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THE GREAT BATTLE
The first general engagenent in til
of Mons-Charlerol, started Augut 20 x
and Britisha. They retrented southa of 1
gagement started September 5. The I
armies' positions jnst before the battle
The Gernann right wing was broN
a retirement of time whole line. The c
msidst of their retreat, are Nimown on 1
while a row of darkened rectanglen it
line of the Aisne where they stopped s
Both siden now extended their lit
show the approximate position nsuir
siege line wn complete frot the Alm
The line of September 30 also shn
French line neros the Meuse at St. MI
Crossed swords nark time spots of
grentent struggles have taken place ml
FIRST YEAR OF THE
WAR IN THE WEST
The first month and a half of the
western campaign was made up of
startling, swift moves. On September
12, after the defeat on the Marne, the
Germans took up defensive positions
along the Aisne river. The ten and a
half months since then have seen a
The battle line of the Aisne and the
Olse quickly extended northeast to the
sea. Fighting has been continuous,
with tremendous losses. The general
situation has remained unchanged,
gains of a few miles for one side at
one point offset by minor gains for
the enemy in other sectors.
'At the beginning of August the
kaiser took possession of the little
state of Luxemburg and demanded
passage through Belgium to the Fran
Permission to pass denied, Von
Elnem attacked Liege (August 4),
while other German armies passed
around the city and swept over the
level Belgian roads at a terrific rate.
The little Belgian army yielded Brus
sels and fell back to Antwerp and
First Big Engagement.
Not until the Germans had almost
reached the French border did the
first important engagement take place
,This is generally known as the battle
of Mons-Charleroi (about August 20
28), but at the same time there was
severe fighting along the whole line
through Thionville in Lorraine and
along the Vosges in upper Alsace,
which the French had invaded with
This battle r'esulted in defeat for the
French and 10nglish.
While obtaining some successes in
counter-attacks on the advancing Ger
mans at Peronne and at Guise, the
F"rench were obliged to fall back rap
idly to the line of the River Marne.
On the left the French had with
drawn to bel~ Paris and the wecstern
most German ~?y, under Von Kluck,
The garrisoa of Paris was put, in
thousands of motor ears and hurled on
Von Kluck's fl~nk. The latter- was not
- taken entirely unawares and met the
attack strop ly, but at the same time
the armn~ Aeneral Foch attacked the
Germa~ -oh Von Kiuck's left and
,4 Jn Back From Paris.
T~j fmans had begun the battle
armies in line. T1he wIth
4~j'f the two farthest wes('t no0w
e ~*he retreat of the third, fourth
anid ifth in that order, each in turn
,'fnding its flank exposedl by the with
drawal of the troops oii its rig;hI. At
the same time the movemnent. on the
*ogst end of the German lne was aIc
celerated by a strong attack fromi the
- *French~ fortified zone of Verndun.
The German retreat was as orderly
as that of the French and English had
been. The invaders took up an ad
mirable defensive position. It ran
just north of the Aisne river, on a
series of bluffs, then just nor-th of
Chalons and through the wooded,
rough regions of tihe Argonne and tihe
Weevre, joining hands here with tile
troops deileging Verdun. Th'le allies
* have tried tils line in vin ever since.
Both combatants now triedl to turn
the west flank. Enormous iodies of
cavalry. On tile part of tihe F'rench
Flanders. On tihe part of theO French
there was largely tihe dlesire to lin1k up
with tihe Belgians, now being attacked
in Antwverp. Thue mighty siege guns
of the Germans made short work of
the Belgian seapiort, however, andi it
fell on October 9. The remlnants of
.the Belgian army retreatedi alon~g tihe
sea coast and thie Germanilis iln a fin~al
rush reached Ostend (October 15).
Line Extended to the Sea.
The battle line of the Aisne was no0w
extended tom tile sea, thei Getrmlanls hold(
* ing the important French city of Lill,
- while the ailles kept Ypres ill Blgim
and, partly by loodin'g thle lowlands,
held the position of tile Y'ser river and
From October 16 to November 10
was fought tihe desperate first battle
LINES IN THE WEST
kntwr y HM
Ver u . Mots
r- o( "I.
SWest, Ponletinnen known tan thle battle
nd resulted In tile defeat of the Frenhih
he Marne, where time aet'ond general en
ne of thin date on tile napn silowvn time
en tap and forced back, bringing about
ernian positioans on septemiber 9, in tinew
lhe nanp by a series of light -ectnagles,
dienten the carefully prepared trenct
Lad were attacked by tile aIllles Septent
en towardti le count. Light aqtanren
ed Septenmber 30. By October 15 the
to the eal.
wn the Germnans' great drive into tile
the entrenched niege line where the
nee October 15.
of Ypres, when the Germans suffered
enormous losses In attempts to break
through the line in Flanders and reach
Calais. They succeeded in pushing
back the allies only a little and the
invasion of Silesia by the Cossacks
finally Induced them to desist and
send re-enforcements to Russia.
The Germans in September had per
formed the feat of pushing a salient
into the French line south of Verdun,
which terminated on the west bank of
the Meuse river at St. Mihiel; while
the French had taken the offensive
with some success in Champagne at
about the same time.
For the most part throughout the
winter the fighting consisted of regu
lar siege warfare, with heavy artillery
combats and mine and counter-mine.
The flooding of the River Aisne
from winter snows gave the Germans
a chance to entrap the French troops
on the north side of that river in the
vicinity of Soissons for a considerable
distance and kill or capture most of
them (January 14).
Take Offensive In Spring.
With the spring, the French and
English attempted to take the offensive
at several points. Always preparing
the way with tens or hundreds of thou
shands of shells, they tried joint after
joint of the German armor.
In the Vosges the dominating height
of lartmannsweilerkopf was taken
and retaken several times in sanguin
ary charges and finally remained in the
hands of the French.
The salient of St. Mihiel was also
subjected to tremendous French pres
sure on both "legs." The French suc
ceeded in gaining a little ground, but
the Germans, despite the apparent
weakness of the sharp wedge they had
driven into the French line, could not
be dislodged and later succeeded In re
gaining some of the territory they had
Trho British also reported "victories"
at Neuve Chapelle andl Hill No. 60, in
Flanders. WVhether these should he
accounted snecesses for the allies is
doubtful. The British suffered enor
mous losses and at Neuve Chapelle
bungled affairs to the extent of shell
ing their own men who had taken Ger
man trenches. In other cases they
left gallant little parties lodged in
enemy's trenches without supports to
The next development was the un
expected use of poisonous gas fumes
by the Germans in attacks just north
of Ypres. Wi'th this novel weapon
they succeedled in taking several small
villages andl more than compensating
for the British gains south of Ypres.
The losses of the French, Canadians
and British wvere severe, but they suc
ceeded in stemming the German on
slrught effectively a few miles back
irom their former position.
Begin Series of Attacks.
The German line makes a salient at
Soissons, though not such a pro
nounced one as at St. Mihiel. The
French ,now began a series of at
tacks en the upper side of this salient,
to the north of Arras. Expending hun
dreds of thousands of shells, they time
and again blasted away the barbed
wire entanglements and concrete
trenches, held by Crown Prince Rup
precht of Bavaria's men, and then
charged across the desolate-ground for
The fighting centered about the su
gar refinery of Souezo and the great
German work called the Labyrinth.
Fighting went on in cellars and tun
nels below the earth and the casual
ties were heavy. The French bent the
G4erman line end captured the Laby
rinth, but whether the gains just Itled
their sacrifice in human life is ques
In .July, Crown PrInce Frederiek
William's army attacked in the Ar
gonne forest, west of Verdun, and
succeeded in gaining several hundred
yards of shattered woodland and cal.
turing several thousand Frenchmen.
There were rummor-s that thec (er
mans were re-enforcing for another
gr-eat drive toward Calais or Paris,
but the Teutonic campaign in the
WVest continued to wait upon the
crushing of the much weaker enemy~
FIRST YEAR OF THE
WAR ON THE SEA
At the end of the first year
of war not a German fighting
craft, except submarines, is
known to be at large outside
the Baltic sea. The Austrian
warships are confined to the up
per Adriatic and the Turkish
fleet to the Sea of Marmora
and adjacent straits. The iner
chant marine of the central
European powers has disap
leared utterly from the ocean
highways. Sixty million dol
lars' worth of German shipping
lies idle In the docks of New
York, while several times, as
much is bottled up elsewhere.
At the sane time the German
submarines have Inflicted enor
inous losses of allied shipping.
While both sides have prob
ably concealed many losses,
the following is a fairly accu
date summary i the number
of craft which Tave been de
Brit- Rus- i
ish French sian
Battleships ..10 2
Cruisers ......12 1 2
Submarines .. 4 3
Auxil. cruisers 5 1
torpedo boats 4 6 2
Total Japanese and Italian
losses, seven vessels of all
Battleships ........... 1
Cruisers .............18 2
Submarines .......... 9 1
Auxiliary cruisers ....19
and torpedo boats .. .20 1
Total Turkish losses of ves
sels of all classes, four.
Total tonnage en
tente allies ...........376,770
Teutonic allies .......224,746
BIG EVENTS IN FIRST
YEAR OF THE WORLD WAR
.hone 29-A rcldulce and Areliduchem
Franet of Au i*n. ilni by Serbign
August l--Germnyuv deelaren war on
August 2-Gernnn foreenm enter Luxen
burg. Germany dleuninInds pnnumnge
Angst r--10ngtnd announeen state of
war witha (erntany.
Augnumt 7-i-renah invadtle motaithern Al
August 5-lrlrtisi troiop land In
iFrance and Ielgiumn s.
A ugist ii-Germanm aN Liege fort.
Auigust 12-nginnd sanod irance de
elaire wvar on A ulstrin.
Auigist 1i-AtstritnnN invade Serbin in
August 17-leginning of five daysn' bat
tie between Serbinna and Auntriansi
on the .indor, ending in A ustrinn
A Jugut 20-(termann enter lIrumels.
Ausgust 23--terjnuaan enter Namur and
atinek Mon. Austrin annotuneen viI
tory over Runninns tet Krannik. Japan
Aungusit 24-iritish begin retreat from
A ugunst 25-rench eveunmte M uelhnnu
August 27-Lounin burned by tier
August 2R-Uattle off Hlelgoland, nev
, erni Germann warship. *unk.
Aungusnt 29--Itunninns erunkedl in three
dany,' butt le near Tnnnenberg.
September 3-lunninn ocnapy i.eu
September 5--Duttle of thne Marne be
giant. Germann right wing defeated
andi retrent begins,
Septemnber 7-Mubeunge fall,.
Septeninber 12.-Geman retrent halts on
September 20 -- Oermnn bomnbardi
fteims andu injure tihe famous enthe
October 9--Ant werpn Occupied by the
October 32-Hoer revolt .tart,.
Octobner l-A-.Ilies occupy Ypres. Tint
ie ibegint. on V inuln.
October 15--Ontend occunpied by tine
October in-First battle of Ypren, he
October 24-en dnyn' battle before
Wanrsawnu endis in Germian retiremnent.
Octtobner 27-Il unsinuns reoccupy l,nndz
October 2ii-Tu',rkey begin, war on lRun,
Novemnber 3-terann squnadron bonn
hards lIritishl conut
November 5-ardanellen fort,. bom~.
November t-Tingana Murrendern.
Novembnier I2-Itusienns defeuted at
Ipno and K utnmo.
Nover-anber 15--iunninu,. defented at
Noveimbner i7--Austrian imtory 01ver
Nerbians nt Vljevo announnced.
iDeemnnber 't--A no.1rins ocuapy 1el..
lDecembnler i -Serbinns. defent Aus.tnrins
in. three dan' battle.
lDe-emb ier l---irmnll, lccunpy Logis.
D~eemnber 15-A untrians evneunte 11e1
De-emb en 16d-Germann cruaisen born
hanrd Se-nnrorouagh and Hiartlepool, 150
Dccenmbe~r 20-240-Severe fighting on the
line onf the fizurma river.
.lanunary i. iliS5-Frenchn udvannce acess
A snce northn of Soitinon,.
.Jaanuary I.i-Frenchn driven back across,
,Jnunuanry 2-i-Navnl bauttle 3n Northn ,en.
Germanm armonred crunler lliumecher
.inun~s r3~0-lituNinns occu*py Tialnnlg,
F'ebrnry il-nilure of Gernman uattn-ks
nue,,t of Wllrsinw.
Feburnunry M-llegimnning of battle in
lEntsi I'runsain, ending in llunnian de
lFebrunury iN-Geman formnl submnn
rine, "blockaade" on Great flritain be,
Febnrn 2-f-Rnninn,. driven from
linkoin i n.
linrehI it0-ritish mnake advnnee nt
tin-ih 2 i-Zeppielin, bomnbarnd P'ari,.
an-Ib .22-Surrender of Prnzemnni to
Uareb. :mi-liunninn,. penetrate D)ukin
pnlSt' nndi~ enter finngary.
Apil 5-French begins violent attnekis
on MtliI talient.
April i1-l-Hunninns at Swtropko, 20
mni les iside ifunganry.
Apreni 3 tiaituninus evacuate Tarnowu.
A prnil 22-Secondl bat tie of Yipres lbe
A pril 25- ille lente- ic nailipoli jvenin--.
,.ula. snivering fearful los,.en.
A pril 24-\lle, annlonnee reiaultuare of
I ,irenel lit Snx5 nul llnrtmnnw.eller-n
tiny, in-lerlin reports enptulre of 30..
0)I Hussian ioneinrs in wvent GalIi
in aind seizure of three i illngen, near
sin t-ltunnians. fall back fronm Dunkin
Mart) 7---lerlin report, enntur e m..Ta
ROW with many liussian prisoners.
May 8--Gersann sutannarine sinks the
Luanitania, more than 1,150 lost. litne
sistus In full retreat tron Carpa
1ay 9--erisinu capture LibaIits Heitles
May 12-lrene-h capture 'erensony,
storth 4f Arrita, sit great 'enom.
May 1.-4-Anaeriean first uaanistrine note
Itliltee pul, ie.
Many 24--Italy declaren war on Aut
'lny 20-Italinna Invade Aastri,.
M't.r 20-itillna take Groelno. litaminna
.the-k tGersaann at Slensa-wa.
May SI-.Firnt Gernin note on subain
rine ren.tmen, Walington. Zeppelin%
drop boinbs in London.
June 3---PrzenaysI falls to Austro-Gier
Juane i10--erntana eapture Stnnlslnu.
June 1l--Sdeintl U. S. mne maaiarine note
to G=rnimany nande pubile. Italinns
Jont 12-itillaus take GradlN(*:s.
June 1i--Austro-Geranans ocupay Tor
June 22---Frenla take NMetzeral.
Jsane 2:--Fret-la unnounse octesIptIon
of tiat' "linbsrintli," nortii of Arran.
Jui 2i--Austr-t.ermnann eaptre Lena
-Jutle 4-Aunristn cromo tile Dniester
.Ist ne 21--iui: 1 f al ls.
Jilly 2--- It ssaixfl)3f i-t-f t ti ertenta at
(i pt to lain at WIitainas.
July --litanno-ferantn naynl battle of
el. 4--itat iltama Iake 'I'Poimnt i .
Jitly 5-lirltr atnaouneeN gains in tile
-fily tI---Gerians take i'rzssnyrn, .50
itailes nortis of NVnirmnsw.
.iti- ii--tiern s n il s 'anee lit mny
polvats in itmaula, taIking WSiin, 'Ills
knliii, ionle asadi roloce.
Jaly 2Il--it mo1itian reort Ninkin g of rIP
Turkisla haliling vemel. (aeraom:,:a
guans rete' otiter fearin of Wa rarw
Sana alnagt- tIe 41 l.al l] -t'lolaa rall
July 21---'Iaird U. S. iu1tlbmnrine note
goes to iwrasmsamvy.
3.1I1y 22--'I'trkishl-t.ernman expedition
landed In Tripoll.
Jualy 24---tierniala toke two forts nenr
I am rant w.
Jul. 20--itaninuxll reaulse Alst rians in
BIG WAR THEATERS
In a score of regions there has
been fighting which would have held
worldwide attention wvere it not for
the mighty battle lines In France and
Servia's own war was a greater trial
to her than either of the two preced
ing Balkan struggles. Assisted by
Montenegrt, the little Slavic nation
t wice threw the hosts of Franz Josef
beyond her bolrders and inflicted
losses of about 330,000 men, but she
suffered severely hterself.
Tle Austrians invaded Serbia in
great force about A ugust I5 and pnt
trated to the rad.r river, where a
great five-day battle ended In the
rout of the Teutons.
The Austrians returnad soon in
stronger force t han ever. They
reached Valjevo, where on November
17 the SerbianIs met a defeat.
With tleir supply of artillery am
munition exlausted, the SerbiaIs now
had to retreat. The Aust rians, be
lieving them crushed, withdrew six
army corps for re-enforcements
against the victorious Russians in Ga
Shells and English tars with naval
guns reached the Serbians, and on
Deceniber 5 they turned on the Aus
trians and ut h ttill to pileces.
The entry of Turkey into the war
was marked by a brave, but foolhardy
att'Pllpt to Invtade Eigypt. Great Brit
ain's Indian and colonial troops threw
the invaders ack with heavy losses.
British and JaIpanese troops invest
ed the for'tified Glermuan port of Tsing
taun, China, antd after a siege of a fewv
weeks the defenders gave up the hope
A section of the Hoer population of
South Africa revolted. The revolt
wvas put downu by a Hoer, Premier
riotha. lie then invaded German
Southwest Afirica, and after a long
campaign In the waterless deserts
captured the greatly ou tnumibered
Germans (July 8).
After taking three-(Iuarters of a year
to arm herself to the teeth, Italy at
tacked Austria this spring. rTe effect
of the entry of Italy upon the arena
has not yet been marked.
$FIRST YEAR COST OF $
SWAR IN MEN AND MONEY
Only approximately accu rate 4.
'tables of the killedi, woundled
and missing in the fIr-si year of
+the wvar are possible, because
+~ France anti Russia and Austria-.
$~ Hungary (10 not give out their
* figures, whlile Germany has
c e1anged her policy recently to ".
+one of secrecy. Great Britain '.
Istill tells her losses from
month to motnth.
Tihe following estimnates are 8
believedi to giv'e a fairly cor+
rect idlea of the casualties:
,, Austria-Hungary ...1,900,000 i*
STurkey................ 230,000 '$
Russia (including pris
oners, 1.175,0)00) . .. .3.500,000 g
YGreat Bria; -....480,000
egu4........ 24;0 000t $
4. Japan..----............. 1,210 +
A Italy (n reptorts of
, lo ses .... .... ... 7r000 +
SPortugal (fightinug in 4.
+. l\ntenegro .......... 3:.'0 +
'90tal................ -s'.210 .:'.
+The first year of tilt w ar has$
+ l1fer;ts ab~out $16,:00,00.00 inii
$ dit-t e x peniitureii s :2 mii. +4
t.Ihi-y punirposes. 'TheP war is now $V
4cos ting a bout .$ I5.000.000 a day ,
+. $2,000,000 an hou r andii $ 30,000 4.
THE CHANGING BATTL
F $SE4 iGRMA
YSCHEN tOowic MW
MieICH Lom c>
O So 75 to z
'The (~erasa,,n seguln linte penietrat
wisielt trks Ihe "highI title" of lNt aIi
FIRST YEAR OF THE
WAR IN THE EAST
The flrst twelvemonth of fightite
bietween the Russians on one sile andl
the Austrians and Germans on
the other is a story of great changes
of fortune, both combatants being re
eatedly dIriven hack onily t show
the greatest reilieicy in defeat and
soon1 to resume ttih offense in a iost
surprisi ng man ner.
The end of the year, however, finds
the pend il um swhliaginig esirongl y'
agaInst the czar. 11e inny recover
anld take agalin the roads to Cracow,
Vienta ial terlin, but just at pres
oni ithe is n the whole in wors iligt
than in any ourii since the war
itu ssia' losses in tle firit year of
the war are not approached by t hose
of any13 nat ion in any3 war of history.
Accordilg to zelia e estimatys. sh e
aills hadl betwe'ei 2, .tJus mat -,0 ),
Ou00 mlen k illed. injured ail (apt ured.
D lesitei toilhse horrible gaI as dei gin
ther raniks, she still has miillionis in
the Iilobd, and he r great rese'rvoir oft
personnei((l ds hot shlw signs of ex
hliustiun. It s not m she lacks. but
guns, shells and brains.
Slow to Mobilize.
On Autgust. I, 191-1, Geormnany do
cIa red war on Itussia. Almost imme
d iatel the Geirmans crossed the iron
Deis at Thorn and the Austrians south
of i ublin. They were practically n-li
opposeid biecause rof tihe slowness of
lobiizationi in Russia. The a rand
)uke Nicholas Nicholaievitch was
forced to gatier his main armles well
to the rear of the line of great tort
iresses running i rogh Kovno, Goud
no. Ossowetz. Novo Georgevsk, War
saw andl I vangorodi.
ono account or his desire to (0 all
ho could to retlieve the IFrench, who
woreO being driven fromn northern
rance biiy the amazing German rush
through 1elgium, Nicholas at tacked
sooner than he otherwise would have
done. As a result, lie met twvo disas
He sent General Samnsonoff inito
East Prussia from the south and
Gon erat IteniienkIfamipf ito East IPrus
sia from thle east, the latter winn ing
lie fIrst large engagement of the( war
in the 10ast at lumb~linen.
At thiis miomnioit thle Germans, be
lieving that the IFrench were welt ini
handi and ablout to be suIrround(led oni
their f'aster-n frontier, quickly with
drew 250.000~u mien from lFrance and
h urled thtemi by r-al Iinto Edast Pi~s
Sia, where11 they fell upon01 Samsono011)ff
withI crush in g force in the gr'at G.e Ir
inan victo0ry or Tantnenberg (Aug. 28)
Meaniwile, the A ustruIans, leaving
only a fewv trIoopIs in Gallein to hold1(
back thle Ituisians ad vanfcin g from
Tarnopot ont the line of the GInila- I Ipa,
struck the Itutssians en masse at K ras
nik and routedl themi to Lubllin.
Most Bloody Drive of War.
WIth two armiies ini dlfliculty, the
granid duke deccided to abandon one
to its fate and save the othter. lie
th row re-en forcenmints in to laubl in
and ordered the lIne of the (Iuila
Lipa river be forced at any cost, in
0o10 of the most bdoody drives of the
wvar the litissianis adlvatiteod into east
er'n Gal ica ando CCI cupled Lembel)rg.
The Iusstants th1e1 advanced to
Rtawa Ruuska and took the Austriani
armies inl Poland11 ill thie rear, cuttin g
them up frighitfully3.
MeanwhIle V'on H indenburg had
comlhetedt hiis victory over Samisonioff
b~y turning on kiinnenkampf and clear
ing E~ast Pru'lssia of Miuscovites. hBut
though iteunnenikampf had been de
feated amld Samnsonioff atlmost ainni
hilated. thte Germans.
The ituissianls were no0w as far wvest
as5 'itTrnow in Galicia, wh'lile their
Cossack s were able to make raids into
ii ugary fart her south. Ilinden burg
(olnentrated~ a gr'eat force suddel~ty
In Silesla anid began a drive from the
west against Warsaw and Ivan
gorodl. Thle Sibherian corps arrlived
thle nick of time to save Warsaw
fromu the enemy.
High Tide of Russan invasion.
ii indenb lurg then dIrew off' the north-1
erjn section or his army in Poland to
the north, thinkitng to take th. .......
E LINE IN ThE EAST
DNiPO . _
N M 6HTipt ***'tJ1CAt 0Uu
-h) B000 UnE O 1
cm= - Dec 1
am - Jan I
4-04 - - Mar I
Ogm I~ yry
4,e LKE BE Oe.
d tmN eilme to 1Warausy an the str
Ing Russians in lank with the south
ern section. But the Austrians were
to) slow to carry out the field mar
shal's plans and the ltussians, slip
ing into a gap in the lInes between
the Germans and their allies, slaugh
tered the latter. The result was the
high tide of Russian invasion. The
Austrians withdrew over the Carpa
thians again, leaving Przemysl to be
besieged a second time. The Ger
mans withdrow to Silesia and( the Rus
sians, followiug closely, were able
for a brief moment to raid this rich
province at Pleschon. At the same
time they entered E'ast Prussia
But again the Gornan strategie
railways proved their umloing. Ilin
((01nburg concentrated at Tliorn and
drove into the right flank of the Rue
Sin m11tin forces, throwing tihem back
li' advanced too far, however, and
wh Il he had the lIussian forces near
ly sllrrolunided. he sud deliy foulid Rus
sians ina his own rear., in t his ex
trmity, the it ussians say, he tele
graphevd for re-enforceients..
Iut befol'e the e-enorcements
sent. fromI Flanders arrived the ( Gr
Inans had mlanagel at fright ful cost
to hack t heir' way to satety. This was
the bloody hattle of Lodz.
Wins Second Victory.
With stronger Gernan forces oppos
ing them tile Iussians withdrew to
the line of Bzura, lawa and Nida
rivers. At ithe same timle tile Aus
tr1Ians1, atteipting to debouch fronm
the Carithian passes, were driven
back everyvwhere, leaving 50,000 pris
With January II liden burg made a
tird( de(splerate attack on Warsaw.
For tell days, b)oth1 night and~ (lay, the
Ger'mnans came on. 'Thell, having lost
prob~ably 50,000) mlen ando tile Russians
nlearly as mnany, the~y gave It uip.
Unable to reach WVarsaw, Hlindenburg
concentrated twice Siever's force in
Eiast Prussia, anid wonI his second
over'whelmling victory there. Enor
mous captur'es of Russ9ians weore made
andi the for'tress of Gradno was at
tacked farther wvest, from Ossoweta
to Pultus5k. The Germans retreated
to Mlawa andi thlen tried to flank the
Russians at Przasnysz/, which city
thtey took. Pult tile Russians again
tiankledi the( flanking plarty', as they had
(d011 at Lodz amtl won ant important
success (FPebru'ary 22-28).
Int March'l and~ April, the Russians
pressed thr loughi thte wester'n Carpa
iIan passes0 ad~lo enltered Hutngary.
.1 ust whenIIl teir futur InoseemedC~ bright
(esi, thle Gbermnan11 b~'rk thle Russian
line ill We(st Galicia and let through
Pressing wvest ward irresiatibly, they
took tile Ruissiani Carpathian armies int
the recar. The latter tried to retreat,
but vast numb~ers were capttured.
Prziemnysi, which had succumbed to
the Russian besiegers March 22, telt
aigaint itto the htandcs of the Austro.
Great German Maneuver,
From Przemysl Von Mackensen
drove east through Mosciska and
Grodek anid cap~tur'ed Leomberg, the
Galician capital. Then hie tulrned
nor'th and marched upon the Warsaw
Ivangorod --IBrest - Litovsk trianigle
from the south.
At the sanme time the Russians in
sOuthternl Galicia, puttting up a despor
ate resistantce, wore driven by Von
LinISingen first to the line of the
lDniester and 11hen across the Ginila
Lipa to the~ litne of the ZlAota-Lipa.
Rteaching the vicinity of Krasnik
in their dIrive to Warsaw from the0
south, the Austrians sustained a soe
ver'e chock In the scene of thirl tri
umph of the pr'eviouis summiler. Hiehd
01n this line the Germans attacked hot
ly from the northl and took thte towa
of Pr'zasnysz (Juldy 14).
'rhe Ger'manlS nowv began thle grand
0st mnleuver ever' seen ill tile history
of humuan war'fare.
IFromt thle Windau river in the B3a1
tic pr'ovinces0 all the wamy along the
b)order0 of l~ast Pi'ussia and1( ill a gigan
tic swlee) thrlought tile vicinity of Ra
dlomt, west of' thle V'istuola, and a line
sonth1 of' the Lulin-Chol m railwiay'
they3 delivered smtashintg blowq an.1
have reached tihe very gater of Waan