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KLcJ. CM. Hi$TO :
Keowee, the Capital of the Lower
The Keowee valley is one of the
beauty spots of Souht Carolina.
Every traveller who visits it is deep
ly impressed by its wonderful
scenery. As early as 1775. the ex
plorer. Bartram, described it as "a
fertile vale, at this seaso:n enameled
with fragrant strawberries and bloom
ing plants, through which :he beau
tiful river meanders. -_nvironed at
various distances by high hills and
mountains, some risf'z boldly almost
upright upon the v're of the ex
pansive lawn, so a- to overlook and
shadow it, whit- others more lofty,
superb, misty and blue, majestically
mount far aboe."'
Keowee'- vale is about seven miles
in length, and from one to two miles
in width. In this favored location
way our county seat, Old Pickens,
from 1,S28 to 1868. The division of
Poi :ns District required its removal
to a spot more central. But even
before the days of Old Pickens this
valley had been a seat of govern
ment, for there was situated th town
of Keowee, the capital of the Ayrate
(Under-Hills) or Lower Cherokees.
Keowe was built along the banks
of the Keowee or Insundiga river,
upon and near the plantation of the
late Captain Steele. It was at dif
ferent times located on opposite
sides of the river, but at all times it
was within "gunshot" of Fort Prince
George. Old Keowee lay in a cir
cular area on the western bank of
the river and just opposite Fort
Prince George. The trail from Char
leston led into the valley over Gap
Hill and crossed the river by the
log ford, just above the shoals. A
few hundred yards above the shoals
was the town of Kulsage or Sugar
town. After Old Keowee was de
stroyed (1760), a town was rebuilt
on the eastern bank of the stream
just opposite to Sugartown, and call
edl New Keo)Wee. There is evidence
that Sugartiwn was also called Kaw.
hohee. 'There fore, since all of these
towns were within one mile radius
and all bore the name Keow e (trans
lated "place of mulberries), we ma
ei)nsider them as one, the noted capi
tal, to which South Carolina sen
more commissions, for war ' au<
at the k(
A New L<
Full Line of Fisi
Stock. All Kind
I peac. than the United States h is
have no definite record. According
t, estimates of historians it was a
t )wn of about five hundred inhabit
ants. A trader reported to the Caro
lina government that in 1751 some
twenty-nine warriors and three chiefs
from Keowee were engaged in some
unrecorded affair, as compared with
nine warriors and one chief from
Eastatoe, the second Lower town in
size. In the town was a council
house, trading post, corn-houses, and
dwelling huts. All around the set
tlement lay fields of Indian corn and,
peach and plum orhceards.
The council house, erected on a
mound, was a lofty structure, a pyra
mid in shape. The Cherokees built
these council houses by setting up
beams in the ground in circular or
der, the outer circle being about six
feet in height, the middle circle twice
that height, the inner circle still
higher and the center beam a pole
overtopping all the others. Upon
these rafters were placed, and a roof
of bark put on.
The Colonial trading house at Keo
wee was in charge of John Chester.
An enornv'us peltry business was
The Cherokees were ruled by a
c )uncli of their chiefs. Kvowee's
most powerful chief was also King
of Chote, a town of refuge across
th , Blue Ridge. In the early eigh
teenth century this high office was
held by Old Hop. In 1760, in his
old age, he was superceded by Atta
kullakulla, the Excellent Woodcutter.
Both of these rulers in their contact
with the Colonial government show
ed remarkable wisdom and diplo
matic abliity. Attakullakulla even
visited Charleston and London in the
interset of his people. The most
I powerful local office was that of Con
jurer. Canacaugh was the Great
Conjurer of Keowee. The Raven
I was both a Prime Minister and a
Supreme Court. Next in rank were
the chiefs, prominent anont. whom
were Skiagusta, the Old Warrior;
Oruste, the Catawba Kinemi Yaho
ma; and Canasaita
Diplomatic relbtionmi.s )tw-n South
Carolnia and the (%)uncil "at Known c'
bI1an with tts vii'. 4f S:r AI'm n
der ('unning to Keowe' in I7'.
In 17~3 (G;ouvrn')r (;lien cncuie :
treaty at thy' fndIian capital, purcht.i
((l lanI, andi built Fort. Prine
I (;eo)rg . Then follow+d numerous
>w Price on a
< Tires Always in
is Auto Parts and
WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT
YOUR HOME STATE?
What do you know about your
home state? Of course, you are
loyal to it, but what reasons could
you give for your loyalty? Do you
know what it is doing in commerce,
in agriculture, in improving the wel
fare of its citizens, in maintainnig
its place in the vanguard of progress?
Every man should be just as famliiar
with the history of his stat' as with
the history of his country.
The Atlantic Coast Merchant, a
monhtly magazine, of New York, has
spent several months in painstaking
collection of information regaring.
the resources nad progress of each
of the states in its territory. Statis
tics have been gathered from -*ate
officials, commercial organi:zati )s
and state and federal hurea-.< f>r
the purpose of presenting as th-)r >u'Ih
and authoritative a pictur -)f thr
present status of each of tha >
ern and Eastern comnwe:'h
which it was possible to obta. We
are printing below the tifth =t)ry.
If Pennsylvania boa.: that Lib
erty was cradled with:n her bur.
daries South Carolina :::ay claim
with even greater jus::ce :-> b.! the
true birthplace of the Gri-iess on
this continent. The glamour which
has been shed around the mighty
events which took plac.e in Phila
delphia in 1776 has unjustly obs'ur
ed the fact that it was in South
Carolina that American independ
enee was first proclaimed and that
it was the eloquent voices and stout
hearts of her sons which gav the
initial impetus to democracy an'i
freedom in these United State-.
It. shoul'l be of peculiar intere.t t o
\!*rcltr: tI note that tihe tirn. r
t "ite f tie e de wva- n:") a
S'.ver. a sob'li'r or )')liticiur, but
t ,re'1"t m1erc"hanlt. <'hristopher Giad -
1:'i l irles""tont. I.ong. bf) ore ti;t?
--"' !:'i-ation: oft llmiepent:iene'.' !evo't
NXi..-te as a passiihlity inl the nin&
of its siz ners Gaidsleu was pre'ach:ng
th.l doctrine of freedom uirar the
famous liberty Tree in his native
city. With the vision of a great
statesman he foresaw the inevitable
struggle and was the first to urge
that the colonists must stand shoul
der to shoulder in the Gre.t. Defiance
and that every petty sectional jeal
ousy must be abandoned for the sake
of the common cause. At a time
when even such men as Adams, Otis,
Washington and Ifenrv reoiled from
hethought ot sevu'eree from th
ma Rher country (;a Vi' was ) boly
)'r)(ialm1ing that a ~ : i:jp..
cine, -a the~ uni: iui . h
rh tract.er, distinui -h ahi: ' I 'y .m'
\x'rui over hi- f..a r' ~ ~:4i
si tlxly demstrat: u by rhe a
that South Carolina wa- the *.rd d
ony~' to adopt an Ieinee-lt ftrm of
government and Christopher Gads
den was the framiner of its cmnatitu -
When the issue was once dr iwn
andi the colonists entered upo)n the
rie-sperate enterprise of resisting the~
might of England by arms it was men
of South Carolina who wur th tire:
ev-V victory for the caue of fr',
dam. Si days before. het D -r
.Iifcende~nre ned -: -
conf r *e ii < .tn ria
Keowl. -:ix yr erGvro
ui r . 'l. Grn . It w s re ul
aee the rier bu.I.tIneve agian
re..ach it for proinece. Touhe
on as ai destr-yed in 177wb
Willamson n it ihabtant diti
entoth mou-nt. Iy whe reaity
of Hopewll-Kowes the riend nvrgins
rachdoed thoreir prndinenceuTh ar
o!. No lmonly ran the. Anrow
he.i or,, andc its inhbtanytrnedvu
by thle 1)low in the rich valley to in'
d'ate the former exietence of. pros.
perous Indian towns.
. which followed is studied by the
bri'liant deeds of the sons and '
iaughters of the Palmetto State.
Song and story have woven imper
ishable fame around the ride of Paul
Re--ere and, with the injustice of'
which history is so often guilty, have
almost ignored the far more perilous
and daring ride of two daughters of
South Carolina, Mrs. Jane Thomas
:Ind Mrs. Dillard. These two devot
ed women. learning that a body of I
the Revolutionists were in danger of
being cut off and destroyed rode at!
dead of night through the almost in
irnetrable forest and enabled the
:olonial general to turn the impend
ina disaster into a glorious victory.
Nor should it be forgotten that in the
naval encounter between the Bon
h.>mime Richard and Serapis it was al
S).'th Carolinian. John Mayrant, who
e1I the American sailors to the cap
e f the British ship when their
ow: vessel was sinking under their
1gne of the most trusted lieuten
':s of George Washington and one
of the most brilliant and accomplish
a men of his ars was another South'
Carolinian, Colonel John Laurens.
On the field of battle he displayed
what Hamilton terned "unapproach..
able courage," but it was in the field
")f diplomacy that he made the most
notable contribution to freedom. At.
the most critical time in the- Revolu
tionary War he was sent to France
by Washington to solicit a loan of'
money and to obtain nore active co
operation on the part of the French
naval and military force. The his
torian, Elkanan Watson, has describ
td what he accomplished in these
w)rds: "Although a youth of twenty
s:x he achieved by his consummate
tact and extraordinary abilities what
the powerful influence of Franklin
failed to effect."
Lat!I Laurens arranged for the
up p)rt of th French in the Bat-l
> Yorktown and )er:snally le the
ham at the m.>.t formidable of
la Briti-h redoubts, capturing the
of CJ!.)nel Campbell, the Eng
li h comunamier at that point. Th>
hh honor of arranging the terms of
-urrender was intrusted to Colon&e.
Liurens by General Washington in i
Lord Cornwallis was exchanged for
his father, Henry Laurens, a prisoner
in London Tower.
When America was forced to take.
up arms again in 1812 in defense:
'f her new found freedom fresh
glory was shed on the name of South I
Carolina. Her most famous son,i
Andrew Jackson, seventh President
)f the Unit.. States, was the Ameri
'a:- c):mmnantder in the miemorable
in th of New Or~aans when Wel!ing
tons etean were utterly routed
bythe ha:f t:in ad slhiters of th-e
: r i ublic.
Wit d'' . r snect to) the feelings
h'\a I(.cvjl:nai it should I b men
ti n h tht the sister state has also
p~f'rr ei elimzs to Old H ickory as
'>ne of her sons. The fact is that
t'.er'e i.s some uncertainty as to where
Gieneral .Jac~kson was born, the bor
d- r Iine betweeni the two common
wealths not being clearly dietined at
that time and the general's homie
being situatedi in what was part of
-leoatable territory. However, he
.ways referreti to himself as a South
ro.l::ciian anit is niotewort hy that
h fam->.s :'tth Division, raecruited
dy n.i( Crhlin, and~ wh:ch wvon
: iy-::t fans i '.i shar-e itn th.
t -) u I'
Vhn a par . C -.:ue.
!09. Shauth Cr i st decloi
aridon her ha'.r - V2. they
:>vered by pr~tn:.yd ree of. un isurs.
paissedc -.grandleur *:. teoiing with
w ild h fe of almoi' ' r-y dc ri iiption.
It was not, ho)w-r;--. mtil more than
ai century later 'h a. a permanent
settlement was '4 - .e by the Eng
'.ish and that tra'i began. That
early commeirce. waecontined1 exclu.
:sively to t raflic wnhi the Indians and
over another centiy~in fac,.-the
only indutstry was ' antI ig and trap.
ping and the e:<eh ci: of beads, trin
kets, blankets, et' - with the Indians
for furs andi skmri. As the forest
slowly gave way 'wfore the axes of
the colonists aigr:-ilture began to
grow and rice and, earn were culti
vate~d in rapidily :n'reasing extent.
For many year. '.hese two great
sta[ples were proci-:.'c in abundance,
but toawaird the . ose3 of the eigh
teenth century they began ti) give
grrounrd before the i.... ng .. a ...a.~
From that timos up to recent years
South Carolina has been one of the
world's great sources of supply of
cotton, but with the growing realiza
tion of the dangers of relying upon
A single crop, the theory of diversi
fication has rapidly gained ground
And today she is again coming to
the front as a great producer in
aractically all varieties of farm pro
lucts. The wealth poured out into
:he world's market from her farms
reached last year the enormous total
f $520,000,000. She led every
stat3 in the Union in the value per
acre of her twelve leading field
Rapidly, however, as the idea of
diversification has spread throughout
the state, South Carolina naturally
remains primarily a great cotton
state, ranking third in production of
th' staple and second in the extent
and importance of her textile manu
factures. The total value of the
products of her cotton mils last year
was $262,880,000 or more than three
tifths of the total value of all her
manufactures, which was placed at
$355,300,000. The number of spin
dIes increased from 4,620,865 in
1914 to 4,997,4011 in 1920 or a net
gain of 376,641, while during the
same period there was a net increase
of 5,150 in looms and 12 per cent in
One of the most important factors
in the development of the state's
vast and rapidly developing textile
industry is her magnificent resources
in water power. Nature has endow
e-i her with splendid facilities in this l
dlirection and they have been rapid-I
I <iWveloped by the enterprise and
enery of her citizens. It is stated
:hat the commonwealth could do
wih.,'ut coal entirely and supply all
h " lei power and heat from her
: - y in , mflyrtnce to her
p:w'iuctio n comn corn an'i t
tni with th' efforts now being
Iti re Aucs the c'tt )n amrea'e
re that the two former,
..i- take first rank in a short
A' present South Carolina
f-larth as a tobacco state, her
ast year being valued at $25.
1.000 as compared with less than
$4.000,000 in 1914. She has nearly
500,000 acres devoted to corn rais
ng and in quality har corn admits no
ival. A few years ago one of her
farmers, J. J. Findal, carried off the
vorld's championship prize for the
)est ear of corn.
The great importance of her three
sadink products should not be al
owed, howvever, to overshadlow the
.vondlerful fec'undity the state's farms
enjoy im every <iirecti-m. Favor,?d
.y nature with one of the m->st d
Ligthtful climtates in~ thl. world S.)uth
Ca rolinta prtoud y beOar.5 that she
gtrown elsewher.' andi gro.w it a little
hit better. [Her truck farmning in
dustry is ra:pidly assumimg a most
important place in the state's activ
iti s which can easily be understood
when it is realizedr crops of any kind
can grow all the year roundl unpro
te'etd andi that her farmis have
broken the wo)rld's record on money
crops par acre.
[n B~au fort county, the h ?art of
the~ ve table growin' section, two
rip; growng anri shinped! fr'A' the
umr. lrd~ within live mn-h have
>H~ fir mo~~r than '80.<),)
'25 p).or iere In-i th-~ Z'r->win-. of thi
niost populatr of all vegetaib!s hasi
rierease~d n t' n years from 'C),000
Jushels to mori e than double t'rat
Ever igoo'n thingv.s arie in s';orme
or the South Ciarolinian f'arme r for
t has bem. defi ni ely establIishe I that
mn ha:; a climiate andl soil admirably
MinutedQI for the growing of si'k at. '.
.ia, two conimmd i ties it. inexhaustible
lem-and which can be grown in few
ther places on this continent. Ex
nafliv( .sections of the state, now
r)'n'tically worthless, have been dis
o'red to be0 peculiarly fitted for
he cultivation of mulberry trees
ndi it is probable that within a few
mra another tremendously valuable
'ldit:try will have been added to the
V in interesting to note that onie
1 the favorite dreams of the early
.lonists was the production of silk,
bu t the project ho tguished througi
lack of knowledge and fitnap'eia
(CONTINUI) ErT WEEnm
UNlVERSslTV OF SOU1Th. CAito.j
LAN A SCli-(( Ult 'ftdg r
The examination for the award of
vacant scholarships in the University
of South Carolina and for admission
of new students will be held at the
County Court House, July 8, 1921,
at 9:00 a. m. Applicants must not
be less thin sixte3n years of age.!
When scholarships are vacant after
July 8, they will be awarded to those
making the highest average at exami
nation, provided they meet the condi
tions governing the award. Appli
cants for scholarships should write to
President Currell for scholarship ap.
plication blanks. These blanks prop.
erly filled out by the applicant should
be filed with Dr. Currell by July 5.
Scholarships are worth $100, free
tuition and fees, total $158. Next
essio will open Sept. 14, 1921.
For further information write
President W. S. Currell,
University of South, Carolina, Co..
lumbia, S. C.
WINTHROP COLLEGE SCHOLAR..
SHIP AND ENTRANCE EX..
The examination for the award of
vacant Scholarships in Winthrop Col--'
leze and for admission of new stu
dents will be held at the county court
house on Friday, July 1, at 9 a. m:.
Applicants must not be less than six..
teen years of age. When scholar..
ships are vacant after July 1 they
will be awarded to those making the
highest average at this examination,
provided they meet the conditions
governing the award. Applicants for
scholarships should write to Presi-,
dent Johnson before the examina
tion for scholarship examination
Scholarships are worth $100 and
free tuition. The next session will
open September 14th, 1921. For ,.
further information and catalogue,
addre.n. Pres. D. B. J.>hnson, Rock
: i ! . S . C .
MONEY TO LOAN.
On Improved Farms in Pickens,
Oconee and Greenville counties. City
property, Greenville, Easley and
R. E. BRUCE, Pickens, S. C.
Office Over Keo wee Bank.
KEEP OUR SHIPS ON THE SEVEN SEAS'
American ships, flying "
the Stars and Stripes
will carry you and
your goods anywherr
Two and three generad'2ms +
ago, the Stars and Stripes
were all over the world.
Then they almost vanished
from the seven seas. But
today they are hack again.
Big splendid steamers, Anmeri
can owned and operated,carrylng
passengers and goods, are crowd
ing their way into all foreign
harbo)rs with theis Stars and
Stripes prosudly fluttering from
A meric~an cxporters, importers,
travelers --all cans help by ship
ping and sasiling, under the Stars
Operators of Passenger
Adiral ine t/ t Stre'et, New
Matsont NavigatiLon Company, 26
So G .iy St ree, Ilomnor, Md.
Mu .nmn Steam Ship Lmae. 82 Beauver
Street. New Yo'-. N Y~
New York nnd ihsrro Rico S. S. Co.,
i I liro.,dwa ., ew Y. rk, N. Y.
Pacific Mnil S S. Co., 4 Llrondway,
New York, S. Y.
U. S. Mail S. S. Co., 45 Brondway,
wVard Lone, 'New Yo rk nnd Cubn Mail
s. S. 0 ) i:,rt of Wail Street,
New York, N. Y.
-Free use of a
Shipping Board films
U ses of' Shipping Board msotsur. picture
hiims, louer recls, frt.e (on request of any,
mayor, pastor. postmasr-r, or organi
zan on. A gpent edulclaonaI picture
of ships nra' th i i en~c. Wrate for nfornm
itio to0I I I. L .due, I )lrOtor informntioni
Slaurenua. Room i l,. il) *9 "F" Street,
N. w., Washangion, D). C.
SHIPs POR SALE
(Te A msrican eWmums euly)
SIteel ,ateamera, both oil and coal
burners. Also wood steamers, wood
hulls and ocean-gOingj tas. Parther
information obtained by request.
and freight ships to all
parts of the world and al
otherinfor mation, writs
any of the above lines or
WA iINGTON D.C.