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0,WINNSBOR09 C., NOVEMBER 20,1880. VOL. IV.-NO. 140.
AN INDIPENDENT FARMER.
Let sailors sing the windy deep.
Let soldiers praise their armor;
But iB nIy heart this toast I'll keep,
The Independent Farmer.
When first the rose, in robe of green,
tflds its crimson lining,
And iobmd his homely porch is seen
The bgpeysuokle twining.
When banks of bloom their sweetness yield
MTo bees that gather honey,
He drives the team across the Geld,
Where skies are soft and sunny.
The blackb!rd clucks behind his plough.,
The quail pipes loud and clearly;
Yon orqbard hides behind it boughs
The home he loves so dearly.
The gray old barn, whose doors enfold
His ample store in measure,
More rich than heaps of hoarded gold,
A precious, blessed treasure ;
But yonder on the poroh there stands
His wife, the lovely charmer,
The sweetest rose on all his lands ;
The Independent Farmer.
To him the spriig comes dancing day,
To him the summer blushes,
The autumn @miles with mellow ray,
His sleep the winter hushes ;
He cares not how the world may move,
No douLts or fears o nfound him;
He smiles in calm content and love
On children gathered 'round him.
-tutiiG6 and-loies his wift,
Nor grief. nor Ill may harm her,
lke's nature's nobleman in life
The Indepon.lent Farmer.
A Friend in Need.
Three gilded balls outside, told of a
pawn-broker'. shop, Within, 6 young
girl stood by the counter, holding a' large
package for the dealer's inspection. Her
eyes followed hie motions wistfully as he
took it and removed the paper wrappmgs,
displaying the lustrous folds of a silk
dress, made in a quaint, old fashioned
"How mnch do you vant?" he question
ed at last.
"My mother thought five dollars woul4
be little enough for it. The silk is very
good. It was her wedding dress."
The man raised his eyes and hands in as
tonishment. Five dollars! the leetle miss
is i.ot in earnest. I will geef but two."
The child's lips~ quivered but she did
"Vell, I will say three, but it's too
much. The-vat you say? The shtyle is
old-too old," and with a deprecating mug.
gestive shrug of the shoulders, he placed
the money in little Adelaide's outstretched
palm. As she received the dingy looking
bills and the accompanying as dingy pawn
ticket, she turned with a disappointed sigh
toward the door. What followed was the
work of a moment. A rough looking
young hanger-on about the place saw the
bills in her hand as she came out into the
street, caught them from her with a jeering
laugh, then ran swiftly away with his
For a moment she stood bewildered,
hardly realizing what had happened. Then
with a cry of "Oh, my poor motherl" she
sank down upon the steps and began to
But liep was near. A passing stranger
had witnessed the theft, and had given
indignant pursuit and forced the young
miscreant to disgorge his plunder. Then
hastening back to the side of the sobbing
girl he said: "ilere is your money, little
one. Don't ever be so careless again, es
pecially in a neighborhood like this."
By this time a group had gathered
around the two, watching them with sinis.
ter looks, evidently in lull sympathy with
the young rulan who had been so sum
iarily disposed of by Gerald Carman's
He took in the surroundings with one
swlit glance, and determined not to leave
the helpless girl until she was in a safe
"If you are willing, I will walk a little
way with you," he said in an undertone.
I like not the company hereabouts. They
look as though they might work you mere
"Thank you," snid the girl gratefully.
"I was never here before, but biother is
so. sick she had to send me."
She was a wee bit of a thing, and look
edl even smaller walking beelde her pro
tector. Hecr face was an interesting one,
though wan and pale; and her eyes were
of that deep grey color which in the shad
ow of the long, dark lashes looked likec
black. They shone out beneath a tangle of
curly hair, which glistened in the sun like
molten gold. But Gerald thought not of
any promise of beauty in the child. His
memory was busy in the past, when he
had pressed a lingering, last kiss upon the
forehead of a little sister who was to be
laid away from his sIght undler the daisies.
Often had he threaded his fingers through
her curls-just such another mass of gleam
lng, tendrii-liko gold; and his heart warm
ed toward the owvner of the hand nestling
so confidently in his own broad palm,
while she told in artless words her simple
story as they walked aloNg.
He~r father had been a sea captain. He
had sailed away on a three years' voyage,
hoping to come'home rioh enough to stay
for the rest of his life with his family. Buat
the news of his death had reached them
and they had heard nothing since.
"Mauuna had lived in the country," said
- Adelaide, in conclusion, "and when our
money was nearly gone she thought it
wonld be easier to find work lhere, so we
mo'ved: She had not felt able to sew lately,
amnd has had to pay one thing al ter another
until all was gone- out but the wedding
dress. She was too sick to take it this
morning, so she had to trust to me. She
was afraid 1 would get lost in the . big,
wi.,ked city, but I told her God watched
over the little birds, and lie would surely
do the same by me; and so he did. It was
God who sent you," and sho looked up into
his face with admiring, reverentipal eye.
Gerald flushed a little, but her simnple,
child-like faith was too refreshing to d s
turb by any common-place disclaimer; so
he said, to turn the subject from hImself;
"Was your mamma not very sorry to part
with the dress?".
"Indeed she was. I never saw her cry
so but once before, and that was when we
heard that papa was dead."
*it was easy for the sympathetic listonmer
to form an idea of the destitution that
threatened the little family. A :paltry,
. three dollars oinly between them anid want!
'They had by'this time reached the door
of the dwelling-house which sheltered the
widow and her child.
"May I come in?" he said. '"I would
Uke to speak to your mother of a friend of
mlio-a young doctor. He is very skillful
and might help her."
"Oh, " said Adelaide, brightly; then
her face clouded, "but we have no money
to pay him,"
'.That.will be all right," said Gerald.
ThO girl bounded up stairs with a light
heart at these words and disappeared for a
moment. Then she came out and beckon
ed to him. .
"Please to come in; mamma will see
Lifting his hat, he entered the room soft
ly. All within was cheerful and pleasant.
A few flowers, brought from their country
home, were blossoming upon the window
sill, and a sweet-voiced canary trilled its
tiny-throated music above them. But his
attention was at once concentrated upon
the hectic.painted face resting upon the
bhe smiled faintly as site met his eyes;
with their expression of kindly interest.
"You are very good," she said. "My
little girl has told me of your cffer. I shall
be glad to accept it for her sake, but I fear
I am past all help."
"When there is life there is hope," said
Gerald, cheerily, "and my friend, Dr.
Gilbert, though young, is very skillful. I
will see him to-day and interest him in
Then he wrote down her name In his
note book: "Mrs. Adelaide Harney, wife of
Captain Barney, of the ship Adelaide No.
8 - street."
"May I come i and see how you get
along under his treatmentl' he -asked, as
he arose to go.
Mrs. Harney looked at him for a moment
with eyes rendered almost preternaturally
bright by her illness. Gerald felt as though
his very poul was being laid bare under
that searching'gaze bdt he did not blench.
He had been reared by a tender Christian
mother, and though ene of the gay world
in position, he had reached manhood sia
gularly unspotted by its vices. So he
could bear the scrutiny of those clear eyes,
without uneasiness, for there was no lep
rous spot in his life to be brought to light.
"Come when you like," she said at last.
"And if my days are numbered, oh, kind
air, watch over my child, my poor little
Adelaidel She must earn an honest living.
Will you see that she is put in the way of
it? You have a god face and I feel that
I can trust you. R you never had an
earthly reward, the God of the widow and
of the fatherless will bless you."
She closed- her eyes wearily, exhausted
by her emotions, and Gerald, deeply
nf ved, went in quest of Dr. Gilbert.
Gerald4 arman was junior partner in a
large shipping house. One of their finest
ships had arrived in port, but a few days
aince, and Its captain-a bluff, hearty sailor
-had a peculiar charm to the young man.
He spent several evenings with him, and
had an engagement to join 'him at lunch.
While eating their oysters together, a mat
ter of busines was mentiohed, and a slight
difference in date coming up, Gerald drew
out his note book.
"That will tell the story," he said, soft
A humorous twinkle came into the sun
browned sailor's eyes, as he read aloud,
"Mrs. Adelaide Harney, wife of Captain
"lve given you the wrong page, I see,"
said Gerald, smiling at Captain Breese's
quizzical expression, "That is a person
whom I met to-day for the first time. The
poor lady is in destitute circumstances.
By the by,- her husband was a sea-faring
man like yourself."
The captain suddenly caught him by the
"Harney-was that the name? By my
good ship, man, the hand of Providence is
in ii i've been in the country this very
day to find out the wife and child of poor
George Barney. Destitute, did you say?
Why, I've a pile of gold sovereigns for
them-all honest money fairly earned.
Take me to thenm at once. I'm burning to
discharge my mission."
At the end of an hour they reached their
destination. They met Dr. Glbert at the
door. He gave a cheeiing account of Mrs.
Harnoy, saying the most she needed was
nourishing food and plenty of fresh air.
"dend your coachman around with the
carriage every fine morning, Gerald," he
said in conclusion. It will kill two birds
with one stone-maybe save a life and give
that idle fellow something to do."
"We'll see to that, young sir," chimed
In Captain Brecse's hearty voice. Then
Gerald introduced the two and they shook
It transpired that Mrs. Harney had never
received the letter sent by Capt. Breese.
It had undoubtedly gone to the' dead-letter
ofilcee. She had all the particulars of her
husband's illness and death to hear. She
shed bitter tears as she listened to his
loving messages to his absent wIfe; but it
was a relief to learn that one of his coun
trymen had ministered to hIs many wants
and closed his eyes at the last, wvith tender,
Her heart turned to the home where she
received her husband's parting embrace.
So Captain Breese took a day from his sail
ing preparations, andi saw that all was
made comfortable to receive them, and one
bright summer morning, Gerald bade
Adelaide and her mother good-bye. In
parting, he said: "Write to me how you
like your new home, little girl; I shall be
interested to hear." And thus they
dropped, after a fashion out of his world.
From time to. time the letters came as he
had rcquested. At first in a round, school
girl's hand; then the more elegant chiro
graphy told of culture and aptness for im
Years had passed. One of :the dainty
mnissives came one morning just as he had
received orders from his p'hysician to stop
mental exertion and go to some quiet place
in the country where he could have com
Adelaide's letter decided him. . He
would engage board near them, and renew
the~acquaintance with his little friend and
Would they know him? Time had
worked changes upon his face-deepenimg
the- thoughtful lines between his brows,
and clothing lips anid cheek with a luxuri-d
ant growth of haIr. He was no longer a
smooth-faced, happy.hearted boy.
Once in the village it was easy to find
the cottage; and he was soon sauntering
leisurely up th~e neat walks. Evidences of
refined taste ,were vlilble on every hand.
As hO was ,ascending the stepv, he found
himself fate tb l ace with a young girl,I
who had onened the door and come out
upon the veranda humming a glad little
- Thoughts of a pale, earnest face, looking
with Its deep, gray eyes out from a tangle
of golden curls, had been haunting him all
through his journey. It had not occurred
to him that the child bad grown into wom.
anhood. So it almost stariled him from
his self-possession, when, after a surprised,
lingering glance Into his face, this beauti
ful, stately maiden held out her hand, and
with a glad thrill in her musical, young
voice, said: -
"This is indeed a pleasurel Come in,
Mr. Gerald; mamma will be glad to see
you once more."
He followed the graceful figure like one
In a dream, and when a fair, matronly lady
with a widow's cap resting upon her glossy
hair, came forward to meet him at Ade
laide's Impulsive-"Ohi, mammal It is our
friend, Mr. Geraldi"-he seemed still In
wonderland. Could that be the emaciated,
hectic-painted face he remembered so viv
The evening passed on flying wings.
Adelaide said but little. it filled her with
a strange content to listen to the deep,
musical voice of this frbend whose kindness
dated back so far into the past, and yet
whose acquaintance could be numbered
almost by hours. Now and then she would
glance up into his handsome face to assure
herself thdt Mr. Gerald as she still called
him after the old, childish fashion, was a
real person, hot a dream-myth.
Ilis stay In the quiet village was pro
longed much beyond his original intention.
He was once more a well man, physically;
but mentally he was troubled with a
strange unrest. He had grown to love
Adelaide with the whole force of his ardent
nature, and like all noble-minded men, he
was free from conceit about his own pow
era of pleasing. He hesitated to break the
spell of silence lest In asking her to become
more than a' friend he might lose all.
One morning he called to leave a book
she had expressed a wish to read. He
found her in the garden tying up a vine
whose heavy clusters of opening rosebuds
had weighed it almost too heavily. For a
moment he sto watching her, then she
turned and haw him. The light of suiden
joy that Irradiated her face carried 'an. in
tuition of - the truth to his previously
doubting heart, and he said softly, hesi
tating no longer:
"Has my little friend a rose for me?'
With a bright face Adelaide plucked one
of the most creamy, half-opened buds and
held it towards him. As he took it, he
"I only want it with its full meaning.
Without that it is valueless as a gift from
you. Do you know why?
One swift, upturned glance into his eager
face, then Adelaide's head drooped low
and the hue of her cheeks grew like the
"red, red rose;" but she did not reclaim
He gathered her in his arms.
'Oh, my darling' my darling!" he
whispered passionately, "I will try to
prove worthy of such a precious giftl"
The Traunstein, or "Stone of Betrothal,
dates from the time of Odin. It is a large
hole in the rock of sufficient dimensions
for a man to pass his hand through it and
grasp another on the opposite side. In the
Orkneys, "Standing Stones of Stennis,"
there is a similar stone, which is called th3
Stone of Odin. Until the middle of the
last century this stone was the witness of
betrothal, marriage vows, and solemn con
tracts, and whosoever violated the vow
"made to Odin" was avoided as infamous.
Children who were passed through the hole
were supposed to be insured against the
palsy. The word. Traun signifies "be
tiothed." Those In the Orkneys were
originally a semi-circle of tall upright
*tones on one side of a lake, and a similar
group of checilar pillars which stood on the
pro~ening pzomontoryof the adjoininglak.
The stones were upward of twenty feet
high and of Immense size ; between the
two lakes was a narrow neck of land, and
over this a curious bridge of rough stones
thrown into the form of a causeway.
Besides the atones mentioned there were
the Logan.stones, great bosses of stones so
cunningly fitted one upon another ,that if
the upper one were touched in a crtain
spot with the fingrer it would move, but no
strength of a man could otherwise move
it. Tfhis was the trial stone which could
be made to show a person guilty or inno
cent, as best suited the pagan priests.
Similar stones were remarked by Pliny,
A. D. 100, who mentions one near Hiarnosa,
which "mIght be movei by a finger,"4 and
Ptolemy, A. D. 10, says, "The (Jygorlan
rock could be moved with a stalk of aspho
del." The Logan stones in Corn wall g
well knowh. Astonishing virtues have
beeneattributed to small stones which have
a natural hole in them; these were de
terined "holy stones," and wvere some
times tied around the necks of ca ttle to
charm away adders.
The Saraw Blusiness.*
The man who works up the "straw"
business on railroad trains has bee n very
scarce this year. Indeed,' only one in
stance of canvassing a Michigan railroad
train has been reported thus far durling the
campaign. On the train going to Saginaw
three or four days ago a man who had
enough whiskey In him to make himself
enthusiastic asked permission of the con
ductor to make a canvass on the train, and
was told to go ahead at his own peril.
Armed with paper and.' pencil ho began
at the last seat in the rear coach. Thbis
was occupied by a man who rose slowly
up, shed his coat and quietly remarked:
"Mister man, I'm going to make your
heels break your neck in just sixteen se
The only reason he didn't was because
the canvasser hurried to the other end of
the car. Ho began operations hero by
punching an old man who was fast asleep.
As soon as the sleeper got ia eyes open
and saw the pencil lie called out:
"Over. three months ago I swore to do
it or loga nly vote, and hore goes I,"
lie made a sudden rush at the canvasser,
throw' hIm over a seat, hit him below the
bolt, and might have crippled him for life
had ho not been taken olr. A quarter of
*n hour later the coniductor found the can.
vaaner on th-I p'altorm with his nose skinned
and his entltusiasina all gone.
*';'kow did the votb stand?" inquired the
"I was elected over all otler candidaten
by two majority," was tho proept reply,
as the anan wet a~ bit'of paper ap'd stuck ii
on is nose.
JameuS rewn's Feran.
A few days ago a hod ckrrier named
James Brown, wurking at the Tome MIll,
in Centreville, New Jersey, received a let
ter bordered in black, just s he was as
cending a ladder with a hod of mortar.
Upon opening the letter he learned that he
had fallen heir to $64,000 through the
death of his father. He informed his com.
panions of his good fortune, but, to their
surprise, did not quit wqrk, and was
promptly on hand the next morning.
"Why, Brown," said the overseer, "ain't
you going to knock oft?"
"Of course not," said he. "Why should
"Well, but with such a nice little for
"Poohl pooh! man," Brown interrupted.
"If you had lpst $150,000 in one day as I
have done, you wouldn't be upset by a lit
tle matter of this kind."
Then he shouldered his hod and went to
work. He is a fine, athletic-looking man,
about forty years of age, with a good hum
ored expression, regular features, orna-.
mented with closely-trimmed side whiskers.
His muscular arms, bared to the elbow,
are tanned and battered.
"Mr. Brown," said a reporter, "do you
object to telling how you lost $150,000 M
a single day?"
"Not at all, sir," he replied. "I was
born in Now York and lived there nearly
all my life. My relatives m this- city are
all wealthy. I was myself worth over
$300,000 at one time. I was a broker in
. all and Broad streets for nearly ten years,
but my fortune gradually dwindled away
in risky speculations until only $150,000
was left. Every cent of that went in one
day in the panic of '73. Oil did it. Well,
my friend secured a clerkship for me, and
I worked hard for a year or two till I ac
cumulated a little money, and then I'd lose
It again in stocks. I was In a constant
state of feverish excitement, my health ran
down, and I finally gave every cent I had
away, and went to work as a brick-layer
and hod-carrier. I have gained forty-six
pounds since I began, and I am contented
"Of course you'll quit this sort of thing
"By no means. If I go back on the
street I'll lose what little money I have, and
shatter my health. Besides----"
Here the dialogue was interrupted by a
mason leaning out of a half-finished win
dow, yelling, "Hay, Brown? I'm blessed
if here ain't another."
"No!' said Brown, with a smile.
"Sure as you're born," was the reply.
And then the windows were black with the
heads of masons and brick-layers, all look
ing in one direction. The reporter follow
ed their example, and saw a woman ef a
stylish appearance coming over the road
and making a bee line for Mr. Brown. She
walked direcly up to the reporter and said:
"Wiaere's Mr. Brown?"
"Here he is, madam"-but, on turning
around, no Mr. Brown was to be seen. He
had disappeared at her approach. She
tapped the ground with her parasol and
said It was very provoking. The reporter
asked her why, and she said she had heard
of Brown's good luck, and, as he would
probably start an establishment, she had
come to offer her services. She had been
a capable housekeeper in an English fam
ily for fifteen years, and she was sure she
would suit Mr. Brown. Would the repor
ter look for him? Of course he would; and
behind the engine house he found Brown
making a line on a board beside six other
lines, while an admiring crowd stood
"Do you mean to say that this is the
seventh women who has beeu here?" in
quired the reporter.
"1I assure you, sir, I have been called
upon by seven woman, all of whom were
total strangers to me, to-day, and I can
prove it by these men."
"And you don't want a capable English
"I do not!"
Just then the woman came around the
corner, and Brown couldn't get outof sight.
He didn't make an engagement, however;
so the applicant .was obliged to return to
the city again.
The station master confirmed the story
that seven different woman had called to
see the fortunate brick-layer in one day;
but they had iall been disappointed.
The Laplanders wear on their -head a
small cap, made with eight seams, covered
with stripes of brown cloth, the cap itself
being cf a grayish color. ThIs reaches no
lower than the tips of the ears. Their
outer garment or jacket, is open in front
half way down the bosom, below which
part it is fastened with hooks. The jacket,
when loose, reaches below the knees; but
as it is usually tied up with a girdle, it
scarcely reaches so far, and is sloped off at
the bottom. The collar is of four fingers'
breadth, thick, and stitched with thread.
They wear no stockings. Their pantaloons
made of the coarse and slight woolen cloth
of the country, called walmial, reach down
to their feet, tapering gradually to the bot
tom, and are tied with a bandage over their
half-boots. All the needlework is per
formed by the women. They make their
thread of the sinews In the legs of the rein
deer, separating them, while fresh, with
their teeth, into slender strings, which they
twist together. The lapiander is said to
consume ten times more flesh than a Swedish
peasant. A family of four persons devour
a deer in a week; they eat the glutton,
squirrel, bear, martin, beaver, and, in short,
every living creature they catch except
wolves and, foxes. "Every day," says a
traveler, "I have seen reindeer flesh cooked
in their huts for the whole family, and
generally of young fawns, in large iron
kettles. When the flesh was cooked li was
immediately torn asunder by the master of
the house with his fingers, and divided
amnong-the family ; and the eagerness with
which eah person received his allowance,
and the rapidity with whIch they strove, as
for a wager, to tear it with their teeth and
lingers, are almost incredible. In the
meantime, the broth remains ir the kettle,
and Is boiled up with thick reindeer milk,
with rye or oatmeal, and sometimes,
though seldom, with a little salt. This
broth is then distributed, and devoured
with the same hung-y avidliiy. The Sea.
Laplander, on the other hand, has only fish,
or fish livers with train oil, and never has
either the means or opportunity of prepar
ing such costly soups."
-Seraator Mci.onaiid of Indiana, will
soon marry a Washington widow.
-There are 650,974 colored Baptists
at the South.
Japanese Fires and Fir omen.
Fires In the foreign settlement arc of
comparatively rare occurrence, but during
the winter months we are often called to
duty in the native town-sometimes on a
false alarm, but oftener for a really serious
fire. The Japanese houses being built
closely together, of light wood, with parer
windows, a fire spreads with the slightest
wind, until as many as three or four hun
dred houses are burned to the ground, and
the same number of poor families are left
homeleqe in the street. The Hong Kong
Fire Insurance Company, a local assocla
tion, whose head office is at Hong Kong,
have provided Yokohama with a steam fire
engine called the Victoria, which is mann
ed by ten or twelve volunteersof the young
men living here. This, together with an
other steam engine called the Itelief, main
tained by the joint subscriptions of the
foreign insurance companies . who have
agencies here and are interested In property
in Japan, and a number of old fashioned
hand engines belonging to the Japanese
government, and managed by natives,
forms the fire guard of the foreign settle
ment and native town of Yokohama. Thd
Hong Kong Fire Insurance Company, be
ing an English house, provide their volun
teers with uniforms of English pattern
brass helmets for the officers and black
leather helmets, trimmed with brass, for
the men; blue flannelshirts, faced with red,
corduroy trousers, top boots and a belt,
with a hatchet and spanner on either side.
The relief men wear the American fire hat
and red flannel shirt, but in other respects
their dress is the same as the Victoria. At
the sound of the alarm bell the steam en
gines are not long in reaching the scene of
a fire, and the steady streams from their
hoses as a rule soon have a very percepti
ble effect on the flames, though at times we
have to work from night till morning, and
when at last the fire is extingnished the
tired volunteers draw the engines back to
their houses and retire to the rest they have
so fairly earne by their labors. After the
steam engines are drawn off the Japs are
loft to play on the smouldering ruins with
their hand engines, which, though almost
useless when a fire is at its height, ate suf
ficiently powerful to keep it from breaking
out again. The Japanese policemen,
though brave and quick enough, are aboo
luttly worthless at a fire. They jabber and
shout like a parcel of monkeys struck sud
denly mad, give orders where they have no
right to interfere and choD at windows and
doors with their hatchets, destroying prop
erty unnecessarily, where In most cases it
could be saved with no other damage than
would be caused by the water pumped from
the engine. The uniform of the Japqnese
policeman, llk that of all government
officials, is of foreign pattern, and Is made
of navy blue cloth, faced with yellow; their
caps, something the same shape as a navy
cap,have a yellow band sewed around them,
and a brasschrysanthemum, the crest of the
Emperor. is fastened just above the peak.
Some habits are so unconsciously practiced
that a movement to mend them Is the only
way to detect them. The beam In one's
own eye is less noticed than the mote in
another person's eye.
A family while at the breakfast table
one morning pledged itself to observe the
strictest veracity for that day. A member
of the family tells the "consequenees."
As a first fruit of the resolve, we asked
the one who suggested It:
"What made you so late at breakfast this
"93he hesitated, began with, "Because I
couldn't-" and then, true to her compact
said: "The truth is, I was lazy and didn't
hurry, or I might have been down long
Presently one of them remarked that she
had been very cold, adding: "I never was
so cold in my life."
An inquiring look caused the last speak
er to modify this statement instantly with:
"Oh, I don't think it was so cold after
A third remark to the effect that "Mils
So-and-So was the homeliest girl in the
city," was recalled as soon as made, the
speaker being compelled'to own that Miss
Bo.and-8o was only rather plain, instead of
being cxcessively homely.
So it went on throughout the day, cau
sing much merriment, which was good-na
turedly accepted by the subjects, and giv
ing rise to constant corrections in the in
teret of truth.
Oine thing became more and more sur
prising, however, to each one of us, and
'that was the amount of cutting down which
our most careless statements demanded
under this new law,
A duel was lately fought in Texas by
Alexander Shott and John 8. Nott. Nott
was shot, and Shott was not. In this case
it Is better to be Shott than Nott. There
was a rumor that N4ott was not shot, and
Shott avows that he shot Notlt, which
proves either that the shot Shott shiot at
Nott was not shot, or that Nott was shot
notwithstanding. Circumstantial evidence
is not always good. It may be made to
appear on trial that the shot Shott shiot
shot Nott, or, as accidents with firearms
are frequent, it mhay be possible that the
shot Z~hott shot shot Shott himself, when
the whoie affair would resolve Itself into
its original eleorhents, and Shott would be
shot, and Nott would be not. We think,
however, that the shot Shoit shiot shot not
Skott, but Nott; anyway, it is hard to tell
who was shot.
The spectacle of the sun shining at mid
night attracts many foreigners to Swedish
Liapland during the month of June. For
six weeks there is scarcely any night In
the north of Sweden; the sun never sets,
and the soil, constantly heated, produces
in a month and a half barley and other
crops. At that time of the year the Lap
landers pen up their reindeers and move
their huts toward the cultivated fields. Be
ing very hospitable, they greet with joy
the arrival of tourists, who generally meet
at Mlount GJellaware, about ninety miles
from Lurea. From that Hill, which is
about six hundred yard high, the beautiful
spectacle of the "midnight sun'' can be
admired in better conditions than ,from
any other place. The 24th of June is the
day selected for the assension; It Is the
longest day in the yar, the sunben
twenty-two hours above the horizon- en
"In Santa Fe the manufacture of this
jewelry is becoming more Important, and
figree work is becoming in greater demand.
Touritts invest in Mexican jewelry because
in itself it is quaint and pretty and is rare
ly seen in tho East, and as souvenirs of the
ancient city they desire naturally to take
away something which has an unmistakably
native appearance. The gold used in the
manufacturing this jewelry, is either from
the Old Placers or the New Placers, twenty
or thirty miles distant, and Is generally
bought from Mexicans who earn their
living by panning on the dust from the
.washings on these properties. The silver
ciomes generally from Silver City, the
" '70" mine of Bremen near there supply
ing the ore, and the smelting being done
In that town. it is brought from there in
a crude state, and refined in the shops
where the jewelry is made. It may not
be uhinteresting to those who have seen
filligree jewelry in its complete form, to
examine for a moment the process by
which the pretty designs are wrought out.
First,the gold and silver must be absolute
Jy pure and without alloy, as any combin
ation of the baser metals would destroy
the necessary ductility of the metal which
is to be operated upon. The metal as it Is
required Is melted in the shop, refined
and then cast into flat bars. Theme bars
or plates are then put through rollers until
they are reduced to the thickness of about
one-eighth of an inch and a foot or so long.
Then with shcarm, strips are cut off which
are drawn through holes In an Iron plate
successively smaller until the strip becomes
a wire of the necessary thickness. The
simallest of these wires are of the thinness
of fine sewing silk, but are perfect in
roundness. The next step Is the twisting
of the wires together, which is now done
by a lathe, this having been found easier
and quicker and more accurate that the
old way of rolling the two wires under the
baud on a board. The twisted wires are
then passed through rollers which turns
them out into a very thin tape of metal,
the edges being finely and regularly notch
ed. The workman has now done with his
metal wire for a minuite, and lays it aside.
A framework of thicker wire is made to
receive the design he is about to manufact
ure, and this is placed fat upon the table.
Into this frame he places divisions or com
partments and again takes up his wire.
hear his hand is a block of wood,in which
Is embedded a row of small pins, or rather
brass teeth, set very closely together. One
end of the wire Is then attached to the
central peg, and the workman proceeds to
wind his wire on the pegs, moving with cooh
turn of wire one pin away from the center
in each direction. When he has continued
this ioveient until he considers his coil
of wire It sullicient for his purpose, he
cuts the tape and slips it from the pins,
having thou a flat oval coil of very Ano
metal wire, irregular on the surface with
the notches off the edges. This coil the
workman can manage as he pleases. He
can lengthen it, broaden It, make it nar
row, insert another piece of another do
sign and- manipulate it to almost any ex
tent, so flexible is the wire, without mar
ring the appearance produced by -the in
dentations of the edges. He then fit* this
coil into the framework, solders it there
after fitting it with a fine pincher and nip
15ers, and auds coil after coil, if more than
one Is needea, until the figure is complete
edt. The patterns worked into jewelry in
santa Fe are without number, numerous
imitations of feather and scroll work and
flowers being manufactured from the crude
gold and silver. According to the taste of
the customer and his desire to incur ex.
pense, jewels are added to increase the
bi illiancy of the article. Not only is the
whole work (lone without the aid of any
machine, but on almost every piece accur
ate measurement is required to proportion
the work exactly, and this Is all done by
the eye merely without the aid of a rule,
mold or die. The ornamentation Is pro.
duced si..ply 'y bending or pressing the
wire, no engravhi.g chiseling or inlaying
appearing on any pieee. Trho work, o1
courbe, requires time, and hence 31exican
jewelry is very costly, though the prices
asked in Santa Fe are smaller than one
who has watched the tedious and careful
process would expect. Several pieces
which have been ordlered recently from
Santa Fe, of special design, hav'e required
several weeks of labor for their production,
two workmen or even three heing constant
ly employed during that tIme. Santa Fe
ships large quantities of jewelry to all the
large cities of the East.
Ancient Tombsn in Switzerland.
An Interesting find of ancient tombs
supposed to have formed part of a JBurgun
dia burying ground, was made a short
time ago at Assens, a village of the canton
of Vaud. 'I hose tombs, which follow each
other in regular order, are hollowed out of
the rock on a hill at the entrance of the
viliage, about three feet below the soll.
They are each two metres long and eighty
cn-Imetres wide. At the head of each
grave is a fiat stone, dressed, but bearing
no inscription. The bones are disprosed In
the ordinary way, as if the bodies to which
they belonged had been laid down in a
horizontal position, and not vertically, as
in sonme tombils lately opened at Chamblan
des, in the same canton. Fragments of
tibia, femurs, and the clavicles wore found,
but no skulls. .One of the tombs contained
the bones of an adult and an infant, pre
sumably of a mother and her child. Among
the objects found are pieces of curiously
wrought and chased metal and silver rivets,
the remains probably of a warrior's glaive
and sword-belt, in another of the tombs
was a belimouthed vase of the capacity of
half a litre black as t' its exterior, but In
substance yellow. Whether the material,
of which it is composed be sto or burnt
earth has not yet been determined. Inside
as well as outside there are traces of
lozeng4-shalped figures executed apparently
with some graving to91. The chief inter
eat of these tombs consists In the fact that
they are almost certainly cooval with the
arrival of the Burgunoians In the Jun.
country in the fifth century whither they
wore called by the aboriginal Inhabitants
to repeoplo the land, almost depopulated
by an invasion of the Allemain. Being
for the most part shepherds and hunters,
they dwelt chIefly on the mountain slopes
and in elevated valleys. The plateau of
Mlount Jorat appears to have been one of
their most important settlements, and there
can be little doubt that the origen of AMsens,
as well as of Cheseaux, where .also Bur
gundlan tombs have been found, dates back
some 1,400 years. - .
Ne W" IN "tittF.
-The wheat crop of ilinois for 1880,
will amount to 53.865,000 bushels.
-A horse shoe wanufacturer Is &ak
Ing a horse shoe of Iron And hemp.
-There are 200 miles of oyster beds
on the gulf coast of the Misslsippi.
-The public debt statiment for Sep
tember shows a reduction of $8, 974,591,
-Eighty thousand bushels of onions
annually And a market tt Poughkepsle.
Castor beans are now selling In St;
Louis at from $1.35 to $1.45 per bushel.
-The bogus medical colleges of
Philadelphia have been wiped out by
-Detroit gains a new Industry in a
linseed-oil mill with a daily capacity
of 50 barrels.
-Westmoreland county, Pa., this
year produced about 175,000 pounds of
There are 434 churches In Philadel
phla, 354 in-New York City, and 240 Ia
-Vassar college opened with ai in
creased attendance of seventy-Aye
-Sicily has a larger crop of oranges -
and lemons this year than for many
-The French pay President Grevy
120,000 salary, with $60,000 additional
-The value of the entire taxable
property of the United States is valued
-The town of Bristol, R. I., celebra
ted the 200th anniversary of Its settle
ment, Sept. 24th.
-Newark, N. J., produces eIght
tenthi of all the patent leather made la
the United States,
-California expects to produce 14,
000,000 gallons of wine this year-the
largest crop ever made.
A leading New Orleans authority
estimates the cotton crop for the our
rent year at 5,700,000 bales.
-Ten thousand children are crowded
out of schools in New York city, on
account of lack of accomodations.
-The old farm of Henry Clay, in
Kentucky, has just been leased at the
rate of eight dollars per acre.
-Winona, Miss., shipped 995 bales
of cotton during the month of Septem
Gen. Gilmore estimates that the
Florida ship canal will cost $50,000,
-The arable land of the Unithd
States is estimated at 1,500,000 square
-Seventeen women have been ex
amined for the Harvard annex this
-It Is estimated that California's
crop of wheat, barley, wool, &c., this
year will aggregate $75,000,000 In value.
-A Paris dry-goods house was visit
ed by 67,000 people In one day, and on
one day goods to the value of $280,000
-The greater portion of Vissago, a
large village in the canton of VillIss,.
Switzerlaud, was destroyed by fire
-According to the figures ot a Fill
River man, the capacity of the cotton
factroles of that city in 160,000 pieces
-Thirteen daily political newspaperp
are published in Paris, of which the
total circulation is over 1,000,000 copies
-Germany has got rid of nearly
12U,000,000 In gold, chiefty to the
United States ani France, within the
last sixteen months.
-The cardinals appointed by Pope
Pius IX. are about to ereet a monument
to his memory in the basilica of St-.
Mashi Magglore, at a cost of $12,000.
The Wisconsin hop crop has beens
virtually a failure this year. Thne
usual crop is from 8,000 to 10,000 bales ;
whereas this year it will barely reah
-The estimated cost of the Nfe*Y
York underground raIlway is,$1,250.
000 per mIle, and $750,000 additionaI
making the total cost $2,000,000 per
-Tihere is a creamery at' beberah,
[a., which averages daily 1,200 pounds,
which sells in the PhIladelphia market
at 25 cents per pourid, as fast as It can
-Five or six Boston firms find em
ployment packing 3,500,000 pounds of
boneless nish yearly, mostly cod, in
paper boxes coated inside with resin
-The manufacture of agrIcultural
implements has doubled in the last ten
.years In 1850 It gave employment to
only 5301 hands; now It gives employ
w'ent to 40,080.
-The U. S. mints during Septem
ber coined 5,156,058 pieces of various
denominations, vrlued at $8,840,504.
Tihis Includes 2,301,000 standards silver
dollars and 2,38)i,000 cents.
-In spite of the increased grain acre
age of the country tributary to Mil
waukee, her grain receipts have fallen
cit from 35,915,493 to 3,3,3,24 bushels
for the crop year just closed.
-The apple crop Is Immense this
year, and it Is estImated that 125,000,
000 trees are bearing and wIll yld
200,000,000 bushels. ThIs year's crop
ought to be worth $80,000,000 or $70,
--Texas cattle men are more than.
satisfied with the season's business, as
their stock brought $1 a hundred more*
than was expected. The drive for the
season aggregates over 300,000.
-The tobacco crop In Pennsylvania
in 1879 amousnted to 81,000,000 pounds,
at that time the Jar gesC crep ever grown
in the btate. The present crop will
amount to 40,000,000 pounds.
-The revenues of the U. 8. Govern.
ment for the last fiscal year, foul up.
$333,526,011, or consderably more than
$1,000,000 for every working day of the
year. Tihe excess over the previous
fiscal year Is about $00,000,000.
-The clearings of the Chicago bhnks
for the month of September soot ua
total of $141,786,818.12, being $28,148
049.10 ufore than for the cotrrepond2
lng month last year. For the nine
months of the present year the t4ta1
clearing are S1,19,4,67.11, belig
$842,688,142.88 more than 1or the ~
respondsg nine mionihs $f laut 765t