemporized morgues. Ware
htouses of wholesale companies along
thle river were thrown open and bod
ies were placed in rowvs on the floors,
Scores of persons rescued! from the
water were injured and then wvere
taken to tihe Iroquois Hospital, buili
in memory of the 600 women, chil
dIren and a few men who wetre burmi
ed and crushed to death in the Iro
quis (T118heater New Year's Eve somm
Efforts to resuscitate those ta'ker
fr'om the river were generally unsue
cessful. Only two or three were thut
saved. It was also said that mann
of the injured would die.
Trhe wvhole city was in consterna
tion over the catastrophe. WVord o
the accident spread rapidly and t<
the thousands already at or' near th
wharf, other thousands added thenm
selves. The Clark street bridge naea:
the wharf was crowded until I
threatened to collapse. Streets has
to be cleard by the police to allov
the passage of ambulances.
Blusiness men sent their automc
biles and motor trucks to help ai<
the injured and carry away the dead
One warehouse soon 'vas filled wit]
bodes and other dead were taken t<
the becond Regiment armory, a mil
Mayor William Hale Trhompso:
wvas in San F'rancisco and Chief c
Police C. C. Hlealy also was outt o
town, but Acting Mayor Moorhousi
sent out a request that the -city die
pilay signs of mourning.'
Flags on public buildings wver<
lplaed-lat half mast arnd many place
were dr'aped with mourning. Blase
ball gamues were postponed and fee
tivities largely ceased.
While those on land were dispos
ing of the dead, in)uted andl reiacuied
tile (livers in the heart of the sunkel
vessel sent up an almost constan
stream of corpses fr'om the rub
mlergedl decks. First it was a girl ii
her teens who had been cauught be
tween a pile of chairs and a ca'iu
wall. Next it was S slight boy, gathi
ered from the lifeless arms of a font
father, wvho had clung to nis offspring
Ieen in death. Then followed an olt
woman, whlo had gono aboard thle
ship to watch the youthftlh pleasure o
her grandchaildreni, or a little gir
with bare legs and booters and wit]
gay ribbons sodden agains~t the lacd
of her' halbliay gown.
One thtrill passed through thl
cr'owd ats word came from the steami
er that a girl baby bad been fount
alive among the hundreds of deaud ii
the ship. The child w'as discoveret
in a stnreva atal,tul where nha
had beoWA O) from the water' by a
hair tjat,.ij4:eO against the berth.
The baby only half awAkeied as it
was carried 69 land. Its noter coull
Two wonferj were found alive in
another stajeroi in f protruding
Bled of the. Eastland but that ended
the lopes that any numiber had es
cal ed death in the Lrap. Tha:,o were
still 300 persons in the hold when
these three persons were taken out
alive and the explorers of the hulk
said that all wero dead.
Work of tagging the bodies of the
dead and placing them in accessible
places or identification proceeded all
day and night.
Identification was slow and scenes
at the morgues were as affecting as
those at the river when the steamer
capsized. Mothers fell across the
biers of children whom they had sent;
away a few hours before on what was
intended to be a day of pleature.
Federal Judge Landis ordered a
grand jury impannelled to investigate
the catastrophe; State's Attorney
Iloyne prepared a county grand jury
inquiry; Coroner Hoffman selected a
jury to look into the cause of the
deaths; the police arrested all the of
nleers of the Eastland, and the health
commissioner prepared to clear the
river, for fear disease might be spread.
by the presence of so many bodies in
Arrangements also were made to
get at the sunken vessel to determine
the underlying causes of the accident.
Derricks on scows were taken to the
side of the Eastland and marine engi
neers were engaged to inspect the
Those in charge of the various
works of clearing up the toll of cas
ulties and determining the respon
sibility for the capsizing of the boat
said that the end(eavor would neces
sarily be slow because of the large
number of persons aboard the East
land the diflicuity of getting at the
hull of the steamer.
Acting Mayor Moorehouse and his
advisers decided to raise a relief fund
of $200,000 to be distributed by a
sub-conimnittee acting under the direc
tion of the National Red Cross, the
Associated Charities, and the Munici
pal Health Department. In addition
to this the Western Electric Company,
whose employes formed the majority
of the excursion party announced
that $100,000 from its employes' insur
ance funds was available for relief.
Numerous private relief funds were
Meanwhile Mayor Thompson, who
was at the Panama-Pacific Exposition
to take part in the celebration of Illi
nois Day, left immediately for Chica
go on a special train to take his place
in investigation and relief work.
Coronor Hoffman issued an appeal
to the public for a fund for the buria'
of whatever dead may remain uniden
tified. City officials with one voice
declared that all dead should have
Various theories as to what caused
the Eastland to turn over were dis
cussed, but without prospect of a defi
nite explanation. The most discussed
theories are four: That the boat was
overloaded; that she was not properly
ballasted; that a tug that made fast
to warp the Eastland from the docks
star'ted pulling too soon; that conges
tion of passengers rushing to the port
side attracted by some passing sensa
tion tipped the steamer over.
One of the divers, Louis Kruger,
sC 1(d that lie thought several score
bcdies wvere still pinned under the
boat, which he said was resting in
about four feet of stiff mud. These
bodies cannot be moved until after
the coroner's inquest, when efforts
will be made to right the vessel.
The steamer Theodore Roosevelt, of
- the Indiiana Transportation Company,
made its regular trip to Michigan
I City andl the steamer City of Grand
Rapids, of the-Graham & Morton ILine,
- sailed as usual for St. Joseph, Mich.
r Both boats had comparatively small
t passenger lists.
With the assembling of stories of
witnesses and survivors, moire andl
more I ncidents of horror pathos and
- neroism came to light. All of the
Eastland's passengers save two or
-three hundred wvho clung to the star
h oard rail or climbed out of starboard
port holes were thrown into the river,
crushed into the slimy mud of the
buttomi or imprisoned betwvecn decks,
when the steamer turnedl over.
iThe quiet half clouds Sunday was
f a day of gloom for all Chicago. The
a city turned to prayer and thought.
-Ministers said more people attendied
church than for many Sundays past.
3 'rhe preachers nearly all referred to
the Fastland disaster In their sermons
-and asked congregations to join in
-prayers for the bereaved. Therec
were crowd~s of morbidly curious along
-the river, hut foi- the most part the
populace either went to church or
stayed at home in appalled thought,
t With the details of tihe catastrophe
-summedi up the people shuddered that
close to the throbbing heart of one
-of the great cities of the world a thou
sand ipeople could go to their death
w ~ith hundreds of persons powerless
to aidl standing within a stone's throwv
- -that that great mass could drown in
a narnrow river 20 feet from the (lock.
Message From President.
Chicago. -~ Acting Mayor Moore
house of Chicago received the follow
luig telegram from President WVoodrow
"I am sure I speak the universaj.
- feeling of the people of the country
I in expressing my profound sympathy
and sorrow in the presence of the
I great disaster whch saddened so
mn tny 'homes."
PRESIDENT WILSON TO USE AR
TILLERY IF NECESSARY TO
PROTECT MEXICAN BORDEF.'
ALL FACTIONS ARE NOTIFIED
Definite Instructions to Gen. Funston
In Regard to Peace-Border Towns
Must Not Be Molested.
Wash ingt on .-Orders were issued
with the approval of President Wilson
to Major General Funston to repel
with force ifrnecessary any firing into
American territory during fighting be
tween the factions in borders towns
and a note was dispatched to General
Carranza advising him of that fact.
Soon afterward advices from Vera
Cruz to the Carranza headquarters
here said the general had specifically
instructed General Calles, his coin
iander before Nogales, not to attack
the village force and gave assurance
t-hat. the Carranza force in' Naco would
withdraw leaving a civil adinistra
tion in charge. The garrison marched
General Carranza was informed
-that American border commanders
had orders to prevent by force if
necessary any shooting into American
territory. The specific method of re
polling the attack was not mention
ed. but the inference was American
artillery would deal with any situation
construed as an attack on American
General Funston was instructed to
resist border attacks immediately with
out referring the question further to
Genera-l Carranza apparently gave
immediate heed to the warning.
The state department has had the
border situation under consideration
for several days. The Villa and Car
ranza agencies here have each held
the other responsible for the viloa
lion of the agreement to neutralize
border towns, made when Gen. Hugh
Scott, Chief of Staff of the Army, last
The situation throughout Mexico as
reported from various sections was
considered discouraging by officials.
German Newspapers Do Not Like
Tone of Note.
Berlin, via wireless to Sayville.
The latest American note to Germany
concerning submarine warfare was re
ceived most unfavorably by the Ger
man newspapers in which it was
The Tageliche Rundschau and The
Kreuz Zeitung similarly declare that
-the American note ca~ls for the most
decided opposition and that it re
quires Great Britain to show at least
an equal respect for the spirit of -in
tornational law as the president de
mands from Germany.
The Tageblatt says:
"The note showvs clearly that the
American governnmen-t cares more for
the crippling of our submarine war
than for the safeguarding of American
lives. The United States must realize
that to change our submarine wvar
fare is out of athe question. The note
proves that pro-British influence has
gained an upper hand in President
Wilson's circle. We hope the common
sense of the American people will pre
vent citizens from serving as protec
ti.' for English munition ships."
The Tages Zeitung writes:
"Neutrals have rights but so also
has a great -nation fighting for its
life. Though maintaining submarine
warfare Germany always is willing to
respect the justifillb wish of Ameri
cans but not at -any price."
Girl's Plea Brings Pardon.
Milledgeville, Ga.--The plea of a six
year old child to Governor Harris won
a promise of freedom for Thomas
Edgar Stripling, who was arres-ted in
Danville, Va., in 1911. where he was
chief of police, and returnedl here to
spend his life in prison -for murder af
ter 'he had escaped from jail' 14 years
before, while awvaiting transfer to the
Georgia prison farm.
Object to New Seaman's Law.
Syracuse, N. Y.-Willlam C. Red
field, Secretary of the Department of
Commerce, who is in Syracuse, made
public correspondence between -the
St. Joseph-Chicago Steamship Comn
pany, owners of the steamer Eastland,
and, the Department of Commerce, re
latin~g to the new seaman's act. Sec
retary Rledfield helievyes that under the
seaman's act, the passenger-carrying
capacity of the Eastland could have
been reduced from 2,570 to 1,552.
The steamship company opposed the
MIltary Defenses insufficient.
New York.--The report of the Army
committee of the National Security
League, Henry L. Stlmson, chairman,
characterizes the military defenses
of the country as "woefully insuf
ficient," and endorses the recommen
dations of the General Staff of the
Army "made repeatedly to congress,"
for a reserve army of 500,000 men,
The report also endorses "the repeat
ed recommendation nmade to congress
for providing adequate reserve of
arms, armament, ammunition and all
classes of war material."
New Note to Germany
- Word from Washi
NO THREATS_ CONTAINED
Germany is Given Clear Under
standing What This Nation
Washington.-The text of the Amer
ican note on the submarine warfare,
presented at Berlin by Ambassador Ge
rard, has been made public. It re
veals that the Imperial government
had been informed it is the intention
of the United States to regard as "de
liberately unfriendly" , any repetition
by the commanders of German naval
vessels of acts in contravention of
Following is the official text of the
latest American note to Germany re
garding submarine warfare, which
was delivered to the Foreign Office at
'Betlin by Ambassador Gerard.
The Secretary of State to Ambassa
Department of State.
Washington, July 21, 1915.
You are instructed to deliver text
i.11dy, the following note to the Min
dsk r for Foreign Affairs:
The note of the Imperial''German
Government dated the eighth of July,
1915, has received the careful con
sideration of the Government of the
United States and it regrets to be
obliged to say that it has found it
very unsatisfactory. because it fails
to -meet the real differences between
the two Governments and indicates no
way in which the accepted principles
oflaw and humanity may be applied
in the grave matter in controversy,
but proposes on the contrary, ar
rangements for a partial suspension
of those grinciples which virtually set
The Government of the United
States notes v-.Ith satisfaction that the
Imperial German Government recog
nizes without reservation the validity
of the principle insisted on in the sev
eral communications which the Gov
ernment has addressed to the Inpe
rial German Government with regard
to its announcement of a war zone
and the use of submarines against
merchantmen on the high seas-the
principle that the seas are free, that
the character and cargo of a mer
chantman must first be ascertained
before she can lawfully be seized or
destroyed, and that the lives of non
combatants may in no case be put in
jeopardy unless the vessel resists or
seeks to escape after being summoned
to submit to examination, for a bellig
erent act of realiation is per se an
act beyond the law and defense of an
act as retaliatory is an admission that
it is illegal.
The government of the United
States is, however, keen-ly disappoint
ed to find that the Imperial German
government regards itself as in large
degree exempt from the obligation to
observe these principles, even where
neutral vessels are concerned, by what
it believes the policy and practice of
the government of Great Britain to be
in the present war with regard to neu
tral commerce. The Imperial German
government will readily understand
that the government of the United
'States cannot discuss the policy of the
government of Great Britain with re
gard to neutral trade except with that
government itself, and that it must re
gard the conduct of other belligerent
governments as irrelevant to any dis
cussion wvith the Imperial German gov
ernment of what this government re
gards a~s grave and unjustifiable viola
tions of the rights of American citi
zens by German naval commanders.
Illegal and inhuman acts, however
justifiable they may be thought to be
against any enemy wvho is believed to
have acted in contravention of law
and humanity, are manifestly Inde
fensible when they dleprive neutrals
of their acknowledged rights, particu
larly when they violate the right to
life itself. If a belligerent cannot re
taliate against an enemy without in
juring the lives of neu-trals, as well as
heir propery, humanly, as well as
.ustice and a due regard for dignity
of neutral powers, should dictate that
the practice should be discontinued.
11 persisted in it would in such cir
cumstan-ces constitute an unpardonable
offense against the sovereignty of
the neutral nation affected. The gov
ernment of the United States is neot
nmindful of the extraordinary condi
tions created by this war, of the radi- 1
APPROVE NOTE TO GERMANY.
Danville, Va., Register-~'
lean reply is courteous an
ed, but definite, vigorous,
incisive, It effectually pu
German subterfuges and ce
inite remedial action.
Lynchburg, Va., News'.
Wilson has shown tnat he
to tolerate. quibbling and.
respect to the grave iue
which Berlin and Washir
not as yet eached ngrnemc
IT ANY. COST'
is Considered the Last
agton Touching on
cal alterations of circumstances and
methods of attack produced by the
use of instrumentalities of naval war
fare which the nations of the world
cannot have had in view when the ex
isting rules of international law were
formulated, and it is ready to make
every reasonable allowance for these
novel and unexpected aspects of war
at sea; but it cannot consent to abate
any essential or fundamental right of
is people because of a mere alera
tion of circumstance. The rights of
neutrals in time of war are based ipb
on principle, not upon- expediency
and the principles are immutable. t
is the duty and obligation of belli r
ents to. find a way to adapt t'ho ew
circumstances to them.
The events of the past two months
have clearly indicated that It Is pos
sible and practicable to conduct such
submarine operations as have charac
terized the activity of the Imperial
German navy within the so-called war
zone in substantial accord with the
accepted practices of regulated war
fare. The whole world has looked
with interest and increasing satis
faction at the demonstration of that
possibility by German naval command
ers. It Is manifestly possible, there
fore to lift the whole practice of sub
marine attack above the criticism
which it has aroused and remove the
chief cause of offense.
In view of the illegality made by
the Imperial government. when It
pleaded the right of retaliation in de
fense of its acts, and in view of the
manifest possibility of conforming to
the established rules of naval warfare
the government of the United States
cannot believe that the Imperial Ger
man government will longer refrain
from disavowing the wanton act of its
naval commander in sinking the Lusi
tania or from offering reparation for
the American lives lost, so far as repa
ration can be made for a needless de
struction of human life by an illegal
The government of the United
States while not indifferent to the
friendly spirit in which it is made,
cannot accept the suggestion of the
Imperial German government tha
certain vessels be designated an,
agreed upon which shall be free r
the seas now illegally prescribed. T
very agreement would, .by implicat
subject other vessels to illegal at,
and would be a curtailment and, t'
fore, an abandonment of the .
paes for which this government ,
tends and which In times of c
counsels every nation wvould
as of course.
The government of
States and the Imperial -
ernent are contending
great object, have lo
er in urging the very
which the governm
States now solem*
are both contendi
of the seas. The*
United States wvill
tend for that freed
quarter violated, wy .
and at any cost. It.
cal co-operation of
man government at
CO-Operation may acco y~mu
this great object 1)e
and effectively achie~
The Imperial Germai
presses the hope that
b~e in some measure acc
before the present war
ibe. The government of'
States feels obliged to in.
by whomsoever violated or
the protection of its own c
it is also deeply interested,
it made practicable between the
3rents themselves, and holds
r~eady a't any time to act as the can.
mion friend who may he privileged to
suggest a wvay.
In the meantime the very value
wvhichi this government sets upon the
ong and unbroken friendship between
mhe people and government of the Uni
ed States and the people and govern
ment of the German nation impels it to
press very solemnly upon the Imperial
lerman government the necessity for
i scrupulous observance of neutral
"ight-s in this critical matter. Friend
hip itself prompts it to say to the
mperial government that repetition by
.he'commanders of German naval yes
mls of acts in contravention of those
ights must b~e regarded by the govern
nent of the United States when they
ufnet American citizens, as deliberate- r,
y unfriendly. LANSING.
'h News and Observer--.Pres.
Wilson states the position of the
I States as Americans would
him. * * * He speaks as the
oodled representative of a red
Not influenced by Germany.
tnoke, Va.--President Wilson haa.
.eon influenced, either by the at..
'of the German or by the seliti
among a certain class of citizens.e
e United States and has repeat.
s demands on Germany.