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4 iREVIEW OF EUROPEA
Great Conflict Rages With Incre
teenth Nation to Enter Strug
ers-Teutonio Allies Mak(
United States Fac
THE EURO1PEAN WAR
Those who are engaged' in or are
viewing at close range-the titanic con
ilet in - which all Europe Is involved
can with difficulty appreciate the
iatude of the events which have
tirnnspired during the pnst 12 months.
-Generatiolts to comie, however, looking
nback upon this period with 6 clearer
Vision. will recognize the year 1916
.-at; one of the tiost tremendous. front
a history-ainhag standpoint. slice the
Bu rope continued Its blood-letting
throughout the year with even greater
ferocity than nuirked the first 18
miithis following the breaking of the
storm. The great. war rounded out
Its Stecond and enterVd upon its third
year. with little .pronae of an early
'Conclusion of peace. During the year
Dew nations entered Into the war, one
of thema. ftouniniu, to become the
acene of some of tie most ferocious
fightink of the .enr,. onp new nation
wus ereated. another tottered to Its
fall. while on a dozen fronts millions
-of men were fed as human sacridees
to ie Insntinte -war monster.
There .were seven. outstanding
-pluses of thf'great war during the
year 1910. These epmtprised the great
-offensive of the iMusslans in Galcia,
whieh war finally checked by the Teu
tonic allies; the' superhuman efforts of
the Germans to enpture Verdun,
which Were thwarted by the equally
superhuman defense offered by the
French ; the long-awaited grand ofen
;sive of the British an*d tite French on
the western front. resulting in thg re
.covery of consIderable aren in the
Soame region. but not deflnitely break
ing flue deadlock in northern France;
the cieckinig of an Austrian offensive
by lie itnains and the launching of
aU counter-offensive by which the Ital
onns Inide big strides in their etn
paagnu nigninst Trieste; the conquest of
It0111111u11in by the Teutonile allies; the
drive of the Serbos. aided by French,
Itlitan and British troops. In ui effort
to regain their lost kingdom. and the
final Iabandonunent by the entente al
lies of their disastrous Onlilpoll cam
Tite Russians launched their of
fensive in Galicin oi the first day of
the year. On January 0, the effort of
the entente allies to force the Darda
nelles wqs 4efinately abandoned. and
the forces of the allies entirely evacu
:ated tlie Gaill bli peninsula.
Verdun Attack Launched.
Eurly in Pehruary, the Russians. aft
er a. lull In the fighting, resumed their
-offensive in Gallein and on FAhutiary 10
they crossed the Dniester and thrent
ened Czernowitz. The Russians. un
der- (rand Duke Nicholas, also con
tintuied their atiie in the Cauenisus and
Ont l"'hrtiary 14 they c'aptur-ed the
imtportant town of Erzerumu. Febru
nry 21*.1 Ihe Geuaras. ted by the ct-own
prince. ianchneled thbet- a ttack ont Ver-.
dIun. 11nd( durinig the next fewc datys
t hey smashed Itheiru way t hroughi thie
OUter tiefenses tiot IIlahy came wvithint
big-gun anacge of thle French stronag
hold. The lFreunch. taken by surprise,
* were for-ced to give ground. butt by
the hist of thle tmonth Ithe iy hadie
strethtt~ (eed their slatter'ed lintes andii
.. ' 1 had iei'kedh the G;ermiati drIv e In lie
Verdttn $tetor.~ for thie ne~(xt few
ainongul nar'y tightinug of the entire wvat-.
* ' i'he Ataeuras haud contsiderablle sute
.cess on the ItalIan front dur-ing thie
toon th, entering Durazzo on Febr-uary
- 20 and driving the Ittalians. before
thetm. Portugal sign'alized its entr-y
into i-he. great conflIct February 29 by
selvIng 34 Germian steamers Inuterned
In Portuguese por-ts. Gertmany demand
4 - ..... t'.'lhe release of (the shIps and on
Marh ela-edi war on Portugal, the
thilrteenthi tntion to enter the cont
-cifyby tecontinued deteri-nned ait
tacks of the Get-aans upon Vecrdumn.
N ?he assault entered its tird siage int
* this mnonthi with r-epentedl attacks on
Vaux. Doutmont tind other- outlying
towns, nliost of which wvere repulsed
with terrific losses. Dui'ng (lie month
the Italians finally chieckeud (lie Auxs
trian drive aintd Inunched a big offen
.#lve ailohg the entire Austrhin frot.
.*hie Russians continued their victori
otis drive against the Tturks inm At
monit. Otnpturitng Bitlls oni Matrch :i.
v and other Important towns latter Int the
The early dayi~s of AprIl sitw a slow
I, nlg uip of thme Russian offensive int (Ga
liiin. The Glermah launchted a couna
ter off'ensive till itlong the Rtussian
front but gained little hendlwa. Thle
f ofhowling mioths saaw terifie fIghting
satidg tis fronit. AprIl 23. (lie Bitlish
7 admitted a defent at the htands of (lhe
T1urks in Mesopotantin and on April
&, Generatl Towttshend and 10,000 Birt
Isha soldIers, whIo had been hbesIegedl by
the Tur-ks .at Kut-el-Amaaira. were
f po~d to'surreonder after repetedot ef
*.f* Otts. to r'elieve tem had failed.
* - Great Sea Battle Fought.
The first great naval hattle or the~
1aj w~s fought by. the Ulerman find
* Mritish high seas fleets off the coast of
Jutland; Dennnd/% May 41.. The Brit
lob adnit th ios#411recusr
and el t deetroge'a, ite Germans one
batlesipone gatie 'C~thser ad a
N WAR AND OTHER
S OF THE YEAR 1916
ased intensity-Roumania, Fif
gle, Overrun by Central Pow
First Peace Proposals
es Several Crises.
number of light cruisers and destroyers.
More tiytn 9,000 lives were lost. Both
sides claim the victory. F ive days inter
Great Britain received a staggering
blow when the British cruiser liaimp
shire was blown up in the North sel
by i stiie unt E.arl Kitchener, British
secretary of war, and his entire siif,
were lost. During tle early part of
June the Itussians broadened their of
fensive in (;alleia and along the'llnes
further north and on .June 7 they al
niouniCed the recapture of the fortress
of lautsk in Voliiynla and the crossing
of the Ikwa and Styr rivers at several
On July 1. the BrItish and Frenchz
launched their great drive on the west
front. A converted attack was made
on a 25-iile front north and south of
the Somme rive-. ,July it, after ten
days and nights of continuous tight
ing, the British claimed tle capture
of the whole of the enemny's Ort lines
of defense. on a front of . 14.000 yards.
During the remainder of the month the
British and French continued their ad
vance, the British occupying the entire
village of Pozieres July 26 and the
Frencl advancing close to l'eronne, an
important railroad center.
During the month or. August the
Russians, after terrific fighting, pierced
*the Teuton lines ol the Lenberg and
Kovel fronts an(d advanced In the Car
pathlans. The Italians continued their
drive on Trieste. August 9. after days
of tetrrfic fighting. they captured Go
ritz and pushed forward, pursuing the
Roumania Enters War.
11otiaiinin, aafter uionths of wavering,
entered the war (it the side of lie en
tente allies with a declartilon of wir,
on Austria-lungary. Rounniinii was
the fifteenthii nation to Viiner the war.
On the slinie day Italy dechirvil war oi
Germiiany anid the folhowing day ('er
maniiiiy declared wiair onl Itountiina. \Vih
tle decit ration of war tighting liegain
hetween the Itouianians and Ais
trians on the. Transylvankila froifler.
August :0. the ltoumanians occlpied
Kronstadt an(id lrinannstadlt, lie two
chief cities of Tratisylvania. Field
Marshal von Hlindenburg. whose su.
cesses had iaade him the idol of the
Germanii people, suc-ceeded General von
Falkenhayn as chief of the general
staff of tle Germani arnuy A-titst 2).
UDuritig the month of Septetuber, tile
ltoumnnians.~ Co-opera ting wiith ile
fussia ns, advanced in northern Tran
sylvanin ail Bukowina, but suffered
severe reverses at the hands of the'
Bulgarians and Austrians In Dobrudj:i.
The allied troQps made deilded gains
in tle Somme sector. occupying
Coibles and other important town's
on September 26.
Enriy in Oortober the tide turned
zianiist thie -u.ittunninns and Ruissiins
In TrntisylIvin andaz thle lat!ter wer-e
forced to retire tbefor-e a st rong Austro
Germn force undzer (ommmlf i of (ten
ern ~i n i Ilkenhluyn. Oni Octobiler hi.
the T1eutons biegan an t invasion uof lioii,
ininz. (iin thle Verhuni frolzt. thez
F-rench- smaii -hied thle G ermisan Ii z-s Oc
Thelz st ruggul h et weeni th li n inlan1113
iand [Rutssilin foIs iiCon43 tihe oneii side. and
the Olther heldl tie (enter of nitoluslin
ini Noveinber('. Ta1kIig iidvant1a11ge of
the plight in whtlh the lztuians~zi.
Onl thle Tiransi~yl vianhi 'ron t foii
them'liselves V.1n Mnekensen hel his
lines hn Dobruodjna und. azttnekinag the
Daniube line, foirced theii river bairrier'
att several [points. Elfecting ai junciturie
of thie''ir ores, the Teuttni commandiii~
ers drove thle Roumaians back upon01
Buchiarest. The Roumiains ret rent
ed raipidiy toward the epiltal, burinlg
villages and1( all stoires oIf grain) am11
munititioiis iii the distict thiroulgh whieh
they passed. Nov-ember4' 28. the sent
of the Rouaiian gov-ermneni-lt was1
mnovedl fromi Butchatrest to) Jaissy, ner
the Rtussian frontier-. Thez it4)uanluns
evactintedl Buchiarest Decembher ti in 03r
,diei to save thir; nrmiiy.
The Serbliins. alded bzy F-renchi anud
Itailiant trdops, inndefi a shirt oward I
wiinning balck thieir coutrly dulrinig No
vembier. Ti'iir big driveu- resulteid in
the (eilpture of Monaistir on November
19. Oni lie Soimme fronit thle baittie of
the Anerle opened Novembier 1 3 wit h
thze cenpture b~y thle British of live miles
of thie (Germzan posit11ions, togethler- withz
-(hhree strong townis.
An annaouncement of far-reacinzg
sigiihenniee was made izi the [Russlan
dumaiit Decezmber 2 buy Premier14'z TreplotY.
who read a proclamion anni llotminrg
oillinlly that an ngr-eiment c-onc(lud~ed
by Rutssita, tiFanCe andi (lireat Britntin
Iin 1915. an d iater a pproved by 115aly,
"estalishies In definite manne11r thle
rIghits oIf Rulssia to thle striaits and(
The fall of' thle Br-itishl enbhIliet early
Iin Decembiier furnlilshed ozne of the. most
senisational featuares of the year 's warz
dleveizl liinents. D~emand is oIf Daivid.
[aloyd-t icorge for tile formatIon of a
smnalier-lil war counell to obtailt grnter
ofichency forced Iiie resigiil on of Pre
pr'etnier andl selected a new enthinet.
tile piroseetionl of the wvar beIng
placed in thie hands~l of five mcei, in
eluding the preiler.
Thai tirst direct ov-er'tures for peace
came-on December 13. when Germany,
Austria-Uungary, Bulgaria and TJurkej
sent identical notes to the entente al.
lies through tihe United States, Smin i
aid Switzerland, proposing that time
belligerents arrange a conference for
tihe discussion of peace terms. The i
not(,.s; were traismitted to the illeI
governments by President Wilson with
out coiment. The petce piroposa'is I
were rliecelved coldly. Premier Briand. ,
in (Ite French house of deputie-s, is- i
sued a warning against a premiture I
peace, aind the Russian dumn, nIecord- I
1ng to annotuncement made December I
10. pissed a resolution favoring a re
fusal on the part of the allied govern
ments to enter into any pence igo
tiatlohs whatever under present con
As If in answer tq the pence pro
posials, the -French in the Ve-dunm see
tor delivered a erushing itttek on time
Geriman forces December 15. winmning
12 square miles of territory iorth of
Verdun und driving the Gverintinn hack
close to the line from whilch they start
ed tliir great offentive against Ver
diun In February. General Nivell(-,
who dlrected this ittinek. had beemi a
few days before lilaiced in stipreme
comimand or lie tFrench armies in the
west. sivcceding (lenierni Joffr.eT , wiho
was mide eiliilander in chief (of tihe
Frenchmell 11m iles. but with little ilore
han idvisory powers.
WAR AND THE UNITED STATES
Diplomatlc difficultles growing out
of the or in Iiurope continuedi to
confroMt time United States govern
inent tirmghout tile past year. The
submarine controversy with Oernnny.
Whihel hadl been Inore or less acute
since the sinking of the Lusitanin. was
intensifled March 2. when the British
Chatinel stenmer Sussex and the Brit
ish stemner EIngllishmin, both of which
carried Amerleians. were torpedoed
and suink without warning. This oe
eurred about two weeks after congress.
lit time Irglaig of ti( president, haild re
fused to adopt i resolution warning
Aimermenns to remain ofY tined tier
elint ships of the belligereits. The
gernianm government tit first detnied any
responsibility for the attack on. the
Sussex, antd on April 18 President Wil
son addressed a note which amounted
praltlenlly to fn iltimntim to the Ger
imin goverinmint. In this note the pres
idt]( decla111ed thalt Unles Geman
ininediaitely rilhtlred inmd effected filn.
n lilt mndon Imen I of its met hods of sub
mia rineit' wair'are algaIlinst Jllasenge'er mili
frelih-en rryig vessels, the United
Siniles -ouiild "hive nto choiet' but to
svter tiploniic re'litions wihll) the
t irmia~ nm etmipi re alitoget her."' (ter
liiut.myI reply to this note. received in
WIshilg'I tin 11ay 5, proiiised contpl
alloe inl tlit f'ultirie with lie lmws of
wi rae.t' in its suhimrinle operiatioiis.
A sppileme ntitary note frmi Berlin. re
eelved Miiy 10. ittlimllied that tle Sus
sex was tortiedoed. expressed regret,
oifftyed indeniIty aind decliared thmat
the submarine coinniander had been
ptinislci. No further serious contro
versy occurred with Germany until
after time sinking of time Marina, with
Amerieanes aboard, October 28. It was
charged thmai the vessel was torpedoed
without warning. After an Investignt
tion GC.ermanmny aissumed responsibility
foir tile sinking of the bont, declaring
thm the captain of the suhrini nie
thought the Mamim an amied t rant
An iterehlmingte (of ati's beitween tihe
1:nitednt Stante's atndl the tnt emnte gover~n
Iiuenits. re'gmri iiheii sizuri ie mlnil e'xatm
imaimonil or Aitminn imaills, wmas produe'
ive of littlie retsult. In severnl comm
nmiimientioans Grtmi ilritmin ammi iFranmc''
inmsi,e'id utmon t hetir rightms i)to exminie
netal 1miilitill. but miti Oictober 12 they'~
linde somiie slighlt ('ine(essioms, ipromiis
Iing to linpireth' mai'ill ist'ivice hi'
A lnitktijst against A~mmerlemnn lirm'mms
antmii iiIvitdunmiis. tchairgt'd wi IithdealIig
wit hi ti'mrmn, whichei wais libthlihed
byv Greamt ltritini Julyi~ 18. nomli byu
li'miinem AXuguist Ii. birouighi e 'mmhale
irmitin formnalIly rejeetted time Amilerilenn
pr'otests,. deCh1in mg t hat thIle hinmck list
wais nimt milimed mat nmuit rails.
MEXICO AND UNITED STATES
Th'ie reintIionis of thme Umitedc Stantes
withI Mlxme helmet: 1 miore siitrinedl
dlurig 1910 t hani at mmnmy prev('ious timae
diurminmg Ithei yearls of civil war thaimt fol
itowt'd thle ret iremntt of i P'esiet Per.
fIrt) Diammz. Theaiy applromachmed a crias
earuily in thei yemarI wvhen, on .Janmuary 10,
inemtteenm mii'n. iiearly alil of thlenm
A meiennsc u.were tamken fmromi a trmin
nemimarliI Chlhuhu miindtt k illetd by a handt
Conitionieis beenmeit still muore tease
whmeni. utn .\M e i'tP. 5eve'raiIlilhundredt
handiits lt'ri by \'illin irided amid baurned
lie towni of Columbiuis, N. M1.. kdill ig
iii ne Aimierillnn civiliammns alnd i'ighit Uni
I e'd Statieis solhlis. Mu ire 10, Pre'si
iemnt Wilson order'ii'd 5.000) [United
Sttes Itrioiis inti AleM(X ict to entch
GeneirmlI ('arrmaz. hmeatd of thle de
soomn to dlislay antnmgonism towar'd the
A merhenmn expedit ion andmt on Marichi 17
hie I ssuedt omrdem's fomrbitdding Amercenn
trotops from enteinig Mexummm townms.
lHe al so refiusedl to granmt per'milssionm
for thle Anmemrlenm forces to use thle
Mexh-mm ii mrImoatds for thle traunspomrta
tion) of suubIdie's.
A pril 12. ii dtnehtm enliit of United
State(s troopijs was aiittneked by Cmirrnn m
'/n1 troops) amii clt izemns of i ni ra'ii. Tw'uo
Anim'rlenis an md 40 Mexicains were' kill
ed im time enunilter. The following day
Cmrrnza~ demntnded thle withidrawal of
the Amerlean timop5 fr'om Mexico, bit
his demand wuas igniored. Thie pur'sult
of Villa ecme to a stantdstill, however,
beenuse of the hostility of Carranz~a.
Maty 31. Ge~ner'al Carmranza aigaimn die
manded the withidrawal of the JUtted
'recourse to arims," and followed this
1p on June 16 with a defilite thrieat of A
ittack un',ess the troops were witi- ii
11r1mwn nlorthlwarti. The following ,...y C,
'e-enforcments were rushed to the I
Jniutel States troops in Mexico and
ithiin it Short titne the expeditionary
'orce aiggregatedi about 12.000 mel.
lune 18. (lhe war eepartinent ordered
iII the state tulitin mobilized and with
i the next two weeks 50,000 of the t
Itate soldiers had been rushed to the
A detachment of American troop-s
vns atthi(ked by Carraina troops at
Tarrizi, June 21, and twelve Ameri
'ais were killed and 17 captured.
A short time later Carranza util
loned his hostile. a'ttitude and in a t
!onelliatory note to President Wilson 4
4tiggested the appollttillett of a Joint
oMinaniss-oiol to seti(! the dispute be
tween the two countries. 'July 28.
President W%'ilson - cepted this pro
President Wilson named Secretary
,f the Interior Lane, Judge George
(Iray and Dr. J. It. Mott as metithers of
the Atnerienn' coninission on August
22 and on Septeimber 0. the joint coi
mtision began its sessions at Now Lon
[io, Conn. The Sessions continued un
ril November 24. when a protoeol was
4igned providing for the withd rnwai
nf'tlte United States troops front Mex
leo in 40 days. conditional upon the
Ctirranzi goveritnent shiowing within
that thne~ithat it c-ould protect thle bor
dier and prevent raids by bandits upon
Two (lays before the signing of this
protocol, Villa, at the head of a strong
force, attacked Chliunhun City nnd af
ter a battle lasting several days he
nlpitured that city.
Carranza forces regalited control of
Chihuahua City Deceiber81nnd Vilia's
forces tied to tite tnountains West of
that city. where they were later re
ported to be gthIeoring new recruits
in preparitioi for inore extensive
INDUSTRIAL AND ECONOMIC
The outsinteilin feature of 1th yeart
in tite inditvrial world was tihe thrent
mned strike of the 4W0.000 mrnbeirs of
the four great rnil way brotierhoods.
wilelt was prevented oily by the pas
sage by cotigi-ess of the Adaison hill.
The detatids of tie four brotfher
ftoods. rept'eselttlig ite elgitteers, tire
Inenl. tolntietors td trmidtlteit, were
male upot tlie railroad(s e rly In the
year and after frniuitless coiferene,
betweent he represientat I I ves of Ite
brothterhtods ad tie cominitte of
general itantgers representing prine
tienlly every railroad In tie United
States. a strike vote was taken among
tht inetters of the brotherhioods. On
.ltly 20 it wts tnnitouncieed thtat the
vote lhd been overwihelmingly In favor
of a strike utinless the detlanids' of the
inen were granited by tile railronds.
The fdernl board of mediation tia
neditely offered its services in an ef
rort to pie'vent a strike but on August
12 the board annouiced that it itad
beei tinable to bring about an agree
ient atid on the following day Presi
dent. Wilson suminoned the .general
inangers' eonunittee and the brother
ioods' represetlitives to tie White
ilouse for a conference. This confer
enBCe produced no result, the railron
mtanaigers offering to sutnit the wholto
controversy~'to ariii!tra tion but thb
brothterhtood trepresentn t ives ref usinig
to agree to ariItraititn of thir eight
htour daty de'ttfunds. A ttgtust 29. Presl
dl.'nt WVison. with it prtise frot the
brio therhotodt hentilers that they could4
res('itad htteir strike ordeir, ieendyv is
5tued4. If at law were liassed providing
fori thle pinacinig of teir wage sentles
4)n anl e'ight I-hour bausls. wvent before
''ongre&ss ane Iatsked the4 paissaige of
ihre'e h1is whtich he dloe(tned neces
5itaty to iteet lihe situaittilon. Onte of
Stese hill s irovibld that I"'ight hours
shialli be deetitedl1 uthnientsure or' (it nndti
ard o'l(f aI daty's work foir the4 purp~ose oif
rec(koit ig the4 cot~t'innsnt ion for1 serIv
iees of till entloIyee4s" oiperamting tailns
in ittersitate tratil.
Ot her ill pr ~toposed by3 thet preiden~lt
iprovidled 1for i( heloinpulsor'y suitmis
slin oif il Inhlaor d1ispuites to a hoard
oft imediation to 1be oin~lted1 by the
piresidetnt befor'e ni strike coutildt be de
chared and for goverinenlt~ut operait ion of
thle railwntys int ('ase of1 itilitary neces
1'Te lill e'inhtoiang thIe priovisiont for
thle eightt-hotur bats-is for wages. knIownl
ats thte Athlntson ill, was rushed
ltrought thle house ~Sepitember 1tI andi
wals pased by 11he se'nate Sepit embe)r 2.
'PTh' orderlor ii iti ke1 whieh wats to
have. gonte inili ('Ireet Septetmber 4 was
Sthen reselndeIttltt. Thie sess5ion of con.
gress ended4'E shtortly3 afterwards an id
4'onidera(tion 11f1 the other0 lci 'mentsureiis
prtoposed'l by I the ridenit was1t post
tponetd 11ull the ntext Hessiot.
St rikes were'4 it progress in at itum
her1 of Iitdulst ries d1ug thte earli'y parit
of I the year I in tti some11 w~ere mar tked( buy
scW'es Of vi4ilenc. Apr11 24, striklltg
emloye'es of the~ WVestinghtouse coim
Panyt3, led4 by at itmsked wotman. t'iotedi
in 10nst IPlI iittbugh. lVatat strike iots
occutrred at thle Unr lnegi e Steel works
in Bradldo-k, Pit, May 2. A big strike
wats s1ttd by' the Chiengo gamient
work-ers Mimy 9. Iixpress driver's ini
(Chlengo sti'uck May 10 aind c'Onsider'i
aibe vlolene miarked the strike, ex
press5 wiagonls beiitg Operal'ted uinder po
li('e pro4tec(tioni. Jumly 13. state tr'oop~s
iots of ('(emenit wior'ks stiker.
A siik o~4'f at reot r'al iway mieii
stop~ped all surface car~s ini Ithe hir
oughs of Mainhattan. Bronx aind Illth
mtond.h New York, Autgust tb. but the
strike ended two (lays later' tempiiO
i'arily'. Heptembier 0, a strike of till
men oni thte subway, elevated andt~ sur
face lines In New York was ('tilled.
SerIous riots tmar'ked the st reet ('ati'
strike in New York, particuilarly on
nomination and me .pajorityo
members of the Progresive I
conmittee. nieitng its Chleal0,
dorsed the candidacy of Mr. -Hugligh
''he election on November
one of the most unusual ever.'
the United States, the'result'oJtVI
definitely known until threp * !#,V
ter the election, when the finil cu#)'
California gave the 18 electoral v.,
of that state to President Wilson 'an
gave him victory. President Wilpq
won 27Q votes in the electoral coil
and Mr. Jjughes 255. The vote chevt
the election was larger by deveral i
lion than any ever canst before In th
United States, President Wilson W+
ceiving a plurality of about 400,000 0"!
the poptlar vote. The great increasep
in the size of. the vote was due partid
to tie fact that women voted for pres?.A
denst in this election in 12 states
Four more states voted to adopt
state-wide prohibition in this election' 1
They were Michigan. Montana. Ne
)rtska and South Dakota. The Demo
erats retaiaed control. of the United;
States4 senale. but as a result of the
Close election. Ieither of the two ma
Jio' partlies hals a majority li the low
e'r hou0se of the next congress. The
hailnniee of power is held by five megn
hers not elected as members of either
lilt'Y-1 Soclulilst. I Progressive, 1
Il'ohiblitionist. I Pl'rotectionist and 1
iil in'n ent. ,,
DISASTERS ON LAND AND SEA
Thousands of lives wef'e lost dovag
tile year. by the sinking of imerphnt
vessels and wrll'ships as a reo$ t
their being torpeloed i)y suhbtfn
or blown up by inines. Trhe gre1%dfr.
loss of life in aceldents or Ajt'aj
of this kind iccrred 1ebrutfy Ox,
when the French eruiser ProvrcuieV
was sunk in tihe! Mediterranieen e'a,
al 3,130 persons were drowldd.
April 23. more than 1.0o lives -Were
loSt In i 4ollision1 between a Chinese
crulser' 9nd i transport.
Fe)ruatry 2. tile .la'panese liner
1leijin was 51111k i a collislon an(i 100
lives were lost.
1'ebruary 9. the' French cruiser
Atinlral Chiet"ir was tolVedoed and
Sunik with i lo s of 374 lives. February
1l. ninO pe4ons were killed when the
Opera housei at Mexia. Tex.. was de
styed by .ire. Fe'tbruary 20. great
sniowsildes in thle Satlzburg;ttlps killed
nearly 100 p~ersons~. lebritary 22, ten
tPe0sonls were killed In a triple col
lislion onl tile New York. New Haven
& 1lurt ford raillroakd !-ueur lBridgeport,
Coli. l'iruary 29, tin explosion in
1111Pin t Ketuon, W. Va., killed 15
111rch 5, t0he Spanish stealner Prin.
Yille ie AsIurlias struck .a rock and
Sunk off the coa1st of B'iazil, with a
loss (of 300 lives.
Marllch 28, 2 0erSonls were killed 4
ran( nInalv1 were hured In 011 in a 1 collision
on the New York Central railroad
near Clevelan(, .
April 19, Kansas and Missouri wereO
.wept by tornaitdoes which killed 17
PersonI. June 5. tornadoes killed 07
persons in Arkansat and 49 in othir
Middle westerl staltes. May 8, the
steamer. Kirby sank In Lak0 Superior
ind 20 lives were lost. May 15, an
exPlosilon i the Du Pont powder plan(
it Gibbstown, N. .1., killed 13 Inen.
.1undreds of tislherimen i were lost in
n' IiuonlOOn oft't the Ceylon coasf,
.Juiy 20. JTuiy 24, 23 te wvere kiihed
by nu e'xplosion of gas In a wiater tun
ntl at (leveland. 0. A trolley wreck
lat .1(o1lIstown~ 1. I 'n., took aI toil of 25
lives, August 12. August 29. the Untit.
4.d Stiate4s (crulisel Meinjihis was
wre'tCked( by3 1 sto)riii it' thle huarbolr at
Silt 1.10iigo and14 41 live wer ~'e lost1.
TIwenty'-seen inieni were kilh'd Sep
It'inheitr 12, wheni thle ceniitral siynni of n
gret' b lrid1ge. bing httilit over ite St.
I u.nence iver' alt Quebec,'' co)l
grea'ut diiin near 'Iiiti" llanwaldliheiuin,
.\ tire in thle Chr'istian11 lirotheiirs col
lege~t iat SI. Laouis, 3ti... killed4 nine14 11nen,
hI loher 5. 1nd111 personsi~4ii lost their
livyes In a lire which dest royedl t lhos
pd il at le anhani. Que.. Oetober 2Ul
Noveiube'r 8. thle steanwilrs Connena rn
:11nd iet riev'er wecre suntk by a collis'ioni
in the irish sea an~d 92 were lost. On
Nove'mber 7. 50 lives were lost when'a
aI l4)stton ''." carI p1 lnge~i off a bridge.
No vembekr 21. resulIted in the ilezath~ of
Congress4'5 wals in session ('tiinonillS.
ly fr'om .ii ntiry 4, wvhen it reniiss.'ao
baledl nte r theit Christ inas holdiidays, t1:n
SiIl Sept embiler 8. tiln iy in i hle se'ssion
a hotd fight dlevelopedove 4)t''Ihe l'il- l
iiniet lill passedC~ by3 the house. 'LlTh
priin ig for1 thle granltinug of full inl
de'penilenc'e to the' l'huilijpp ins w'itihln
hiouste r'ejectedi thle Clarike' amendment~illi
11n1d oni A lgist'lG0 the senateIi ncepted oa
n corn1pr'oluise plledlging Independen14('Fce
to the14 l'ii ippinle's when Ithe iilpinosC
art l''it for self-gov'er'nmentI.
ilbruaiiry 2. 11he bot11s4 pass5edi ai bllI
iprohibliin g childi labor ill the manu.11!
tuer'e,1114 and Iat' inl 1the s'sslin thle bIlli
wa p~ se by lhe se'imii 1und11 signled
b hev114 pre'4sidtiE. lPehlrtary 18. the
5(1nnte4 ra1ilied the liiatlatn treaty, pro
vhIdInag for1 Amrienn '1 isuperivI)4ion of
lihe finiance's 11nd4 jolilee regulation of
I I..gislaon1 l'I pvidin g for~ litrige in
Creaises in the1 st reniglh of the army
'1ndt navy'1'.1 recivedl' ittnuchbl, 1 aniony.
passed4O. lrided for14 the114 buliding of
157 shipsa dletring the neOxt three years.
prloprlitionls of $:313,070.447 foi' the en-.
stung iseni ye'llalr n n inese of $131,
16417.0191 oIver thle amilounlt ('alred byl
the hill 0 ~ s ,ilarst passedi th,e house.
tCupyright. 19,t.by t he Mc ture Newspa,
Novenber 5, a large party of I. W.
V. members from Seattle, engaged in
battle with a sheriff's nosse at Ever
tt, Wash. Seven inen were killed dur
ng the lighting.
November 22, Judge 1100) of the
Jited Stites district court at Kansas
Mity. Mo., held the Adanison eight-hour
ItIw Unconstitituional find tll an greeltit
ilS reaiched between the rejpresenta
Ives of the government and of the rail
'onds for an tippeat to the United
itates Supremie court lit an effort to
1btain1 a final decision on the Validity
if the 1aw its soon its possible. ,
The year was one of great prosperity
n all manufacturing and agricultural
ndustries. Foreign trade of the Uni
ed States, as shown by reports of the
lepartnient of comuerce, reached a
otal of $7.-03,000.000 in the year end
ng Noveinher 1, an' increase of $1,500.
)00,000 over 1915, and $2,500.000,000
The total wheat yled of the United
states in 1916 was only 547.00K.00 )
>Ushiels. its coiupared with 1,011,00),0o0
ushrels in 1915 and at thole saine time
here was anitost a proportionate fall
fig off in all other grain crops. While
he crops dIeereased enormously InI
IItit3y. they also increased enkor
inously in price. The v'alue of 19 staple
rops,1 afi baied Oi tile Noveiber I es
i1nate of the departient of aigricul
utre, was $7,099.338,031, as conipared
w'ithi the estinated value on Novenher
1, 1913, of the Sarnie crops of that year
.)f $5.983,306,817. The aggregate value
3f till farm products, including live
stock, wias estianatedi at $12,000.000.0).
POLITICS IN OTHER LANDS
The Sinn 'ein revolt lit Ireland. the
e-stablishtinent of it revol utIinary gov
erntnentm In Grieee thle proecinlintionl
of P1olnd11( its anl lfndepeldeit untion by
its Teutonic cniquerors til tie res
tol'ationi of tie republic In China. voti
stirtited the most limportant develop
nients o a (ori tiei. nature in coun
tii0s ou1tside of the United StIts In
An oltleial iniditte. issued Ma rch
22. atnnounced the abandonment tof the
Chinese nonirchy ainl the res'tortilion
of the repIbIli4 whIch had been ik.
phiced by the monarchy during the lit
ler part of 1915. Yuit Shti 11Ki ati
ntounced his rejection. of the eniperor.
s1y t lid resunted tlie presidencey of
11lie reintliC. .1utne 6. Yuin Sil KMa
died sudodenlly anld YunLl 11Ib1Ing he.
The 1 Sinn l'n rebell In I reiaun i
wis precipilt at ed oi April I., wheln SI
toge'r (asenteniit. foretr consuIla r 011.
er of the United Kinigdoin, was cll
tured while littempting to hand in t'
hind fromn (Ge11runy 1111a4l a G 'ernai
.h0)p loaded with arias to lie used iI
an Irish uprisinig was sunk w:hile nt.
temipting to hiad the arms. April 14
the Sini I"t'in rebels se'zed parts o
Dublin and serious lighting in tit
streets followed. The revolt spread
land oi April 27 uartial law was de
clared over the entire islaind. Apri
28, loyal iroops took St. S'teihens
green in IDublin from Ihe rebels. ca
turing 400 of them, and the followin;
(Ildy. Peter Peirse, "president of thi
Irish Republic," surrendered. Till
next (ly tie main body of the reb
eis surrendered. May 3, l'eurse, Thminn
.J. Clark and Thoinas McDonagh, lendi
ers of the revolt, were execuated in"~ thu
TPower of 1,ondon, rifler being fount
guilty of sedItion itt a rirlltary trial
Ten ot her lendler's of I he rei-la'1 -.ver
e'xecutedu duiring tihe next few danys
.Jurne 2(;. Sir' l14)ger Casernen('it wnl,
iplaceda 4)n tril for t reasonl in I~uindon~i
Hie wats (4 covicted a 141S'il sentenced is
iinthr Jtune 2!) 1nd4 the senltence' wai.
e'x(tle il by'~ li htngrng ini ''iin1111vi
p)risoni. A~ tigrist 3. V'ol lowtinig t' Sinii.
i''ei n revoiltr, :i ri tforit was iuiale b y thli
arise which would rsti in the grant.
ing of1 homeit irule Ito Irielanid lit uince
but1 thle elfor't waIs lifritles.
t ion of' at pr'ovliitl goiveten ii(Kt biy
formner I'reitnier Veizelos, grew 4)t11 01
tihe reftusal of Kinig Constanti n' tc
be drawni lIto the war on thet sIe of
I he ('ntetnte alhlies. SepteiIuber 2 i, tihe
islandru' 01' Crete Mecedec~i from Gr'eece,
a11u( onl September 28, lFormuer Praettlier
Veil "cos and)( Adira l Coundomuriotis
lssuti iliOa pr limat in delallring thet
mient for (reece,
The I udependen('e of1 Poini. whii ch
manyi 1i' i il Autstia~, Novebeir'' 5.
Tlheu deathl o ,(f iiz ii. dosef. (eth3)'rorI
if' AusItrhl-i Iunigry, wha(i c nleurred
Noineri'' 21, wIIs 4'xpei''tril in selIne
POLITICS IN UNITED STATES
p~eoplle oif t ine UitIed( States 'th r'oligh
1)tt it' yeara 191(1. .1line 3, thle Wom-iii
Its first 'onvIenrtioni in ( 'hilcgo. TIwo
ulaiys lateri both1 the li'1litulienirn anrd
Pro'(gre'ssive antiona11 ol onenions(11 openi.
['d ini ( i'lings. .l un' 10. foirmri' Presi
tient ITh'ieodorliie itoodse'v4'i wn--t~ niomi-'
nlte (for pre'II''s4lintlby thie Progressiveins
[mdIi li'harles i'vanus li4ghe. a~ssocia te
luste i of 411he14 Uiit 'l Sltat's Supr'tile'
'otur't and4 formier' goivern'lor o'f Newt
Yoerk, was oiiiiinate by the )' ii~ Itepurbil
'anis. Theii lipulienn('is lniiiated
h'i'es Wi. Faiirbaiikm (if inlilann f'or'
s'lee' piresideli In th1( 1le Pro4gress5i ves
ltamed'i Jlohn ii . P'arker of I .otulsia mi as
lloios.-ve'lh's ri'nirg miateI. .Jutne 103,
he I )mera icli na tionalcneti onii 11
'livene ttiiiin St. otula and Ite follow
rig day3 PresIdent Wlo iiiVc
~illuiil ptO~ii~i Juniie 26. C lonel
Loosevelt declined tile Progr salve