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I.-WERK'LY. EDITION. WINNSBORO, -S. .,OCTOBER 30, 188-VL&V.N.11
Little'Bobolink, flying tbrough the meadow,
Lighting on tall gras. nodding at his shadow;
PoPing down onto the ground,
Where his mate is sitting
On fi'e tiny, speokled eggs,
Round her he is litting.
Here and thete, and everywhere,
Catching Ailes to bing her I
Then he lights above her nest
A sweet song to sing her
Lovely song. so full and strong,
With sweetness bubbling over;
How I love to hear him sing,
dwinging on the clover I
Soon the little birds will hatch,
Then they'll fly together
After food to fill their mouths
Through bright and rainy weather ;
Here and there, and everywhere,
Seeking food to bring them,
Hardly stopping all day long
One sweet song to sing them.
But the birds, so tiny now,
Will soon their wings be trying,
And through the meadows all the day
In happy sport be Alang.
Then Bobolink will stop to think
That summer's almost over,
And so a parting song he'll sing,
Swinging on the clover;
Lively so full and strong,
Wth sweetness bubbling over,
How I love to hear him sing,
Swinging on the clover I
The Haunted Oven.
It was in the days of our grandmothers,
when there were brick ovens In the land,
that Mr. Hubbard bought his house, and
bought it very much against his wite's will.
IL was a lonely house, and reported to be
haunted. It was next to a graveyard,
which although unused, was not cheerful,
and which, likewise, had the reputation of
a ghost. However, Mr. Hubbard did not
believe in ghosts, and was too cheerful to
be depressed by warnings, and never In
tended to be lonely.
"Mrs. Hubbard," he said, wnen his
wife shook her head over the purchase,
"I got it cheap, and it a good one. You
will like it when you get there;if you don't,
why, then talk."
So the house was bought, and into it
the Hubbard family went. There was
scarcely a chance for a ghost to show his
face amid such a family of boys and girls.
Mr. and Mrs. Hubbard counted ten of
them, all noisy ones.
Having once expostulated aud spoken
out her mind as to the house, Mrs. Hub
bard gave up the point. She scrubbed
and scoured, tacked down carpets, and
put up curtains, and owned that the' place
As not a ghost appeared for a week, she
made up her mind that there were no such
inhabitants. She even began not to mind
the tombstones. So the house got to rights
at last, and bAking day came about. In
the press of business they had a great deal
of baker's bread, and were now tired of It.
Mrs. Hubbard never enjoyed setting a
batch of bread to rise as she did that which
was to be eaten for the first time in the
"For I cannot get up an appetite for
stuff that nobody knows who had the mak
ing of," said Mrs. Hubbard, "and all puffy
and alumy besides."
So into the oven went the bread, and out
it camne at the proper time, even and brown,
and beantiful as loaves could be. Mrs.
Hubbard turned them up on their sides as
she drew themi forth, and they stood in the
long broad-tray, glorious proof's of her
skill and the excellence of the oven, when
Tommy Hubbard bounded in.
Tommy was four, and when at that age,
we are prone to believe that anything will
bear oua weight. Tommy, therefore,
anxious to inlspc~t the newly-made bread,
swung himself off his feet by elutching the
edge of the bread-tray, and over it came,
loaves and Tommy and all..
Mrs. Hubbard fle w to the rescue, and
picked up the loaves. All were dusted
and put in the tray again but one. That
lay, bottom upward, under the table,
"A bothering child to give me so much
trouble!'! she said as she crawled under
the table to get It. -"Ah---ah--dear,
And there on the floor sat Mrs. Hubbard,
screaming, wringing her hands, and shak
ing her head. The children screamed in
concert. Mir. Hubbard rushed in from
whore lie was at work.
"What's the matter, mother I" hie gasp
Mrs Hubbard pointed to the bottom of
the loaf lying in her lap.
"Look there and see 1" she said. "It
is a warning, Willham; I am going to be
taken from them all."
And ho looked; and he saw a deaths
head and cross-bones, as plaInly engraved
as they possibly could be.
"It is ad accident, said Mr. Hubbard.
"Some queer cranks do come, you know."
But Mrs. Hubbard was in a troubled
state of mind, as was but natural.
"The stories about the haumnted house.
were true," she said; "and the spirits have
marked thme loaf. I am afraid It is a warn
And the loaf was put aside, for even
Mr. Hubbard did not dare to eat any of
Mrs. Hubbard got over her fright at
last, but 'tw news of the awfully marked
loaf-spread through R--, and -tue poo
~ple came to Hubbard's all the week to
look at it. It vias a death'uahead and cross
bone., certainly--every one saw that at
a glance; but as ;o its mehning, people
differed, Some believed that it was a
warning of approdeohing death; others
thought that the spirit, wanted to frighten
the Hubbard's away, and get possession of
the house again all to themselves:
This latter supposition - inspired Mrs.
Hubbard with courage. Finally. being a
brave woman, she adopted the belief; and,
when another baking day arrived, put her
loaves iuto,the oven once more, prepared
for cross-bones and not to be frightened by
The loaves baked as before. They came
out brown anderusty and as Mrs. Hubbard
turned each In her hands there were no
cross-bones visible, but on the last were
sundry characters of letters. What, no
one copld tell, until there dopped in for a
chat a certain printer of the neighborhood,
accustomed to reading things backward.
"By George!" said he, "that is curious.
That is curious-r-e-s-u-r-g-a-m -resur
pm; that is what is on the loaf-resurgam."
"it is what they put on tombs, Isn't it?"
asked poor Mrs. Kubbard, faintly.
"Well, yes,".said Mr. Hubbard, being
obliged to admit it. "But it is not so
bad as cross bcnes and skulls."
Mrs. Hubbard shook her head,
"It Is even solemner," said the little
woman, who was not as good a linguist as
breadmaker. I feel confident,W illiam, that
I shall soon be resurgamed, and what will
these dear children do then?"
And now that the second loaf was be
fore her eyes, marked even more awfully
than the first, Mrs. Hubbard grew really
pale and thin, and lost her cheerfulness.
"I have a presentment," she said. over
and over again, "that the third baking will
decide who the warning belongs to, I be
lieve it is meant for me, and time will
show. Don't you see how thin I am grow
And though Mr. Hubbard laughed, he
also began to be troubled.
The third baking-day was one of gloo-n.
Solemnlyas a funeral,the f amilyassembled
to assist In the drawing.
Five loaves came out markless; but one
Mrs. Hubbard's hand trembled, but she
drew it forth. She laid it on the tray.
She tut ned softly about. At last she ex
posed the lower surface. On it were letters
printed backward, plain enough to read
this time, and arranged thus:
Died April 2d,
her large family.
"It is me I" cried Mrs. Hubbard, "I am
am going to go to morrow-this is the 1st.
I do feel faint-yes, I do. It is awful,and
And Mrs. Hubbard fainted away in the
arms of the most terrified of men and
The children screamed; the cat mewed;
the dog barked. The oldest boy ran for
the doctor. People flocked to the Hub
bard's. The loaf was examined. Yes,
there was Mrs. Hubbard's warning-her
call to quit this world.
She lay in bed, bidding good.by to her
family and friends. her strength going fast.
She read her Bible, and tried not to grieve
too much. The doctor shook his head. The
clergyman prayed with her. Nobody
doubted that her end was at hand, for peo
pie were very superstitious In those days.
They had been up all night with good
Mrs. Hubbard, and dawn was breaking,
and with it she was sure that she must go,
when clattering'over the road and up to
the door came a horse, and on the horse
caime a man, who alighted. He rattled
the knocker and rushed in. There was no
stopping him. Up the stairs he went to
Mrs. Hubbard's room, and bolted into It.
Everyone stared at him as he took off
"Parding," said he breathlessly; "I
heard airs. Hubbard was dying, and she'd
warnings on her bakings. I came over to
explain. You see, I was a sexton of the1
church hero a few years ago, and I know.
all about it. You needn't die of fear just
yet, Mrs. Hlubbard, for it is neither spirIts
nor demons about, nor yet warnin's. What
marks the loaves is old Mrs. Finkle's tomb
stone. I took it for an oven bottom, seeing
there were no survivors, and bricks were
dear. The last folks before you didn't get
them printed off on their loaves because
they used tins; and we got used to the
marks ourselves. Crossbones and skulls
we put up with,and never thought of caring
for the resurgam. 8o you see how it is,
and I am sorry you've been scared."
Nobody said a word. The minister shut
lis book. The doctor waiked to the wIn
dow. There was a deadly silence. Mrs.
Hubbard sat up in bed.
William I" said she to her husband, "the
first thing you do, get a now bottom to that
And the tone assured the assemblage of
anxious friends that Mrs. Hubbard was. not
goIng to die. just yet.
Indeed, she came down the next day.
And1 when the oven had been reconstruct
ed, the first thing she did was to give in
vitations for a large tea-drinking-on
which occasion the loaves camne out all
A Perpetual Skating iFond.
There Is a lake on the 5aw Tooth Moun
taint, Calitornia, that probabaly has no equal
in the United States, .It is about sixty-five
miles from Bonanza, and at an altitude of
nearly twelve thousand feet. The lake
lies in a basin among the sharp crags of the
snowy Baw Tooth, and is a sheet of perpet
ual'ice, It was disovered in Auguist of
last year by a party of prospectors, and
named the Ice Lake. Tjae sun seemed to
have no effect upon It except in places ad
joining the shore. It is simply a great
nowl in the hard mountain rock brimful of
solid ice, upon whicli the rays of the sun
descend with no powet' t'o penetrate.
Mygwene at the'Seashore.
Dr. Boardman Reed of Atlantic City,
has written a most useful paper upon this a
subject. He says people visit the seashore t
for various reasons, but mainly for health 1
rr pleasure. The pleasure-seekers really t
require more attention from the local prac
titioners than the health-seekers, simply i
because they violate more flagrantly all <
bygienic laws. But even the invalids who <
visit this great sanitarium in such numbers, I
both In summer and winter, do not always t
take the best cre of themselves. In the t
irst placo many make an unfortunate i
ohoice of location. Patients with soften- t
Ing tuberculous deposits ineist upon spend
ing not only their days, but their nights i
also, down very near the beach instead of
being content with the more moderate t
stimulation of the milder air a square or u
two back in the town. Sufferers from t
dhrenic malarial poisoning, on the other a
hand, frequently select as a dwelling place f
3ome shady bower in the centre of the f
Island, Instead of a sunny spot close to the f
beach where the clhorine and iodine com- <
pounds in the ocean spray could, undiluted, 1
axert their antiseptic and undoubted anti- b
malarial virtues, not to speak of that mys- s
rious chemical agent, ozohe, of which we c
boar so much and know so little, but which, 1
whatever its therapeutic power, is thought
to be most abundant near the salt water. 'l
Supposing a favorable location 'to have a
been secured, there are numerous points a
apon which most invalids need minute u
instructions, either from their own medical I
advisers or from a competent resident phy- a
dclan. First In Importance perhaps is the u
liet. The weak stoinach which neither r
guinine, gentlao, malt, nor any other pro- 1
product of pharmaceutic art could compel u
o welcome a hearty. meal at home, soon i
acknowledges the superior tonic powers of 1
ialt air. 'Ilhe appetite becomes uncontrol- i
able. The patient now felicitates himself a
and receives the congratulations of his too a
udulgent friends upon his rapidly improving a
iealth. But the appetite is stimulated t
nore than the d.gestive powers, and unless u
-estralned, the result is a bilious attack. If it
)o in the winter time the patient may es- I
xape with a headache, furred tongue, com- 1
plete loss of appetite, and the cessation of ]
all Improvement. Then deciding that the d
place no longer agrees with him, he returns u
0iome, perhaps little better than lie came. d
if it be in the summer, the same over-eating t
nay produce a diarrhoa or cholera morbus, d
just as it would any where else, and the c
?atient, when the local iEsculapius -has a
atched him up sufficiently, goes back to b
he city roundly denouncing the seashore. a
So with exercise. Persons debilitated by f
lisease and foul urban air feel themselves e
itimulated here to perform extraordinary j
,eats in walking, bathing, dancing, etc. By c
iuch excesses they rapidly dissipate their b
iewly acquired strength, and are left more n
prostrated than before.
The item of bathing well deserves a a
ihapter to itself. Next to imprudence in r
-ating and drinking, bathing too long, at I
te wrong time, or in the wrong way, causes t
more mischief here than any other one f
agency. It is obvious enough that invalids U
oo weak to react from the shock of the I
)reakers, and from the chill of contact I
with water twenty or thirty degrees colder i
han their bodies must suffer severely from I
Jathing in the ocean at all even if they do t
iot stay in half an hour to an hour, as r
onie misguided ones do. f
But the great luxury, and, when scien
ifically employed, most valuable therapcu
ic agent, the in-doorsea-water bath, is now to
)e enjoyed at several places on the Island.
It is especially advantageous in the winter a
ind spring months, but even in midsammer 8
rifords the benefits of sea bathing to thous- 0
inhd who dare not venture into the ocean.
A Night With a Panther.
In the autumn of 1852, after having <
raversed a great part of the Western ter- .
ritory, 1 found myself in the pleasant andi
aealthy little villiago of Fayetteville, in a
~he north-western part of Arkansas. Here L
n consequence of the large quantity of a
game with which the neighborhood abound- t
id, I determhaed to devote a few weeks to a
eccruiting my strength, which owang to I
he laborious manner in which I had traveled e
aad become very much exhausted, and also 12
o enjoy the pleasure of my favorite amuse
Upon one of my hunting excursions I had r
>een singularly unsuccessful-not having a,
aad a shot (luring the whole day, and, as o
night be supposed, felt in a not very joy- 1
us mood; for upon all previous occasions t
[ had met with great loss. This ill luck i
iaused inc to remain in the forrest much c
onger than I anticipated; and when I first a
egan to think of returning, I found a
~hat it was already beginning to get dlark, s
and I had quite a distance to travel through a
~he forest before reaching the village. i
Weary in body and harassed in mind, in i
eonsequencoet ofny want of success, I r
slowly retraced my steps. Soon the dark t
mantle of night was spread upon the forest, y
and I as yet,perceived na signs of the open- L
ing. I hastened my eteps, thinking, to reach j
the clearing erc it became too dark for the e
Iravel. Faster and faster I walked, until I s
round myself going at a brisk trot,although t
at every step my clo'thes wero torn by' the g
brush, and my flesh considerably lacerated. a
Boon, however, I was compelled io slacken c
my pace, as It had become so dark that 1 a
was unable to distinguish the trees, and t
athier reluctantly came to the conclusion r
that I would have to take up my quarters I;
for the night where 1 was.t
As my mind was thus employed, trying j
to arrange some plana for my night's e
accommodation, I was startled by a piercing f
ihriek, as o1 some person in distress. j r
stopped suddenly, and endeavored to peer 12
ato the darkness for an explanation. Again
I heard the sound, although apparently at
iot so great a distance fronm me as the first.
[ stood then irresolutely. Were it a huanan a
3eing, it would be my duty to render any C
assistance that might be in my power, and I
--. At this point of my meditations, I 8
perceived through the underbrush, a short I
Iistancefroinme,twoobjects,close together, t
resembling small balls of fire. Iliad now di- I
rinod the cause of the noise I 1uad heard. It t
proceeded from a wild ainimal,and that ai- (
malI, was now watching me with Its fire-like t
>rbal I hastily raised mny gun anti fired; c
ut as the object was somae distance from t
uue, and not being able to draw a sight, I a
nust have missed It, for no sooner Ihad I i
pulled the trigger-than with two or three r
agunds, it was before me. I now discov- t
ured, from~ its close proximity,that it was a i
psnther-that much dreaded and savage f
animal, whi'ch old hunters, oven wrhen well
aquiped, are 1oth to moot. I drew my a
mnting knife, not having ima to reloa a
ay rifle, and waited for the fatal spring;
iut to my surprise, the panther crouched
>wn about twelve feet from me, and
azed into my eyes in a manner not suited
lesset my excitement. Steadily I
ratched it, expecting every moment to be
rn in pieces by the ferocious uninal,
ithough 1 was determined to defend my
ife to the last extremity. Once I endeav
red to reload my rifle, but the moment I
omnmnnced to move, the panther rose, as
about to spring upon me. I determined.
herefore, to keep myself In readness for
le attack, for I perceived, frot the move
ehts of my eneiy, that should I attempt
> movo,it would be upon me in an instant.
"here we were in the midst of a dense for.
it, eyeing each other with a bitter enmity.
Tihus was I kept in suspence for a long
ime-I know not how long, for each min
te seemed an hour,, until the panther
robably becoming hungry, slowly ad
mnced toward me. When within about six
oet of me, it again stopped, and prepared
>r the spring. I retained tny composure man
ully,for although I ha4 been much excited
i the first appearance of the animal, the
3ngth of time that had intervened, and the
opelossness of my case, had given me new
trength, and I determined that if I must
Ie, It would be bravely defending my
Suddenly the panther gave a spring.
his I had anticipated, and planted myself
s firmly as passlble, holding my knite In
ich a manner that the animal would jump
pon it. The shock knocked me down; but
knew that I had buried my knife in the
nitmals body, for the warm blood that fell
noU me, convinced me of the fact. I had
ot killed the panther, however; for,
ef ore I could regain my feet, it was upon
ie ; and as I had lost my knife Iunimediately
pon the first attack, I was almost power.
.ss, having nothing to defend myself with,
ut what nature had bequeathed to ne. It
gain jumped upon me, and we rolled over
nd aver upon the earth. I clasped It with
1i my power around the body, and from
lie tightness with which I held i, it was
nable to do me much injury. I felt, with
leasure too that its strength was decreas
3g, and concluded that the knife must
ave entered a vital part. I hold firmly,
nowing, that should I relax my efforts,
oath would be the inevitable result. Every
oment I felt the strength of the panther
iulnish, until finally it ceased its hold al
3gether. I know now that my enemy was
*ciid,in consequence of the wound it had re
aived in Its first attack; and,after I became
ware of the fact that its life was extinct, I
egan to examine my own injuries, which
Ithough not severe, were numerous- I
Dund that my breast had been torn consid.
rable on the first attack. I bound up my in
iries with my handkerchief, as well as
ircumstances would permit, and then,
cing much exhausted, lay down near my
ow defunct enenmy, to rest.
I lay there upon the earth for some time,
nd must have slept; for, when I again
umember, the first gray streaks of morn
ig were begming to break through the
all trees. I now, for the first time, had a
air view of the object of my nightly com
'at. It was an innense panther; and, as
gazed upon it, I shuddered at what would
ave been the result, had I not been so
ertunate as to disable it on the first attaok.
now skinned the animal, and hastily re
:rned to the villiage, whed, on measure
ient, i& proved to be ten feet and a half
romt tip to tip.
Livinc In anIanht House.
Light-houses are strange and lonely
outes for men to live in. Some of them
re perched out on the ocean, with the land
Larcely in sight, and the restless sea for
ver beating and mnoaning around them.
'he keepers of these do not see other
uman faces than their own in a quarter of
year. Night and day they are on the
ratch, gladdened awhile by a sail that ap.
ears for a little while and then floats out
f sight, below the horizon. Tho might
e out of the world, for all they know of
5 co.acerns, Its losses and gais, its battles
utd its victories, the changes that each day
rings forth. TChore are other light-houses
Ltuated on the coast, but so remote that
ecy are scarcely visited, and ethers that
me surrounded by the civilIzation of a fish
g village, and on summer days are crowd
i by fashionable people from the neigh
oring watering places. But for the most
art, except in tihe approanes to flourish
ig portsi, they are built out on the farthest
targin of the land, on far-reaching capes
a peninsulas, on iron bound headlands,
n detached rocks and sandy shoals. The
ght ships are still worsts off, anchored as
'iy are in stormy waters, and forev'er roll
g, plunging, leaping ini perpetual unrest,
lipped or their wmngs, while other vessels
re passing and repassing, shortening sail
they enter port, and spreading their can
as as they start out anew. T.ihe light
dips are manned by men alone, but in the
ght-houses the keepers are allowed to
aye their wives, and children are born
uto them and brought up with the sea and
-o sea-birds and the distant ships for coin
anions. Mlany a pretty story or poemt has
eon woven aibout children living in tis
shion. T1hey learn the secrets and won
ers of the sea, and feel glad when it sings
>ftly on the calni days and sad when its
oenni is rufiled and white ini the storms.
'heir little heads are iunil of strange fancies
bout Nature, and I do not believe they
mnld understand or enjoy the life that you
aI load at huome. siomehow I cannot
lIk of thoem as real children. They seem
lore like water sprules that have their
ome in the blue depdths among other deli
ate plants that blossomns there. But they
ave lessons to learna from school books,
nd a great many things to do in their
thier's nousehiold. Their lhfe, with all its
=manee, is not one of idleness, you may
'ovtry of .ae able.
More appetizmug thnu 41u patent tonics is
lperfectiy arranged table ,sparklng with
ieal ness. Soe let us be a little extravagant
our fresh table-cloths, when soap, water
ad a little labor are all we have to pay.
Lad now we nusat decide, shall we have
eo best china, and do with sonme stoneware
~r every day? or shall we pay ourselves
e respect usually reserved for comnpany?
learly,we are the persons to whom It is of
e mnost importance. Shall we sit down to:
dd plates amid cracked( saucers six dnays.
at we may enjoy gilded' china the soy-.
uth? By no means. We will have plain
rhite French china, which can always be
taced when broken, and we will sit
own to it every day. in the same way we
1li bring out the plated knives and silver
arks,and partakeof our food, with a sense of
ur own deserts. We shall feel increased
spect for ourselves, also,'with napkins
a butter plates; so those we will have.
The Mystery of Tempered Steel.
In the whole range of the mechanic
arts it would be nearly Impossible to fl1
auother process at once so simple and
Donunon In practice, and yet so little u
derstood in theory, as the hardening ai
tempering of steel. It was probably tli
ract which led the Institute of Mechanic
Engineers (of England)toplace this subje
among those to be specially investigated I
a committee of Its own members, who
Irst report has recently appeared. 'I
ilustrate the facts which require scientil
xplanation, the process of hardening at
empering a cold chisel, which is usual
tone at one operation, may be briefly d
scribed. After heating, the point is dippt
in cold water, and thus the tool is har<
med. After cooling, the smith lifts tl
steel from the water, and watches it close]
ts the heat remaining in the body of ti
netal diffuses itself throughout the har
aned portion. As the heat spreads ti
3olor passes from a white luster to a pa
yellow, to straw color, to brownish orang
rhen the point is (topped into water aali
mad In the full confidence that after coolit
'ie temper will be that desired. If ti
smith delayed, the brown would becon
lappled with purple, and would then pa
successively into full purple, light blu
full blue, dark blue, and color would gly
its own temper upon cooling as bright bit
ror swords and watch springs,dark blue f<
saws, etc. h'lhese are the well known fact
md yet their "how" and "why" has al
ways been equally a mystery to the artiss
mad the scientist, although upon thecorre
solution of the problem depends so impor
mt a matter as knowledge how best I
reach that judicious compromise whic
Phould blend the maximum of hardness ai
oughness. Now, either can be produced i
ieasure as the colder the bath the harder t:
teel,andthe slower(as in oil) the tougher
Jut extreme hardness Is produced at the e.
ense of tenacity, and vice versa. - TI
sommittees' conclusion was suggested b)
dison's experiments upon platinum wirt
which he made public in 1870. These o;
eriments showed that the incandescei
wire became covered with minute fissure
lue to expiration of the occluded gas
inder the action of heat, and that wh
he wire was cooled in a vacum the fistur
,losed. By a succession of heatings a:
oolings the gases were entirely expellei
md the platinum became much hard(
and denser. As thecommittee suggests it mal
)e that the first and extreme heating driv4
)ut the gases occluded at ordinary ten
eratures, thus producing the denseness 4
iard steel. When the metal is slight]
ieated, as in tempering, reabsorption bi
lne, and the characteristic colors ar
lue to the changes in the surlace, ti
gradual opening of minute fissures, whic
%re produced by this reabsorption. In coi
mection with this latest theory may be me.
Jioned one or two earlier ones. One
;hat when steel is heated the carbon bi
comes liquid, and is absorbed by the mrc
as water is by a sponge,, and that upon
slow cooling the carbon becomes amorphol
and the steel Is soft, while, if cooh
quickly, the carbon crystalizes, takih
the properties of diamond. and the ste
becomes, as if it were, diamond set in irQi
This theory of Julion's is, perhaps, t
most striking one, but while accounting f
hardness, it does not explain the temper i
steel, to say notlung of objections to tl
p)ostulated liquefaction of carbo
Another theory explains the process of ti
contraction and compression of coolin
Finally may be mentioned the theory tha
at high teinperaturea, steel assumes I
amorphous wax like form, on cooling fro
which it crystalizes into large crystals,
the process is slow and undisturbed, bl
into small crystals if the process is rapid i
listurbed by hammering. Such are tU
leading theories; scarcely one of them
sot sustained by striking analogies, bi
mone of them, Including the latest, entire]
3xplains this exceedingy simpnlo and con
non but bailling mystery.
Putnam am a sp'y.
Among the ofticers of the Rievoluitional
trmny, none, probably, possessed moc
>riginality than GAeneral Putnam, who w;
secentric and fearless, blunt ini his mai
iers, the daring soldier, without thme pol1k
>f the gentleman. He might well lbe call
he Marion of the North, though he dislik<
liguise, probably from the fact of his usa
ng, which was very apt to overthrow as
rickery which lhe might have in view..
At this time a stronghold called Hors
tock, some miles fronm New York, was
lhe hands of thme British. Putnam, with
oew sturdy patriots, was lurking in t1
ricinity, bent on dirivinig them fronm t
lace. Tired of lurking in ambush, tI
nen began to be impatient, and hinportun<
~he General with a question as to wh<s
hey were going to have a bout with LI
oe. One mormnig lie made a speech som
hung to the followIng effect, which col
rinced thoem there was something in tI
"Fellows, you have been idle too ion
mad so have I. I'm going to Bush's
ilorseneck, in an ih ur, with an ox tea
mad a bag of corn. If I come back I wi
et you know the particulars; if I shmou
sot, let themi have it, by hookcey.
lie shortly afterwards mounted his<
3art, dressed as one of the commonest ord<
f Yankee farmers, and was at Bush's ta
srn, which was in possession of the Brith
~roops. No sooner dhi the oflicers espy i
han they began to question him as to hi
whereabouts, and finding him a comple
simpleton as they thought, they began
iniz ham, and threatened to seize the coi
"How much do you ask for your whol
:oncern?" asked they.
"For mercy's sake, gentlemen," rephik
the mock clodhopper, with the most d
phorable look of entreaty ; "only let me of
tad you shall have my hull team and los
for nothing, and i8 that won't dew, I
give you my word I'll return to-morro
and pay you heartily for your kindness as
"Well," said they, "we'll take you
your word. Leave the teamn and proven
sr with us, and we won't require ball f
Putnam gave up the team, and saunter
about for an hour or so, gaining all the 11
rormation he wished. lie then returned1
als men and told thoem of the foe, and hi
plan of attack.
The morning came, and with it sal
tnt the gallant band. The British we
sandled with rough hanis1 and when thi
murrendered to G*eneral Putnam, the clo
topper, lie sarcastically remarked:
"Gentlemen, I have kept-my word.
old you I would call and pay you for ye'
kindness and condeooension."
Business Laws In Daily Use.
The following compilation of business
id law contains the esence of a large amount
s- of legal verbiage:
- If a note is lost or stolen, it does not re
a lease the maker; he must pay it if the
at consideration for which it was given and
the amount can be pr( ven.
Notes bear Interest only when so stated.
) Principals are respOab.nJle for the acts
of their agents.
E Each individual in a partnership is re
td sponsible for the whole amount of the debts
of the firm, except in case of special part
Ignorance of the law excuses no one.
he law compels no one to do inipassi
'An agreement without consideration is
A note made on Sunday Is void.
Contracts made on Sunday cannot be en
A note made by a minor is vold.
A contract made with a lunatic is void.
A note obtained by fraud, or from a per
ig son In a state of intoxication, cannot be
It Is a fraud to conceal a fraud.
I Signatures made with a pencil are good
e A receipt of money is not always con
r The act of one partner binds all the rest.
l "Value received" is usually written in a
n note, and should be, but is not necessary.
If not written it is presumed by the law,
or may be supplied by proof.
The maker of an "accomodation" bill or
h note, (one for which he has received no con
sideration, having lent his name or credit
for the accommodation of the holder) is
bound to all other parties, precisely as if
there was a good consideration.
No consideration is sufficent in law if
it be illegal in its nature.
Checks or drafta should be presented
. durimg business hours, but in this country,
except In the case of banks, the time ex -
it tends through the day and evening.
If the drawer of a check of draft has
changed his residence, the holder must use
due or reasonable diligence to find him.
It one who holds a check as payee or
(I otherwise. transfers it to another, he has a
right to insist that the check be presented
r that day, or at farthest, the day following.
A note endorsed in blank (the name of
endorser only written) is transferable by
delivery, the same as if made payable to
rhe time of payment of a note must not
depend upon a contingency. The promise
iurt be absolute.
e A bill may be written upon any paper or
h substitute for it, either with ink or pencil.
The payee should be distinctly named in
the note, unless it is payable to bearer.
is An endorsee has a right to action against
all whose names were on the bill when lie
n received it.
a If the letter containing a protest of non
Is payment be put into the post office, any
Id miscarrirge does not effect the party giving
Oi Notice of protest may be sent either to
1. the place of business or of residence of the
10 party notified.
)r Ai oral agreement must be proved by
)f evidence. A writen agreement proves
Le itself. The law prefers written to oral
. evidence because of its precision.
ie No evidence may be introduced to con
. tradict or vary tihe written contract; but it
t, may be received in order to explain it,
when the contract is is need of explanation.
If Asnoran Newspapers.
it There are 10,131 American (United
r States and Canada) newspapers-899 dai.
k lies, 8,428 wecklies, tri-weeklies and
Is monthlies. The total circulation of a sin
it gle Issue of each of these papers-omitting
Y 1,920 not given-reaches the enormous
Saggregate of 20 677,588 copies, divided as
follows: Daliles, 3,540,158; weeklies, semi..
weeklies, and tri-weeklies, 18,511,424;
monthlies andl semi-monthilies, 3,625,598.
.yiThuis is an average of 2,041 to each paper
re to a simgle Issue, and taking all issues of
as the whole for one year, a grand total of 1,
i- 830, 473,592 copies. Trakiig ordiniiry
hi forty-pound newspapler at its average
d measure of 4,000 sheets (solid) to a foot,
d one issue of all these, piled up, would
.measure 5, 170 feet (iiearly a mile) ini
y height, or, for a whole year, 459, 119 feet
(over 87 miles) high. Counting them alt
e. at thme average size of 27x41, and placed
in end to end, one issue would extend 70,
a 048,255 feet-18,880 miles ; for one year,
ie 0,247,618.100 feet-1,188,874 miles-or
io forty-seve~n times around the earth, and
me lve times the distance from the earth to the
ad moon. In a thousand ems of type there
in are nearly 2,000 pieces, and In an average
ie four-page eight-column paper set, In solid
[l. brevier type, there are 148,000 ems, about
i.. 420 pounda, or 290,000 types in one news
a paper. TIo print one issue of thme total 10,
181 papers of this average size, there must
, be handled nearly 5,000,000) pounids of
~ttype. or 2,998,776,000 .types. Trho total
n number of issues of all-these dalies, week.
Ulies and monthlies, for one year, would
d make 724,796, and to print thecm occasions
the handling of 2,173,499,849,690,000
ix types. These averages are minimum rathier
er than maximum. There is usually twice as
,-. much type, at least, In ani ofice as will set
i up the p~aper; consequently, for this pur
n pose atone, there must be 10,000,000
is poundis in use, the vahie of which is about
A nloy Kill a aorgo lamer.
A few miles west of Culbertson is a
*e ranch, and near by a herd of horses. About
a week or so ago four meon, one of whom
dwas supposed to be an Indian, suddenly
B- camne upon the herd, and commenced to
7, "round uip'' the horses. "Round up is a
Ki herdsman's phrase, and means driving the
'Il horses together, and in doing so the horses
7, walk or run around in a circle, and are
id thus more easily driven away. One of
these men approached a boy, 14 years of
it age, and the only person in sight, and
I- jokingly asked to sec his revolver. The
>r boy saId he guessed not andl stepped back.
Th~e man then attempted to get the revol
id ver, but the boy was too quick for him,and
-instead of getting the revolver the man
o got a bullet in his breast and fell to the
is earth, In the meantime another of the
herders,hoaring that something unusual was
id goingon hastened to the scene. The three
re robbers became alarmed and fled without
by taking the herd of horses. The man and
1- boy then approached, rather canilogely,
the man lying on the ground, but they
I soon found that he was dead, and, only
ir two or three months before, a herder and
companion with them.
Some of the molt important inventions
have been the work of mere boys. The
invention of the valve motion to the steam
engine was made by a boy. Watts left the
engine In a very Incompletecondition, from
the fact that he had no way to open or close
the valves, except by means of levers
operated by the hand. He set np a large
engine at one of the miies, and a boy was
hired to work these valve levers; although
this was not hard work, yet it required his
constant attention. As he was working
these levers, he saw that parts of the engine
moved in the right direction, and at the ex
act time that he had to open or close the
valves. He procured a strong cord and
made one end fast to the proper part of
the engine, and the other end to the valve
lever; the boy had the satisfaction of seeing
the engine off with perfect regularity of
motion. A short time after, the foreman
came around and saw the boy playing mar
bles at the door. Looking at the engine
he soon saw the ingenuity of the boy, and
also the advantages of so great an invention.
Mr. Watts then carried out the boys inven
tive genius in a practical form, and made
the steam engine a perfect automatic work
ing machine. The power-loom is the in
vention of a farmer boy who had never
seen or heard of such a thing. He
waittled one out with his jack-knife, and
after he had got it all done, he, with great
enthusiasm, showed it to his father, who at
once kicked it all to pieces, saying he
he would have no boy about him that would
spend his time on such foolish things. The
boy gathered up the pieces and laid them
away. Soon after that his father bound
him out as an apprentice to a blacksmith,
about twelve miles from home. The boy
was delighted at the idea of learning a trade
and he soon found that his npw master
was kind and took a lively interest in him.
He had made a loom of what was left of
the one his father had brokenup, which he
showed to his master. The blacksmith
saw he had no common boy as an appren
tice, and that the inveation was a very
valuable one. lie immediately had a loom'
constructed under the supervision of the
boy; it worked to their perfect satisfaction
and the blacksmith furnished the means to
manufacture the looms, the boy to receive
one-hmlf the profits.
A stranze Oleek.
A strange clock Is said.to have once be
longed to a Hindoo prince. In front of the
clock's disk was a gong swung upon poles,
and near it was a pile of artificial human
limbs. The pile was made up of the full
number of parts necessary to constitute
twelve perfect bodies; but all heap.d to
gether in apparent confusion.
When the hands of the clock indicated
the hour of one, out from the pile crawled
just the number of parts needed to form
the frame of one man, part coming to part,
with a quick click; and when completed,
the tligure sprang up, seized a mallet, and
walking up to the gong, struck one blow.
This done, he returned to the pile, and fell
to pieces again. When two o'clock came,
two men arose, and did likewise; and at
the hour of noin and midnaigbt the entire
heap sprang up, and marching to the gong,'
artuck, one after the other, his blow, mak
Ing twelve in all; then returning, fell to
pieces as before.
Before clocks were so common, hour
glasses were much used. Sometimes they
served as pocket watches. They were al
ways kept in the churches to mark the
length of the sermons. In England, dur
lug Cromwell's reign, the sermous were
very long. An hour was seldom sufficient
for their delivery. he one old minister
when the sand ran out in his timc -piece, is
said to have turned it saying:. "I know you
are all good fellows: so let's have another
glass.'' Occasionally, when the speaker
was prosy, the congregation would either
slip out or rebel. This Is not to be won
dered at, when the spaaking continued two
or three hours. There' Is a story that one
of the Puritan preachers was just turning
his glass the second tIme, when the sexton
Interrupted him with the request that lie
would lock up the church and put the key
under the door when the sermon was over,
as the few auditors left were going home to
their dinners. TIhien another, It is said, let
his hour-glass run while talkiug against,
drinking, ie reversed it, exclaiming.
'Brethren, I have somewhat more to say on
the nature and consequences of drunkeness,
so let's have another glass and then.-''
which was a regular toper's phrase. .,,
for all their gravity, the Puritans did net
A Iiver Among the Fishes.
Fishes are as playful as birds, and sonic
speLcIes may be tamed as readily as any
other pets. Divers In diving-bells have
had sonmc curious experiences with them.
A prolongedi stay In arne place gave a diver
an opportunity to test this intelligence fur.
tiher, and to observe the trustful faemiliarIty
of this variety of niarine life. Ho was con
tinually surrounded at his work by a school
of gropeis, averaging a foot in lengcth. Anm
accident having identitled one of them, lie
noticed that it was a daily visitor. After
the fhs, curiosity, the gropers apparently
settled into the belief that the n'ovel moni
stor was hat mless and cmumsy, but useful
in assisting them to their food. The spe
cies fed on crustacea and marine worms,
which shielter under rocks, mosses,. and
suniten -objects' at the sea-bottom. In
raising anything out of the ooze a dozen of
these fIsh would thrust their heads Into the
hollow for their food before the diver's
hand was removed. They would follow
himi about, eycing his motions, dash
ing In advaente or around in spore, and evi
dently with a liking for their new-found
friend. Pleased with such an unexpect
ed familiarity, the man would bring themi
food and feed theni from, his hand as one
feeds a flock of chickens. The resemiblance
In their familiarity and some of their ways
to poultry was, In factvery striking. As
a little chick will sometimes . seize a large
crumb and scurry off, followed by the
flock, so a fleh would sometimes snatch a
morsel and fly, followed by the school, If
he droppud it or stopped to enjoy his tidbit,
his mates wtould be upon-him. Somnetinies
two woul get the sanie morsel hand there
would be a trial of strengths accompanied
with muoh flash add gllttat azic shining
scales. Bat no matter h',w dalled off,'their. ~
interest '.nd cutiosity renmal Wgh the
diver. Trhey wguijl ten, a n thete,
noses atblut him4 arrqsnaes
worm and shell flil