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Geolog aad UitorlY.
ihe relation between physidal condi,
in and history in its wider accepta
O being thus fundamental, it may be
,*el to consider ia somewhat greater
tal the special reactions of a single
lerably definite portion of the natutal
environment upon human development.
For this purpose we may choose the
science of geology. It might eem at
first sight thatgeolegical facts had very
little to do with the course of history.
tooks and clay, lying often far beneath
the surface, and comparatively disre
garded till a late stage of civilization,
would appear far less important in the
evolution of mankind than plants and
animals, geographical situation and
'meteorological conditions. But, though
'doubtless of inferior practical interest
to these superficial phenomena, the ge
ological construction of the soil is yet
pregnant with innumerable reactions
upon the life of human beings who
dwell upon its surface. I hope to show
in the sequel that the rocks or minerals
which lie beneath the thin coating of
the earth and vegetation have always
exerted an immense though often un
suspected influence upon the history of
man. And I shall choose most of my
examples from well-known facts of the
British Isles, only diverging elsewhere
very occasionally for the sake of more
striking or more conclusive instances.
To begin with, it must be pi emised
that geological conditions were of con
paratively less importance in the primi
tive times, and have increased in their
practical relation to humanity with
every additional step In general cul
ture. This is only what we must expect
from the nature of the case. Man's
connection with his environment has
necessarily grown more and more com
plex as his evolution proceeded. Soil
becomes a matter of interest sooner than
building-stone; potter's clay precedes
copper or iron ore as a valuable object;
metals of every kind are earlier requir
ed than coal. The mere savage needs
nothing more from the mineral world
than Aint for his arrow-heads and ochre
for his bersonal adornment. A little
later he requires bronze for his hatchet,
gold and amber for his rude Jewelry,
clay for his hand-molded earthenware.
A still more advanced race will learn
to prize silver for coins, lapis lazuli for
gems, brick-earth for Assyrian temples,
granite for Egyptian colossi, marble for
Hellenic boulpture, and iron for Roman
swords. Only at very late period of
development will mati begin to be
largely affected by the neighborhood of
zinc, lead and mercury, of rock-salt,
kaolin, and plumbago, of salt-quarries,
marl pits, and pipe-clay beds. Last of
all will come the economic employment
of coal, which in our own island has
caused the aggregation of densely
massed populations around the great
centers of Glasgow, Manchester, Leeds,
Shegield, Newcastle, and Birmingham.
Can Anlanals Talk.
A dog sometimes looks as though he
was thinking a thing out, and dog
stories are very wonderful; but after
all, the cleverest dog that ever lived
yet has never been able to got beyond
'Bow-wow,' and we may safely predict
that no dog will over acquire even the
simplest elements of human know
ledge, But what, is the real barrier be
tween the dog's mind (if the term may
be used) and t.he simplest elements oj
human knowledge? it consist in this
fact; that the vocal organs of the dog
are so constructed that it is impossible
for him to articulate a word. is
vocabulary, however, already oxtendi
a long way beyond "Bow-wow." T<k
begin with, there are so many different
meanings to "Bow-wow''or to "Wowv'
(short and sharp) alone, as some one
said a lady could give to the word
"dear," according to its position in a
sentence and the emphasia with which
it was pronouncedl. But besides s1T1n
'Bow-Wn ..1, gg W'hines. A n
-'ere are many different meaningi
(which, however, we are sometimes tot
Sstupid to understand) in the whaning
Iof a dog. We have no fear that dogi
or any other of the brute species wl:
furnish competitors for the prizes i<
be attained by human knowledge; foi
we observe a barrier between man anc
brute fixed, and intentionally fixed, b3
creative power. When we find in the
lower creation, as amongst birds, the
power of articulation, there the Intel,
ligence is absent which could employ
that power for its own development
and where, as in dogs, we find conspi
cuous tokens of intelligence, there th<
power of articulation is totally absent
Parrots can be taught to repeat any
words, but they never can make up foi
themselves a now phrase out Of-t<
materials in the shape of words tha
they may have acquired. The natura
utterance of many birds, though con
veying no meaning to themselves,is dis
tinotly articulate, and sonmc times I
identical in sound with words thia
have a meaning to us. But it is th'
nightingale that possesses the power o
articulation to the fullest extent amnonj
the species below us. Tihere are raee
of men whose languages do not emplo;
so many sounds as there are ini thi
nightingale's song. Vowels, conso
nants of various kinds, siblants in
eluded, even double consonants, as .X
Z, are recognised in it by the humai
ear. Bird language has, In anothe
respect, a remarkable resemblance t
human language. To a conalderabh
extent it has been acquired, 4, e., lear n
by each individual. If a bird be separa
ted from its own species very soon afte
it is hatched, and placed with birds o
a different species, it learns the song c
the latter. If isolated altogether, It
song Is much less clear and less varied
Yet canaries brought up by their par
-ents even in the midst of alien bird
* ' earn the canary song.
Bi 2ngle belts may be used with econo
myas wide as twelve in ahes, but wher
geter width is required they should b
My o ouble thickness. All belts eigh
' tohes wide and more are out of th
~'r q~tr~of b e, lengthwise of tb
'4~ ~1lSA~~ary to insure thel
ULUANI DAMMDIATELY.-There is a
good fraction of success in buttei
making deendent on the proper clean.
Ing of dairy untensils. Some appeal
to think It will do just as well to wall
a few hours before the milk-pails ar
washed and scalded; that the churt
may stand half or a whole day befort
being washed and the germs of deca]
killed by heat; that the cream pall maj
be used for several batches of crean
before thorough cleansing, becausi
sweet cream is going into it again; tha
the butter worker may stand until yoi
want to use It again before scalding
because it will be then freshly cleansei
when you use it, etc. There i
altogether too much of this heedlesi
way of carrying on butter making
The nitrogenous portion of milk(casein
furnishes just the substance require4
for ferments, for the development o
erms wholly inimical to pure milk o:
utter. These ferments remain in th,
crevices of wood, or the seams of ti
vessels, and unless they are dislodgoq
by immediate cleansing, it require
boiling or steaming, for a considerabl,
length of time, to dislodge them
Every utelasil, after each use, must b,
Immediately cleansed if you wish t
prevent taints in your milk, cream o:
utter. Wooden pails are now die,
carded from use by the patrons o
cheese factories, because they canno
be trusted to properly cleanse them.
If they were immediately subjeetet
to steam heat or boiling water afte:
each use, they would be sweet, bu
this steam or boiling water requires v4
penetrate every pore. The dairymai
or operator cannot be too prompt It
cleansing dairy utensils.
PIGEONs ON TIE FARM.-NO one cat
visit a poultry show without beinj
struck with the great numbers an(
variety of pigeons. It Is not unusua
to find hundreds of them on exhibition
and a score of varieties. These hav
not been favorite birds with farmers
as they regard theni as inclined to pul
ul) corn and scatter their excremen
about the barn. As for their reputatloi
for inischelf, they are in this respec
like other birds, charged with th4
idamage done, but not credited with tho
good they do. Pigeons are great scav
engers, devouring multitudes of in
sects, and among others the cankei
worms, which do much damage t<
apple trees. Judging from my own ex.
perience, which have not been limited
they do four-fold more good than mis
chief. An for their dirtying the prem.
ises, this is the fault of tMe farmer
Furnish them a convenient dove cote
and keep tight barns, and the excre,
mont will be found where it can be pu
to good use as a fertilizer. Squabs arn
becoming a favorite dish with tho
wealthy people, who are willing to pa3
a high price for them, and farmer
should see to it that the market Is sup
plied with such food as is in demand an(
pays well. It is a pleasant feature oi
a farm house to see doves flying arouin
it. They give animation to a scenm
which, otherwise, might be a lirtlh
lifeless; and as they pick up their owt
living mainly, and are very prolifio, j
good dish for home and for market cat
be cheaply furnished.
BEET PULP as CATrTLE FECD.-Sinc4
the subject of beet sugar h as been ex
tensively discussed this last spring it
this and adjoining counties, any infor.
mation on the subject will doubtless b4
read with interest. The time is prob
ably not far distant when our farmer
will raise beets for sugar, and they maj
wish to know how to utilize all the re
fuse beet plpI after a portion of th<
sugar is extracted. A ton or beet pulj
contains more nitrogeneous matter
more starch, more potash, and mor<
phosphates than was contained in the
ton of beets, and must be a very desir
able food for milch cows, The pull
can be preserved much in the same wai
that green fodder is preserved in soils
but with less trouble and at a muel
less cost; because the pulp is in sue!
a condition that, if thrown into a pit
the air would be almost entirely exclu
ded without applying any force to pres
It diown. ButS if tightly compressed
wvhich may be done with a piece c
scantling, three by four or three b~
two, striking the pulp dIown with th
end, it may be kept without any troubi
for six months, which would carry.,
stock tiil there was grass in thrp$asture
Trhouigh this pulp has nM been gene
rally used, it haA.,'been fed in sul
lictent quantiti-Wto leave no doubt al
to its real Vah'%e. A cow will generalla~
get twW114 four pounds of pulp twice
.A uay, which with one-th)ird less ha)
than usual, will carry her through the
winter season in good condition.
Tax MOST SUITABLE Doo.-The fox
terrier is a smallish dog,weighing fron
eighteen to twenty-five pounds. He
is active, intelligent, kind, vigilant
obedient, cleanly, honest, faithful
healthy and capable of performing hil
work in the most satisfactory mannmer
No stray animal can invade the premi
ses with implunity day or night
Every unusual noise must be accountet
for. The (derangements of the house o1
barns arc learned by him and reportea
by him in a buiniess way. Foxes
skunks, rats, weaseis, minks, stray cati
andl all other marauders are expellet
fromi the p)remises on the pain of death
in a word, wve regardl the fox-terrier al
the most suitable dhog for the farm.
Sr.ATs von Fr'.oons.-Cattle and pigi
and sheep can be kept far better and 11
more perfect health by the use of spar,
or slats for floors. For pigs, sheep ani
calves place the slats from a thIrd' ti
half' an inch apart and have a pit below
into which all the refuse can fall an,
whence it can be easily removed. Ti
slats should be about th ree inches broad
"'e t e*.n te.
"'ebeeni a workin' like all posses
sod to-day," saId Col. Solon, as h
borrowed a paper from theolocal editor
"So; what have you been doinig ?"
r"My wife, ye see, has the rheuma
a tics; an' 'twas wash-day ; so she sea t
. me, sez she, "Solomon, the water I:
the cistern is out, an' I can't was
without cistern water, and my rheunms
tIcs is so bad that I can't fetch it.' 8uj
r ticiently profundicated, sez I, 'Saill
y I'll bring tihe water.' An' I brough
a twenty-five pails of water from in
t noeghbor's wveli an' poured ft into tha
. cistern, an' then I pumped ever
r blamed drop out for the wvashIin
g' Mighty hard wor k."
f "Why, in the name of cc nnon sense
m didn't you put the water in the tubi
.instead of turning it Into the cister:
- and pumpIng it out again?" said th
"Coz," said the Colonel, bristlin
up, "coz, in the name of common sense
.she had to have cistern water i.e was
a with, yer darned fool."
t Wheels, drums, or pulleys for wir
s rope, should be at least 30 timesyth
s size of the wire, and larger if practice
r ble, as the farger the pulley the less
wear 0n the rn.
130?8 AND SMALL PIUTS.--20vs
farms, like boys in other places, we
money,and are often sorely troubl6d
obtain it. They scarcely like to ia
their parents for itioney to buy articl
that please their fancy, and they ha
but few op tunities to work out, I
when neigboring farmers wish
hire help, there is lenty of work 4
the farms where they belong. Tli
best chance to earn money appears
be in cultivating some crop at hor
that requires small capital to enga
t In. a small amount of land for its pr
duction, but which produces a co
siderable amount of money. The smi
fruits are excellent In these respec
They may be set out at times when 1
soil is too wet to work to good advat
age, and may be cultivated at odd hou
when there is but little to do in t
fields. They require but. a smi
amount of land, and produce mo
money from an acre than any fat
THRE KINDS OF GRURL.-Oatmeal
Into one quart of boiling water sprini
two tablespoonfuls of oatmeal; let tt
boll forty minutes and season wi
salt, strain, and serve. It sugar, ml
or cream is wished, it may be add(
Indian Meal-One quart of boiling w
t ter; stir into this one [able spoonful
flour and two of Indian meal, mix
with a little cold water. Boll thir
r minutes. Season' with salt and stral
Use sugar and cream if you choose.
flour Is not liked, use another tab]
spoonful of meal instead. Flour Gru
-Let one quart of fresh milk come
a boil, and then stir in one tablespoo
ful of flour which has been mixed wi
milk enough to make a smooth past
boll this mixture thirty minutes, bel
careful not to let it burn. Season wI
salt, and strain.
TAPIOCA PuDDIN.-Three ounces
tapioca, three gills of milk, one, tabl
spoonful of sugar. two eggs, one sa
spoon of grated nutmeg. Cover t
tapioca with cold water twelve hoti
before the pudding is to be prepare
and let it soak in this until require
Drain the tapioca, when about to i
thoroughly of the water, put into
saucepan and pour over it the mil
place It over the fire and stir slow
until the milk boils. Take the sat
pan from the fire, place the eggs at
sugar in a bowl, and beating them tc
cream, mix this with the tapioca, ai
milk in the sauce-pan. Grease wi
butter a deep pudding dish, pour in
it.the pudding, sprinkle over the t
the grated nutmeg, and put all to ba]
in a moderate oven for half an hou
CHOW CHOW.-Two heads of cabbag
two heads of cauliflower, one dozen
cucumbers, six roots of celery, a
pppers, one quart of small white o
lons, two quarts green tomatoes; c
into small pieces and boll each veg
I table separately until tender, th4
P strain them. Two gallons of vinegi
one-fourth pound of mustard, on
fourth pound of mustard seed, one p
of French mustard, one ounce of clov
two ounces of turmeric; put the viii
gar and spices into a kettle and I
them come to a boil; mix the vegetabi
and pour over the dressing.
CUnRANT JXLLY.-Plek and wa
your currants; mash them with
wooden spoon in the preserving kettl
and let them simmer for ten minut
after they have come to a boil; thi
strain through a flannel bag and a
to every pint of juice a pound of iui
sugar, boil rapidly for ten or fifte
minutes, skimming the syrup; put
glasses while hot but do not close th<
Suntil the jelly is perfectly cold.
BUTTERED APPLECS.- P'eel a doz,
apples, first takinig out the cores wi
a tin scoop. Butter the bottom of'
nappy or tin (dish thickly. Then p
the apples into it. Fi up the coi
with powdered sugar. Sift powder
cinnamon or grated lemon peels. Pc
a littie melted butter over t.em, ai
bake twenty minutes. geyp
cream sauce. ,.
3 !lINT&iere is nothing that male
I ,f-J'esher andl prettier colored gard
7 walk than fresh tan-bark, It is latal
.grass and weeds, aiid can be renew
with a very thin coating. Coal asi
.also makes a very firm pretty wal
Shade is death to the garden. If I
trees that cut off the sun are tee val
able to be removed, then have thi
topped. It improves their healthfi
ness and makes their shade less deni
Ricn CIC.AM.-Two heaping tabl
spoons of raw rice, one quart milk, t'
tablespoons sugar, a little salt; ba
one hour or an hour and a half, sti
ring frequently while baking. TI
oven should be a quick one.
COLD WATER GINGECIRRMAD.- 0
eup of molasses, one cup cold watt
half cup butter, one teaspoon of sot
one of ginger, a little salt, fio
enough so that the mixture will dr
from the spoon.
WAsn FOR INFLAME(D Es.-Ta
Iten drops extract of' tead (Lihe liquor
the acetate of lead); distilled vinoga
t our drachnms; distilled water, fo
1 CHIILILAIN LINIMENT. - Mix o
fluid ounce rectitied oil of turpentli
fifteen drops suiphnrlc acid, and ta
1 ounces olive oil ; rub gently on t
> chilblains twice a dlay.
1 ~ 110 .'intI Laie.
3 Some ye.mra ago D)r. RI V. P'ierce,
-the WVorld's D)lspenmsary anid 1uv'alh
Hotel, of lBuhlalo, N. Y., and Londc
was sent for to oxaminie a terrible (1
ease ot tihe knee-joint, resulting
'ulceration and extensive sloughimag
S the bone and tissues. The man's I
.had been dlesp)airedi of by the p)revio
attendants. Amputation at tihe thi;
was prompitly dlecided upo~n and ski
* fully p)erformed by Dr. Pi'erce, and1(
& after treatmenit to pulrily the blood a
prevent a recuarrence oi thle mialy
[doteetr's Golden MedIcal Discovery w
-freely prescribed. TheIm man's syst<
was thoroughly purlilled amnd strengt
enced, lie rap)idily gai ned ii health, t
,stump healing nicely, anid he is to-il
t a happy man. Tis case wais amio
the first, in which this wumiderful blot
Spurifier was tested, it, has smee mal
feSted its wondierfuml power ove r I
V worst scrofulous anid other blood d
.eases. Tiake.a for a time it, so putril
and strengthiens thme syst om as toistror
ly fortify it against, t,he encroahmemc
" of diseases. So(l y diruggists.
u MII)D.EvmJr.r.E, Mich., Feb . 15.hm, 18
ri lon. Ri. V. PIacE:
e De.tr Sir-I would say that I hr
sold your medicine for seven yea
Tihie Golden Medical Discovery is t
best cough remedy I have ever us
,and in every case where 1 haive reco
tmended it, it has etired. I have us
it in my famuly for my children.
cures their colds and coughs in a dl
e or two. My wife has used it sevel
e times when down sick. It invarial
,, gives immediate relief. Its sale
* eases datily .KTh,Du
A lil|Di looking custome', Who wai
ut di'inking a glaos of beer in a Larnet
to street saloon -Detroit and glanoiu
ek from tho man behind the bar to the
es open door as he sipped, suddenlj
or "ils, this saloon any particular
to motto?" aayprlua
)n "I guess not," was the reply.
ir "Most every such place always has a
to motto of some sort.'
ne "Yes, I pellef so; but I hat no need
9e of one. All der buplick understands
0- dot if dey doan' bay for vat dey drinki
n I pokes deir headt mid a glub, und dol
answers shust as well."
s. The seedy drinker paid for his, and
he it took his ast cent to do it.
rs 1 it 11.5blo
e That a remedy muado of such common
l simple plants as Hops, Buchu, Man
re drake, Dandelion, &c., makes so many
,i and such marvelous and wonderful
cures as Hop Bitters do? It must be, for
when old and young,rioli and koor, Pas
tor and Doctor, Lawyer and Editor, all
:10 testify to having been cured by them,
its we must believe and dopbt no longer.
tk See other column.---Pose.
d. Boy-"Mother sent these cherries tc
a- you, Mis' Smith." Mrs. Smith-"Oh
of thank you, darling I But Isn't your
ed mother afraid she'll rob herself?" Boy
Ly -"I rather guess not, mum; she said
a. as how they was all Rpilln' on the tree
if and wouldn't be good for nothin' but
o- swill by to-morrer. So she said bring
13. you some, mum; you might as well
to have 'em as the hogs." Mrs. Smith
n- "Your dear mother is ,so thoughtful."
th But she confidentially told Mrs. Jones,
e ; who afterwards conildentially told it to
ng all the neighbors, "I'd a died befor6l'd
tI a touched one of 'em, the stingy old
of A N anxious father was consulting
le- one of the Wall street magnates as to
it- what business he should put his son to.
he "My boy, sir," said lie, "has had a first
,rs rate education and Is remarkably truth
d, ful." "1 don't see much good in that,"
d. said the Wall street man, jingling the
1o, double eagles in his breeches pocket;
a "none of the successful men I know
k ; are truthful. Better make your boy an
ly apothecary; that's the only busi
e. ness I know of where deceit does not
id pay in the long run."
id VROETINF. Is now acknowledged by
th our best phyalcians to be the only sure
to and safe remedy for all diseases arising
Dp from inpire blood, such as scrofula
ke and scrofulous huluors.
THnRE was an elephant that ball been
e, !rained to play the plane "!'. Itstrunk
of in a show. One day a new piano was
ix bought for it, but no sooner had the
n- elephant, touched the keys than it burst
ut into a flood of tears. "What ails you,
;e- Kiouni ?' asked its keeper. The poor
)n boast could only point to the Ivory
r, keys. Alas I they were made of the
e- tusks of his mother.
)8, A SACRAMENTO girl was guilty of a
c- mean trick the other day, the relation
let ot which will cause the blood of every
es mother in :.the land to curdle with
horror. She eloped with her objec
tionable lover the same day her mother
4iwas enamelled, and as the latter was
a compelled to remain shut up three day.
le or else crack all over, the couple min -
Z8 aged to get away without pursuit.
ld "My daughter, never tell any one
1)your private affairs,"'said a mother in
sending her daughter away upon her
tirst journey. "Monsieur, a ird-class
ticket, if you please," said the daugh
ter at the ticket ofilce. "For where ?'
asked the emnpioye. -"Is that any of
your business?" ansawered mademol.
thi mother's advice..ghe
ut SOMn littl. girls in a Brooklyn Sun
es d iy SchlooYiwere studying the history
ed of David4/the passage for the day being
ur that WIrthl describes the shepherd boy'a
&,'Jl6tory over Gohiath. The teachei
thi asked the question, "Now can any 01
you lttle girls tell me who killed the
giant ?" Quick as thought one of thn
;cs smallest responded, "Jack."
to "I'M a census-Laker," he said, emil.
ed ing in the doorway. "All right, bul
es you miusn't in-cen-sus," said the mar
k. of the house, and he was immediately
lie arrested and lined $100, according t<
FRED (to Torn, who has looked
ie. through Fred's MS.):tl "You didn'l
knowv I was an author, eh?" Tom (tc
SFred); "No, I didn't; and if you taken
ye my advice you won't let anybody els
ke know if you can help it,"
eA FREcNcH actress. wiho wvas gradu.
ated fronm the laundry, asked an old
manager what lie thought was het
"stineof uin-s' Glancing al
"The clothes line still, Mademoiselle.'
ur~ Muts. CooDL.E was telling Jane thai
01) the potatoes had an oniony smell,
when that monster Coodie suggested
ke that perhaps they had been cooked ir
ofa saucepan with a leak in it.
rr, A woMAN wh'io wont to a concert t<
ur hear Blind Trom "play by ear" sayi
that she was swindled, and( wants the
fraud exposed. She says that insteat
"of playing by ear hoplayed with hiu
fingers, just like other performers.
lie Where the farmers wife has largen
washing to do, she can save halt heti
time and labor by using Dobbin's Elee.
trio Soap, (made by Cragin & Co., Phi.
of lad'a.) One poundl of it is equal U<
la' three of any other. Try it.
i- "WViIAT is anu abbreviation ?" Schola:
in-"A shortening." TIeacher -"Yes
iC ive me an example." Scholar-Som4
usfolks use butter ; buit mother says thai
ilard is good enough for anybody."
11 "D)ocTon,'' said aI careful ,vife to thu
as5 practitioner, who was cutting oen he
rid husband's shirt as lie was in ailtof apo
li p)lexy, "cut, if you please, along th
hi- Svohuws first heard at a mother'
lie knee arc never wholly forgotten. Bu
aiy rules of conduct Jlrat enforced at thii
ng same plaice leave a far more vivid im
lie A great impj.rovemienit ha~s recently
is- beeni maide ia that useful prodiuct CAa.
les n1oc.NP., ai deodorized extract of petro
ig- leum, wvhiich is the only artile that re,
its ally cures bald ness. It Is now the fineui
of hair d1ressings.
A PnIRACuIKn at'nlcago advocates th
ye introduction of lady ushers ia church
r's. to make the young men attend.
ed' "WuIrtC there's life there's soap,'
in- said the industrious washerwoman,
It Anx You Ilwirr sus hat you are so p ist
ay C8yiconsltItufted as tu be~ exempt Jr. mI all at
Liii of75 ramps. unolera Mt.rbuu, iarrbcea ei
YVIiyore net I' wvould be prudent topo
kloyorslf w ir. Jayae's Crarminatuve al!
n-. earn a afe medicilne for ihise alio bons, and
sure cuaiefor summer Uomplan and al
Dt seases ot theowl,i er c ro
Tax to tw uty years of success for
rempedy that has in that time nev<
been found wanting in all that
claimed for It, certainly ought to gli
afinfidenoe., to those that have not tri
simmons' Liver Regulator. Tne trh
ot it is attended with no auconveniene
no dangeri,no doubt; if it will not cui
you it can possibly do you no harm
and in no 6ase of Bilious 11,jadach
Constipation, Liver Disease, or its q
tendant evils has it ever been know
"I certify that my wife an.1 se
were in bad health for some liftee
years. I chanced to be louking ovt
one of your almanacs and saw A. I
Stephens' and Bishop Pierce's names
testimonials. I then obtained some 4
the regulator, and can heartily recon
mend Simmons' Liver Regulator to a
friends as an excellent medicine.
"Z. E. HARRIsON, M. D.,
The noted botanter and geologis
John Muir, has been for a'long tin
making an extensive examination int
the land wherp the Sequoia Gigantic
the great California tree, can be foun
He says the northern limit is a litt
above the 38th and the southern a trfl
below the 36th parallel and the lowei
place where the tree can be found is v
an elevation of about 5,000 feet aboa
the sea level, and a few of the trees oa
be found above 8,000 feet, though her
and there a straggler is seen as muc
as 8,400 feet higher than the sea. Unt
this examination it was thought n<
more than 25 of these trees were ati
standing, but he proved differentil
Mr. Muir's report, made to the Amer
can Association of Science, is long an
exhaustive. He say the trees averag
about 275 feet in height and 20 in dia
meter, but there is quite a number the
reached 26 by 300 feet, and oocasionall
one that was 30 feet in diameter b
more than 300 in height, and there wa
the stump of one from which the bar
had been taken of that was 85 feet
inches across, and must have measure
about 41 feet, as the bark onther tree
show that that on this one could no
have been less than two and a half fee
How to Uet Sick.
Expose yourself day and night, ea
too much without exercise; work to(
hard without rest; doctor all the time
take all the vile nostrums advertised
and then you will wiant to know
HOW TO Gr WELL.
Which is answered 1.1 three words--Tak
Hop Bitters I See other column.-Ex
Ice Machnes and Vapor Engines.-It I
a very curious fact that the vapors <
volatile liquids, such as those of ethei
carbon disulphid, etc., or conderisabl
gases, such as carbon dioxid, sulphu
dioxid, etc., can be and have been i!se
as well for the generation of power a
of refrigeration. In a former articl
we have described their use for the lai
ter purpose; in the next article we giv
a description of their use for the evolt
tion of powoj,, or for the change of hev
into s"';ion by the intervention of tli
voatlzation of the liquid. It is in th
case nothng but a substitution of tli
liquid and its vapor in the place of wi
ter and steam commonly used for tran
forming heat into motion. Refrigeri
tion is the reverse process, it is tI
change of motion into heat; this
through the condensation by the punmi
which, while condensing the vap<
into liquid by pressure, causes th
change of its own motion, and of ti
power driving it, iuto heat; this he
is carried off by the water of condens
tion, and the liquefied vapors, by b
ing re-evaporated again, absorb
munh heat as they gave off, when coi
denied to a liquid; that is, in othi
words, they becomo so cold that th
will cool surrounding bodies to a tee
perature below the freezing point
.Prof'essor W. Matthieu Williams coe
mends this method of annealing 4
toughening to the attention of man!
facturers engaged in the production
steel that is to be used for purpose whe;
tenacity rather th in hardness is demai
ded : The steel is brought to a brig]
red heat, and ia then plunged into boi
ing water. He has tried this plan upc
many samples of steel, from mild Be
semer to the hardest of the old-fai
soned Sheffield pot steel, and he stati
that he obtained better results than I
could secure by any process of a
toughening or slow cooling. Whie
the steel is plunged into the bolinr
water it is evidently surrounded by
film of vapor, and is not in actual eel
tact with the water, which assum4
the "spheroidal" state, and so remali
until the metal has cooled consider
bly. Professor Williams suspects tih
the toughenIng is due to the uniform
ty of cooling thus effected.
A steam boiler feams either becau
it has insufficient steam room, or on a
cotent of dirt or grease in the boIler,4
the feed water. Tihis trouble is olt<
experienced with new boilers, ar
disappears when they become clean.
Brass pins are whitened by lot
boiling in oopper vessels containir
block tin. The process of making whi
iron pins is still a secret. There a
eight pin factories in the United State
with an annual production of about 'I
The best cement will hardon in abo
five or six minutes, and under water
about an hour; when mixed with sai
it takes a little longer. When mix,
with sea- water and used in sea-wat
with a large quantity of sand it mi
take even twenty-four hours bofo
PROPEsso-"W hat are the constit
eats of quarts ?" Student-"P,nts."
bland smile cieeps over the class.
An Old Janctor'st Adv'co.
It was this . "~ Tlrust in oal andi ke
your bowels open." For this purp<
take Kidney-Wort-for no other reme
so eiectually overcomes this com
tion, and that without the dlistre*ss a'
griping which other medicines canm
Din. FLaOIx, for thrmy years one of the mc
succees:ui educator. in tihe country, offt
greatly redne d rates for c>oard and tuition
our advertising eolumns. is school is I
eated on the Hudion iliver and in the me
healthy and beauiifui location. Detter wri
and offer what you can afford to pay, and a
0. HI. Blecken, 1M. D., of Minneapo:
Minn., saysi 1 ' saw Hunt's Reomedy nemed
a case of Dropsy with perfect e3uccess. 1 a
not treat the patient, but four attending p1
sicians had given up the ease as hopele
Hunt's Beed was then used with pert<
mucees. and te patient is welL. I shall ~i
Heats ie!iedy Ia Dr3peical and Kidney I)
esss.' Tria sis% 75 oenta,
A tiood nVesllneseut,
i Investors should read the advertisement of
the old-established banking house of Jamues
A M. Drake & Co., New York City, who seli a
e good seven per cent. R. It. Bond tor 95 and
fI aoorued interest, with bonus In eapital stock
4 of the company.
ATUllS REM .
THE OREAr BLoo Ut"iFIE
i WILL OURE
6orofula, Scrofulous Humor, Cancer, Cfaneerols
if iIumor BrysI!elaQ, Canker. Bait Rhoum,
1. Pamplos or lumor In the Face, Coughs
0 and Cold4 Ulcers. Bronchitis, Nou
ralgia. iyspopsia, Ithounatim,
Pains In the Side, COlstipa
tion, Costiveness. Plies,
in the Back,
Falntness at the Stomach Kidnoy Complaints,
Female Weakness and General Deblitty.
This preparation is a0lentifically and ohemi.
cally combined, and so strongly co:centrated
froin root, herbs l4nd barks, that its good or.
fects are realized imedi,ttoly after commeno.
Ing to take It.. There is no disease of the hu.
ty man ,ystoin for which the Vegeine cannot be
0 used with perrectsartty, as it ao,m not contlan
any motalli compound. For Iradicating the
0 system of all impuritivs of the blo d it has no
equal. It has nuver failed to effect a Oure, giv
Ing tone and stroogth to the system debilitated
13 by disonse. It, wonderful tfects upon the con
plaints name(I are surprising to all. Many have
0 een cured by he Vogreine th.tt have tried
o many othdr remedies. W can well be called
The Great Blood Purifier.
.Remarkable Oure of Sorofulous Faoe.
WVESTMINST814, CONN., Juno 19, IST9.
h MR. H. R. STEvsNs:
Dear Hir-I can testify to the good effect nf -
t your medicine. My little boy had a Scrofula
sore bro k out on his head as argo as a quarter
of adollar, and it went town his face from one
ear to the other. under his neck, and was one
solid mass of sores. Two bottles of your valu
ble Vegotine completely cured him.
MRS. 0. R. THIATCHER.
s H. R. STEVENS, Bostons Mass. j
8 Vegetine is Sold by all Druggists.
7FGr ld Bonds
t FT. MADISON A NORTIIWE3TERN RAILWAY 00.
) DATFD APRIl, 1, 1880, anA DUE IN 190.
Bonds or $5o anol 0oo0 each.
Prineisal and Inater-eat a'ayable in iold
In New York.
UNION TRUsr eO., New York,TRUSTEE.
Tnal h or ltta, 1On mles; wh1olo issue of Bonds,
$700.000, lette 67,000 ipr tu1.0. ]
lio. atito (f roal-from uit y of Fort ladison, Iowa, 1
on Blis.tssippi itiver, to City of OF0.1loosa. Iowa. 1
In1terest payill. April Ist and October lst.
For ale at 93 ann4 neerned interes.
witia eni-1 500 fand stone stld there will
S be A'S'Cnas 41 Iut s 0018100 and $200 respect
Ive vy i Athai aid eatitsal stoclt olthe
CijC1ts for,I&r.' or for further information,
ie ir;, c.. t;lituldblbt itdoto
r JAMES M. DRAKE & 0., Bankers,
C] Drexel Unilding, 29 Wall St., N. Y.
0 The Purest and Best Medicine ever Made.
Aco mbination of Hops, Buchu, Man
o drak 0 and Dandelion, with all hbest and
most e ura tivo pr6perties of all other Bitteri,
mak e tho grmeatest Blood Purifier, Liver
. Regul ator, and Life and Health iestoring
e Agent on earth.
8 No disease a an possibly long exist where Hop
Bittrsa aus od,so varied and perfoct are their
- They give new I foadvigor tothsagsd ndinirm.
I- To all whose o mnploymtenitscause irregalari
. ty oftho bowelsor urinary organs, or who ro.
quite an Appetizer Tonio andi ild Stinulant,
0 Hiop Bitters are inval uable, without intOK"
No atter. whatyour to lings or symptoms
arc what the disease or all moent is use Hop Bit
I'tea's. Don't wait untilygou a re sick but if you
8e only feel had or miserable, Use them at once.
O it may save your life.it has avyed hundreds.
*500 will be paid for a a so they will not
e ure or help. Do not suffer or let your friendis
~- suffer',but use and urge them to use Hop *
S Remember, flop Ditter's Is no vil, drugged
drunken noatrum, but the Purest a n d Best
S Medicine ever madote the "iNYAMIDs 133END
i- and 110P'" and nos person Or family
Should be without them.
is ranen as o lun isstbe cund
Rochester.W,Y amn Toranto. n"t.
rTa a precauition which should never be neglected
' when dlangor Is present,, and theroro a course
d of the Bitters at tils season Is particularly de
sirable, especially for the feeble and sickly. As
a remedy for biliousnet., dyspepsia nervous.
ness. and bowel comp)laintS, there ?s not,hing
10opaal to this wholesome rostoratlve. For'
sa I)tllDuggliss aund Dealers generally.
te p1i0'i0 COPYINO AOENTa WANTED for the
-0f~an rliyua e1c, Iy Wet1 ' 8tree. N~
," A YEA Rand expenses to agent
~~Ot tfit Free. Address
P.O. VIOKERlY, Augusta, Me.
yr an y the use of rRY
re anid toneto the disessed organs, an th outhem
hue~.Kd diseaseso that os s
-owmj Aleehll u. ttem, .achd e
A (ill send poet paid.)
the a st mti invitils' olin atm
id casts ha:vm inttiiy bee'n trenited. Dr. P5ierece's F'
0. 2'r te,andl hat becomne justly clebratead for its
s aori Tt'rletis a poelIlestoralv Ir
rthrem, restorin,g It to benithti vior. The followin
eand barrenanem, or Bier lily, whi en tnot emtised hy'st
et (see lnvil,Is' (ItiI'l It"o, a'nt fr otis stiainp, or he
FavorIte l'rctripiion is sold uinder a posItive guai
"D)O LIIKEWiaF-"- Mrs. l.. F. Mora,oNeC
was a dlreatdfiul stit-crer fromt uterine trotab'flew. Ca
comipietel/ tdiscurageand. oea I could wt
is, oat rl)er'reeitlon' antd itaing the local
n h ave hao Irot'able sine.n newrotetolet r v ao
lId heen restotred, anti ofreringto setnd the nYutto rteu
yce anti ali t'inei I use ata eanet
0ct tien, senit for tte 'Medials Adviser,' ne
ye therein, anti were musch better aleadiy,$ ieree
*- EVER T INVALID LADY should read '"The X'e
Tre~i pardeyoled to ti eosideration of
PER AN5NTLY OURES
Constipation and Pilem.
#he EIDNUTB at te .sat a.
Useause It oteanses the el of
the ornhumorilithat deve
n dny a r1nay dlesia
1ae package will take six qsef asedlis.
TW4."L .ET 2WNXT3V &
WRay It at the lrusists. Pese, $.0.
Wrs, rCAMBON a O0., peoploters
12 (WI ead poest paid.) udiglnst., Vt.
k NEW SCHOOL SONG BOOK
A Now. Complete and mosatt.rative
collectiosn of School songs,
my 1. 0. EMERSON.
BEND 50 CENTS FOR SPxCIMEN Copy,
3ooks for Sohools, Singing Schools, 0hoirs
and Gospel Temperance Meetings.
Welcome Chorus ($1.00). Now and extra
good book for High Schools. .
long Bells, (50 cia.) For Common Schools.
White Robes, (30 ete.) For Sunday Schools.
resue, (SI 00). For Choirs and Singing
Folce of Woreip, ($1 00). For Choirs and
rolnson' Iodthod for Singing Classes,
(60 ets.) for Singitig schoois.
remperance Jewels, (85 ots) Gospel Tem.
pore qce work.
remperance LXght. (12 Cts.) Gospel Tempe.
Oliver Ditson & Co., Boston.
J. V4. DITSOK & (10. 12280 bestnut St.. Phila.
WANTEBD--A Second-littid P ower Prianig
Prepi Ucd. 42x4d. Address U. FK. reliogg,
rivietand. N. J.
kN 1) HUDSON RIVER INSTITUTE, at Olavertak,
. Y., threm miles fromn i uis-m anl plfht from Cats
ill. Oofe nthe most ou cossril nu argest board
n9giohoule In the country. File boys thoroughly
or coilege. Full College Course for Women. Art,
6angitages and Music, npecialtics. 14 Instructors;
O olututit. 02d YeRr opeols Septemiber 6. Pu
itle sl - r upward reealv(-. Tern,! greatly
ogince'd. tarsonil car in riiit try. Ad le6n, f
Jtlgue alid tornij tit d f?, runt dopairtntunts ttiat
1i met the wants of ey-ry min,
Itky. A1LONZO FLACK. PI. D., Prnident.
IEu iA1ll tylv. old. Silver and Nickel.,9
15. hInetc..r snt0.o..
be exaritied. Write tor Catslgu to
' TANDAIID AMEiRIOAN WATROR
30., Pittsburgh, Pa.
Microscopes, Thermometers, Eye Glasses, Op.
)ra Glasses, Barom ters, at Greatly R8dUted Prsces.
R. & J. BECK,
11hnracturing Opticians, Philadelphia. Send 3
gms for illustrated Catalogue o 144 pages, and
nit in this pappr.9
MAKE HENS LAY.
Iraveli ng i kiscountrysaysthat mnostoftheilorse
tad Cattle Powders here are Worthless trash. He
a as that t heridans a Uoudition Powders are abso
lel pure and lmensel aluale Nothina on
ew4ere ose, one tsnoon mtao o. pinth offe
temps. I. S. JOlHS O~ A C0., Banger, Xe.
AGENTS WANTED to sell t'ne LINE ON
QEN. JAS.d GAFIL
S. IBIN .n autorof wde celerIy i
asia te. P'ositvely th esot and cheae, bo.
None othor official. hrend SOc. at once for outit.
We ive th best esn.Ad quick.a, uican
FD Uhestnut hi., Phladelphia, Pa.
SA PON IFIE R
Ith Old Reliable Conentratet Lye for U'AMIIhi
roistaking Mam, Soad WelleS Sap euekl.o
AND TAKE NO OTHER.
PUNN'A SALT MANUN' CO., PHIA.A
I.MPORLTANT TO AGENTS.
THe LIFE OF
GEN. JAMES A. GARFIELD,
Bly his personal friend. mtajor BUNPsY, Editor N. Y,
Mai , is the only edition to which Gema. Garfild
lluetrated, rintd aid bound Ful legtk ste
~ortraittb Allfrve a pitur taken exereely for
erms. Send 61.00 at once rer complete outfit,
A,8. BARNEC & 0.,
and 113 WIliam Street. New York.
~EED'S CENTENNIAL' TU INE W.ATE R
1WH E L-The beet and chos p4tIn the world.
orn for Cirmiar. J MATH,Gill ertevi1ke.otgego
5 MIhLL3(EOi Piantisi Will pack to reach yoh
CA BA,c p "i:'&6%% pr 1,00 oAo
wan.ta Conty, gh,et, La Plume,'Lacka.
IADIEU ANDSTOR E-REErPRS-You cau
Posta for our Pricn Lu, whvich enabe you to or
~f ierbh ,ana we keopwaor eale atsurpriiny lo
rlcs, Wesond sanples of flamburge Laoes Rib
onLnee rAc, if requested. We sell W ho1 esale
md etal iar(lsh downa. A newy combinati.,u
ma*62 and 5 pac ageso er eoos wpc cane
ranted in every farmily Mai. nrentur rte'i ifnts
siactory. H-tl.fUG1 Ti 'N & D)UT'TON,
55 Tr'ensnn St., Boston, Mass.
Those answering an aavertisement wIl
onfer a favor upon the advertiser and the
llbaher by stating that they saw theadve..
*ment In thls Journaal (naming the paper.)
'ae woumsof aen Lwon@ Vend whvbe
nyoeite Preecaption is tihe result or hls extetciledi
many and renmarkable cures of till those chironlo die.
LIAR TO FEMALEs.
ono to the enliro astnt. It is a nerv-ino of un-t
ition, it tattli ca a i le,i nor vetsaya-aa
rtl a craty nar iafere a t dn-, vI. l4mucor
mpla dowacas and s i head nehe; to ilt
rietureo thei n ieck of iJie wonmb. Whent tihe lutier
ethe ipdimenat to tho' bearIng of otsepviag
Pnte., For condliions, see wrapper' arounde bottle.
as,Lnoln C,Mane, says "Fv asag I wa
dimiiycros ho ron a ae .r lC egan taking
ie. In three yonths I was pv/c t cre
ars tayone writ ng pe for them and encO(l
esam to e'wisge . rom a IgreadesIea
et?Nm ne di seof Favor to es
s avor.ite t'rescription is sold bY ia druggls.
RI MEDEE. AEI3A9UWs. a3PWAts. 3 ,