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THE NEWS AND H ERt ALb.
WNI S2NN ORO, S. C.
bArIRDAY, February 5, a Ie6,
t.M-0. JA IPA r1z , MPonn.
N#. Y O;EX08B ASsoctAt't EvIToa.
A YEaR or two ago the Eloman
Catholic Church in America was
shocked by the anouncenent of the
failure of Arobbisop Purcell, of Cini.
4innati, for hundreds of thousands of
doiears deposited with Iim by mem
bors of the church for safe keeping.
Though no stigma attached to his In
*egitv, Investigation laid bare a case
of fright ful mnismanagemuent of fiude.
An effort made to liquidate the amouut
4lue by subscription utterly failed.
The Archbishop and ie brother Ed
ward, who had been lits agent, were
overwhelmed by the catastrophe. Two
weeks ago Edward died, and on Wed
3tesday the Archbishop hinself was
hopelessly Aricken with paralysis.
The confilding depositors may learn a
lesson to invest their money in sound
business ventures hereafter, aid not
to place their teinporai affirs in the
hands -of spiritual advisers..
The State's Duty in the Coming
It Is stated that the plucky little
State of Delaware has instructed its
Attorney General to defend its citi
zens that have been arrested by Fed.
eral imarshals on the charge of violat
lig the election laws. It has been'
suggested that the LegIslaturo of
Souuth Carolina meet In extra session
and makeo an approrielation for the
defence of those citiens of this State
who have been bound over to appear
at court in Charleston. While there
may be soine doubt as to the propriety
of the State's tidertaking to defend
Private iirn c harged ith alleged
private violat ions of' lawi, the is none
wantever as to hoe pe imlra Iive duity
devolvingr upion her to defend to the
utmo4t er swOrn iersriA tle anira
gert, State constables and depruty Sher
iff, who conlducted the election alnd
Preserved the peace ai thile d plli
confortuoitny With tie Stat. law, the
m1ore espec11, ia a these officers s(!rved
voluntatrily, wilhoet pay or reward.
TO i i thiss to hierald abroad that
Souith Carolina exp~ects to huve nto
elect ionl machinery inl 1882. For it has
already become at standing rule that
afers 111ust either manipulate the
vote s.o as to declare a ad ical maji
fy or else sbmidt, to.arrest on the lmvii
afidavits of Rattical pimpjs and piu .
Such at demailnd uplonl 11he publ)ic
spirit of anyaitizen is unjust inl the
last degroe, forhowever patriotic he
may be, his circumstantees forbid a
draft upon his scanty purie, to say
rnmt i n a'er the rout. --r
iTioet Unthed States covrtinmec n- a
stacis he abunatd prleesti thak..
idfn carer isrvsen hfleds evoen
then thdeyavue. Jeenc flarnt guit
paof ours gist h State ndnm lsta ws or i
eretnes 1ev~ethe riht afjris
iction~ tJoha Staute ortcern suchtn
itnce Ste nStaecnd n esta
derfendehersevnsen rihaed ibetore
poluysie de ormorrand succeeded on th
partiof Thing Statel admrnitherainiit
dsihdredt peertuat horest ahl
imeuth:arolina. wStte flibera-s
Linof eu in jroepady fas exniister
foreaLto and hear ariects.
Thce, ,wentysen Ibrrihmgn tingh
aaingthig limav eyforr ah rouairn
arx regarded asnemers for mricaThe
avi ere b tih Commrer isi some
whaertntiva alow tcah whot gvesmeut
parlimentatfworkw the deibram
tone o e rhosentmit hrs eser
befoithosad ears-t 'allepe tiepo
vices, qscha" follibusterin, ofalkin
agis ieaddfeating a qui-ido ur or umi'ii
isaey hegardsfit ol'ily on Amers,
wepresahettave off be goere
Inder theco sun. adkel teho
hos it thatfold tht dasoRn
nye rdeitor ) te ret coercis nienaer
bren aoud tnessawhr te "ai tre
vrcmusr question" flIor the pu re of de
feratigs a13 lon-indedl mie ori. i Tis
is why te o hnfu ofe Homulersi
weria-(le~ ito rstavs o as totIe o~nrth
-thn cotiuou sies so fo~rifo rtw
hors.(5 : i They hoke toatn Gldstoe
Ij ('sholdr prsn, reormg t bui .- bfrea n
hem enrdeavr to((enfres oreq rci moaf
ures tand th it in whre moth ad sthe
* Prmnyieifer,) eor ofr thebpto
jj n' iee il ar itenpser auing. n
i t tro iuts thes rIlom r, Iand'
dividedri inthow relrs o ast. be~n malwthn
*iion hant prs i thir measu) r, biu:
the I oest ulr pp a lso veiid l into
ebans(1tIoe~lrkn, k Ing thirny-'breetin
trminable sechs fo te qestio of r
adjournmpenale. inaly theo Speak-t
erpprook theIt btan his mto n sum-i
mai rily, ruit har any~ tdebat
peut eIon ritsl panae ran ne
ir thri ouh i'erets fis wra izirnel
anhis olow ylld ottgans theoue10)55t Is
roilunen aecede for te ftre oflthe
su pprosvdal han hehpadl to hang
will allow the ireVioUs questioit osa I
Matters are assnining a still gravel
phase, and it Is lard to seo.how a col
lision can long be averted. Enaglam,
Is bound by all the rules of fairness ti
ndopt utneilorativye mVelasures. Th<
bare fact that a fbrillo Island, witt fIM
11illis of souls, Under the most en
lightened governnient ill the world i
perpot UaIly threatened with siarvation
is proof of terrible wrong sollewhere
The past experience of the SOW]
should teach us to symiltize deep:
with the Irish; for we, too, have ex
perenced the horrors of alien rule.
IFon TI S NHWs AND U1RALDj
- CKE1NCE' IN PAIMIINU.
An Instruatiwe and Interesting Letter 01
AgieItural Geology, with Wino Jints tc
Geo. H. McLaster, Esq.
As the schools of our day taught lit
tie of cheinistry and geology, thougl
these sciences are highly necessary t(
understand the formation and con
struction of soils, and as we are lao
professors but homespun farmers, w
will claim the privilege of using ou
homlespun language in what we Iay'
to say oil this subject.
The outer surface of the earth i
generally covered with loose or sol
matter, in contradistinctiou to solid
as rocks. This sand, clay, etc., I
formed from rocks, either by disiite
gration, decomposition or :by havin
been crushed, ground or abraided b
some natural caue. To the extren
outer or upper crust of this coating
constituting a thickness generally o
f.en one to evcral Inches, we appl:
the term soil. To the next inner cris
of one to several feet we apply aiotlhe
term, subsoil. Still another term ina
be applied to the layer under the sub
soil, of from fifty to one hnidred fee
think. This is substratum, and this
like the subsoil, has a very importani
bearing oni the character and availabilj
ty of the soil.
1f the ,tubsoil is too porous valuabi
Ing-redients may s'ink into it and b
lost to plants. .It it is pure Or pip
clay, it will be too stiff and impervit u
to waiter, and will keep the soil frony
draining inl a natural way and tharow
i1g oiits superfluou.s water. Since i
d d t to onlerdraw such soil
properly, they are generally of littl,
v1alue, saVc when sutfliciently rollinc
to atlilld laternal draainauige.
If the substriatuin, or rock, be strati
Lied horiz iutallv, and this rock is o
stch chanracteras to be imupervious t
wvaler and to afrid no semamas througr
wlich the siame ciii F.iik, and esliecial
ly if this rock coines near the surice
this substratum will al ways act, its
barrier against, perfect aund succes-,re
dr'ai nage. If, onl the contrary, th
substrattua is of' por'ous ari'tl or roelU
I" in' a'.ibler'abale incaalinIaton or' dIi
,:eams thraough which'l water' cana perec
latie, lhen such subshitrtum ans1 i Iwer
thle piitpose of perl feet untiter'-mhiiangs
andi( th lan iiids superi an io'ed on theri
are avaihtble for iinspr'ovemaent at ni
cost for' drain e IiiCputrposes. Sute
naatura'il undel(r-draainagie is supplied I
nu1 a of11 our bet taiinLg li ads.
As remtarkedc 'befor'e, all soils tar
toraied from rock, anad all para':ke c
I le natutre of the rock fromi which the
are' formaaed. As thle're ai n to greal
nutmber of difloraent nteks, if ut
know fr'om what kindl of rockl a pai
1.cul ar' soil is formied we enn m reacti
presumet wh at mazy bie its pricip(1 11
colisiituaenats. But soils are eit her sail
of' sub1)idlence or' soils ao'f lnlnsport
Byv soils of' subsidence we mneana th
decomaposed Or tiisinite~grated lbortion
oft rocks, ocenpvinanid re11 'stinag ini thI
same spot once' occu pied by thIe r'oe
fromn which they were nmiade, wthie
will always patatike of' the nature e
the elements contained in the be
rock, thaoughi by chinical act ion nei
elements may be generiated in the pre'
cessa of' decomposition.
By soils 0t' tranasport wv' mani sue
as have been moved fromna othier Iplaci
by actloll (of wtier, ind or1(5 glacien'
Such11 soils are likely to be morie varie
in their eleninents thani soils of subs
dience. One p)articular' class of' soii
otf tr'ansport, of' tmore r'ecent or'igli
are what we call crock antd r'iver bw
toms-thle level inarginms of suc
stra'nms formted by their ov'er'low atni
the breaking dlown3 of uidiacet hiib
Ther'e Is yet a specizal soil of' traspori
ats it werCe, outside of' thme genteil liii
of' sails of' Iransport. We refer t
"trap soils." As these are the r'esu
of' volcanic action, whose surfaces am
genecrally formned by suibsinence or thl
action of' water aufl i suachl act ion, thme
aya be termaled soils oft uaphaeav'al c
special tr'ansport.. T1hey' ar'e, ill ceratii
cases, spreadL( oni rocks of' diflferei
,lhar'acters tf'ont those fr'om whichl the
Whaen we use thme termi soil, in a
agrlctihtural sense, we refer' to thI
thain, outer 01r top layer of' the earthfl
crust iareaidy maenat ioned. Of' thm
miner'al part of' this, silica or' snaud I
mtost abuniidat. Alhnnidna (clat') ata
ihne are genertal ly next molst 'abuma
anu. Othier t-lementsI suc astt~ irloi
ilagies'ita. pttashi, sodma, chilorinae, a,,
bj~ie a ids, aill oa' a paa t are fam d I
soilIs, andat molst imiport ant of all I, umn ;
a brown saubstance f'ormaed by the con
binatiiona of' eat'th wvith da(ecomapose
vt''amable anid animtal maatte'r ina th
//umns1 is~ thle amost imnpor'tanat fact:
it thle puoil. In inet, withlout iit te
is no soil, as it is thait. whaich receiv<
at a'et ainis all plant lood--sumpplyvin,
it in lihe shaipe of' daily' raltionls to' tlb
Ilantt. ha/fius is somietimaes styled tlh
hudly of Ihec soil; It hi at ore appr
pi'tlv be called tlae hi t'e of' the( soi
Palnce flbroughi its atgenicy alone thec so
imarlts lire to' phaiits..
A few't words'l ais to fltth 'oegioitt
elemen'it a. Silhiet generally cont itute1
frtomt fortfy-five to iinety per* cnt.
all soils. lin a soluble t'rm it is take'
uip lby htits anda is a most esseth
('elmnt ini thle sitalkh~inmg parinciple <
alh pltaniit, 31ala in1som', las we' haav
s'eni, to sniehl an ex tellt thatt the iy ai
styled si lien plants1. F~ew soils' eve
become de'f t itute of' sufiicient silica
imnke good~ crops, thbougrh thle amnonur
of' solucble silica found( by anialvtsisi
mtost soils hii noit great. ' Chaemical a<
tiont, whichh Is all the imne goIng ot
do~ubt less keeps uip a suplyll~,~but as thl
slheca les are absorbhed ain lie plan I
ia th'er thlan ian lie grin3, they are mtoar
gctneranlly re'en i tlcd ton sol Si
hainV1g t-i-m 9.5 to 97.70 sillica wioulid
bo barren an111d worthless.
Alumtina, the clay of the soil, is all
1important aigent. It retains alumonita
and other valuablo materials which
would otherwise waitshed away by
> rains. It. is tho 8poige of the body,
liiius, an( reliis the deenvinie par
, ticles off leg'etable and aniinal inatters
fron which it Is for1ned. It saves
some of the valies of air and rain
' water as Initrogexn or .evex 4ree tui
uioia. I serves altso for tho reten
tioni of* moisture il tie soil aid to give
suilicieit tenacity to the svll 10 hold
(lae roots of > lt. Soil to0) open aId
porols a1111yA be much itlproyed by tile
- additioni of clay.
Lime is 1aother impotat, factor,
Savei' hat it enterslargely into thestruct
1re of soime p111(. One of its princi
pie oilces, however, Is to act as a
cletmical agent on other sibstaices,
'particubllylii v'getablo maiitter, which
it decuiposes and fits for plant food.
It malerilly aids in decomposing pai
ticles on compact masses of rock, aid
thereby sets free elements of fertility,
and especially in granitic soils does 'it
aid in settilg free potash by aidi'i
> decomposition. The lime of the soil
- i not. so activo ats our caustic or cal
t, 1ined lime.
Iron1 exists almost universally, and
is foiund evegvwbere. Iron formis the
coloring matber of clay-the beautd
3 ful red timts of fruits uad flowers. It
'enters into plaits to a small extent., and
is not recognized a. an essen-ial ash ele
ment. Potash and soda are verv im
portant ash elemnits, anid ividely
diffused. Alost red lnds, or hands of'
s the primtary formaationms, conlain a free
. Supply of potash For most plalits, an11d
need additions oily for pirely pots11
pilants, a1s tobacco. Tho same Is truo
3 The terthir or sandy formation Is
poorly supplied with potash and soda
f -hece potasl may be supplied to ad
Tuntige on1 all crops) il thi region.
Phosphorie, sulphuric and cairbonlic
acids are uiseful faictors; the first en
r ters direct us plant food, the second is
a solvent of any bone phosphate the
. soil imay contaIn, and tlte third Is anl
active cliulical agent, as it acts as a
ready solvent. for certain mineral sub
, staices which becoimc plant food.
t The supply of annuiioin Ill a soil
- oubtiss varies from time *to time.
'Thle ai' fuIishjes a ceI'1,iti UnakiIown
allomuit to sufliciently porous .soils.
More is auppli(l ill the shalpe oftnitrogen
inl ram11 water, the amouit of which
) we canniiot measuire. But froma the
a known result of abundant rains on
growing plants, am3 from tihe ilict that
We recotIvnize ammoniia as a stalkimr
~ principle, we ma11iy safely art i enoug10 y
tIrail, elnoughi 3 a1liIoonIia fro linature's
3 storeioue foi ill practicul purposes.
''The ceeicail ainlysis of soils, as a
.general thing, will not. urealt l aid the
agriculturalist. A kind of 'common
sense analysis with the eve and brain
- will mild H iuch. We can readiy lar Ion i
b by experience that certain soils are too
open or porons; others too close oi
Sii. We 0can realdil y judge froil the
rocks of a section what. its soil Inus
- he of', whetlher Ole of deposit or of
imiIIted t ranisport. All soils of granite
Iwill be opeln, liose o clay sOwes close
I and almost tuniversally poor, and when
Sworn1, deadly poor aid sticky like
p)u tty. This is sirikingly illustrated
inl tle botomills of smal1l Streamts rn m
sale ecions3 alternaitely wvill make
thie best b ottomi but ie longer at reamas
uke thle richest of' all. Oni our harge
1r1ver swyant ps thle rieber 50edimen81t ini
ovIier~(iows is de(1posi tedi near1 the river
b aniks, and3( wiith it the( c1)ar3SCst P3and(
3a11d lightaest. partLiecs of' mica0 whImh
aInte r.s( lto thle 1333113 of istinglalss land1(.
Tmht nn miay', ho weven. be set free
atter1 beimg I -an1spor3tedl. The back
8,swamps are geinrally made fromi the
1t fi' ialter held iin solut iota anid are
lo'e :113d chlliuomy with pipe clayi subl
s i1. I hey arme genlerahyi well sny
cmb iii tig w iith tis pipe chiv, give.
blue hanids and~ at e of little value c x
ce(lt tor rice.
There1 1 is carcely' a plalntationm in our
S tate of wh Iich thle lanids canni ot. be
mate ially i mproved by an ad ini xtulre
of soils, a33.1 suich adixtl in-eI i canj ofteni
be linade at e rilljing cost. ;The ad(di
.d ta ' ptrlls ht.ids wvill pay. The var~i ion's
.. bogs supp' 1 us1V ivegetrable nuut11er fori
exhusI' huw nidos~. tLd are oftlIIento
Ir. soi~me regjionls we are trou~bled
iih co3unltless in t rocks oin thle suar.
Saice. Th le plan1 of old1 was to pile ii
-tI .eemnly niaam ini tihe field. Now a
muchiel easier phtain would bI e to breatk
imp lhese flintils inlto somalI malisses ot an
inchi or' less. TIhiis enn be - done at
a .1 cut te san1llie 'iost. as piIintg. bvy a
: -ct, ehlan131, wv,,1.3 uns for' the plun
. vos a331 ste baull of' (ote and3( a halfI to
t titpnns we'(ighit, hain~g anl eye for
afl, x.!l~e hanlelve or six feet
long. A sinmgle blowI (If' such iiaim
tmer* in thet. hltids otf an x porta' will genm
eralvy crush into siall In311i harinless
e finemnts a flinit of' sever'1ah l ouns
v~ etiht. ,These quar'tz lrocks genierally'
r ae 111le11 nah11 11 suphimrets1 of' som'ie
kimd, i3uost ge'nend11ly of' iron. Ex posedl
11 t the 1au~mo3hee, thev dcompo1i1(se
rapl~lidly andl give up iipllortant ele
men~lts 11o the soil, It is well knlown
gimt. somle of' ouri maaost fertil~e soils are
coee villa rocks. Terconitinued
fet ility is dlute to the breaking up and
d iecompositionm o' thaese rocks.
S CLASSEs OF SOILS.
.1 A proimnentl agricult uiral wr itea' has
divided ihe soils of ouri State into seveni
,chlasses, as follows:
-I. Soils [romn grlaite and1( gneiss.
- 2. Trapl1, andI( thlose der'mived( froml
ni roc'ks ini whlichi horn'Iblen'de aIbounds(.
1 . Alca slate soils.
I- -I. Tallcose' slate soils.
1l 5'. Soils of' eIlav slate.
e 6. Soils oIf ter'tiary f'ormationa.
7. Alluvial soils.
r 13 The purely graiitic soils aare naot of
e the richest (11ass, but, of' a kindly (class
Il forl worImkinlg 131rpioses. They will ad
!u mIit (of a high state (of imnpr'ov'emenit
0 and( like the moreit open1 soilIs of1 gileis,'
e mayi be beniefitted by ani in1termijxtur'e
of claiy, lif'ling a' better supply of'
I, lum~ina ii. Thel best, cotton1m Jlnds of
I ourii State are1. fou1I~ nd h(uhi class.
Th'le trap soils coiver' our black-jack
andi(lI tuhit to lanids. Th'lese lands lat no(
P remiote timei weie open31 priies, and3(
I' 01ur tirst ac(countsl of' the'm ut' r lie
ii settIlemenlt (I II' he countryV dlscible
I'er as$ ''0131n meadlows.'' Th'e t imI
*1 her1 (i on them is of' recnt.m. growthI.
e llence thiey' are miot proper.ly stored
c iwith vegetabi'le iatter'. They') wld~
i' if lefl. in a state of' natuare I wo or t hree
LI hundr~hIed y'ears havie beeni thle r'ichIest
tof' all our upilanids. Thleir. obljectiona
ii ble subsoil anid bad draulinge we have
-before atl luded to1. To i mroi'e thlem
,vgetaible' matter 1mst be abunildanit ly
C supiplled, and1( great car'e imust he taken
e every fild of these lands in the con
s tr iv has been eniniim1 Somm.. m.' late h'
sisch wet cultivatiotn. The second di.
Vision of these laindlinade fron slate
abotulliing in lhorlnbdd, are the most
prolitic cottoi lan(s b the State-nind
Inake more it' it with less stalk than
aln) other hun au wo.hive.
The soils otimleeidelcoso and .elay
slates are g nerally: of the poorer
classes of soil. If'ipt poor they owe
their fi-rtility to the -eeencoof sone
other rock in which tie slates are inter
mixed. Tie 4olls oho tertiary fotr
miation are lielow the .ilis 'of the
rivers. Whel level with clavy sub
soils they, - ae o d lad 'or impruve
menIt. The li e tlo$ttuts of itiack
1111d mild 1r1 )On)1 le SiMILtu)ips that every.
where aibol tid in thti.region aftbrds a
never-lailiig Soltree of Intprovoile lit,
Add to these the mal's of tile low
country and their nmearness to the
Chiarlueston boil e basin, and we cai
readily see 10 vast advaitages they
possess. The econd class -of these
rolling mlads may be termed sand,,
hills, amnong1'st kvbleh the aimoint 61:
imalle soil is limied, and not sus,
ceplible of htigh and permaneit ill
provement. Yet no other class of soilh
afl'ords a bet tedi return for the sau
ainotint of fortilizing. material used foi
Of the alluvihii soils we nay say little
They are as widely dlt'erent in vailue
as the difibring sources from which
they are deried. Our coity con
tuitts many acres of such lands whiel
are worn out. -Such are not at pres
ent liable to o ertiow. 1hese land
are highly selsitivQ to tile least totel
of mianurin:g. A given amount o
guano or slalle manure will makl
twice the Z-howing on themi that it wil
make on the aljaceit hills. May suel
lands not be nuriched agailt ' by v
natural process A considerable per
centage of all o ir lands are under the
levels of the str un11s rnnin11 throngil
them. Su)ppoSewe take such streianms
or parts of then'ii when too large t<
use the whole, antd conduct then;
around the hills in horizontal t.rentch11e0
or ditches with a- fall, say six inehles tu
the mile. No, Inl timites of rain:
when the streamt are muddied we counk
let. small quantit es of water escape a
-every few steps o make its way ove
the lands, dept siting its mu'd anC
sediment as it foi nd its way back to
the buiks of the mirentt stream. Thus
thle soil wailshed oml thle hills aMom
would he depos ted on these lowei
levels. It' such laces so undergoins
improveenit, were allowed to grow
u1p inl gfrass and weeds the process o
irrigation miight, be kept ip at al
times when the stream was clear, till f
promoting a dense growth of gral I
alnd weeds. There are numberles
streausa above The falls of the rivers
which, If 1.roperly mnaged, at a
tri lug cost would enrich annualh
hun Ie(lds of acres by (,OlVcveying anid
covering over them tle rich mat111 tel
that now finds its way to the sea
Much can be said on tiis subject o
irrigation for fetilizinig' IurOlses.
To (1o it, though, two things aerequi
site: 1st. Te stream mast untl from
htills that. haive fertile soils. 2d. Thi
location of the liteltes iust be thE
work of a coipetent engineer.
It future, it we have atty improve
FAR31ERS MUST BE IMPROVED.
If we grow weatiltlier such increase it
wealtli itist be 1itaily% (iue to the inl.
eeensed and~ enhanteet'l valuie of ont
Eri ii liil"i~iildg and b
fore innkin g ani e'xpenit e iCoutla aiV
ei iter we laid biest pause for aL 'tmu
iimnt anmd eml.sidler whIethear our- soil
tare such ats to tittit of' pemanittlent atmn
htigh imtprovemenmit. Onme t ihrmer il
wh io pur1 tchatsed( his lanids thlirty -li v
V~caris atgo att t wo doliars peir 'acre
sincee thait they hiavei.cost htim,, by hi
stateement, fort' dlollars per aicre in iun
itrovemen~tit. lie climts to ltake het
tr crops of' clov'er and1( gratsses t hia
his owni biot her does it Penniislvanlia
whose lands tate worth five tuis a
mtucht. 'lThe witerll ha*1 seen both1 f'tm
and itihinitks htis e'stittinte correLct . Witi
onte re..matrk we close. Whe l yuiou hiu
lanti to fartm on, before dloinig so matki
a slight geological survey of tihe stone
Asevtaiun wh'at its capaibilities to
wv hat ntl ural sourtces of' litpr'ov'emet
arme at hand, anid wi ithI there sui
'onisiderations a~ls tom prospective lieal Ii
atnd iteighbI orly surIrounintgs. [f
Vounlg manii, y11 mayli comment(cte ti
hte a successful farmer. All enano1
be dottn- by' toil, soumethIintg ttust he
aicconmplishmed by btrainm work, amtI ami
oneO whot( runsai tet'rm ini fuiture. bevoml
thle free ntegr'o lev'ei of forty aicres tami
a mtu le, utmst. mix somie sciecie iil
the elbow~ gr'eatse that dirives thie mat~
Ibuilder, T1oi(CO. Ohio, tavy: An Ex
clsior Kidn ty Pa r'eiieved 1me' o
mgit~. Please sedtt mte antothmer Pad~.
--L. B. Smi-h,, of' Faithaiult, Minn.
says: I amt still w'eaingit ani 'Onml,
Liing Padi.'" i ti it hats 1 cilped me;'
mtienid to ht.ie tun. her of' exiI
atrenigtt bsoont.-.See Adv.
AS Assignee <' the assigned es.tate o~
I. . Whers, the undlers4;nedl
ill offer for ltdobefor'e the C4 ut JUons
door it Wmntastt,, on thei first Monzday'
ini Februarytt, I i, at pubic Outcriy, 1o
thei highest hid de, all the nmiotes mand ac.
countsbelongin~ to said estaite andi re
mainin, uncl ed t thei dlay of' stale,
Terms of sale-Casih.
'JOHN. S. FAIRLY,
jan 12.1 lantaI Assienee.
rj'HIE firm of )espborteas & M~onts is this
, ( ay' tn maly'liisolvedh by' limitat ion,
The acconnls oin tst the ecoer imus
be presented inimediately anid those it
debted are requeltedl to make prompt set
tlement. Mr. UG. Decsportes is author
ized to receipt, f( the samte.
January 1, 184%
OFricE~ oUTY TkEaAsURERt,
WalNssuono, ( ,, January 21, .1881.
A C'TING nn r instrutcts from thea
..- Comptrto i' Genteral, I hereby give
ntotice tihat tilt rtics owtnintg ori hav ing
ant interest in ha la now on the list of' de.
limtjient lantds, in any~ lands her'etofor'o
forfeited to the ite for the nlon-puaymnent
of taxes, anmd jolth have not beon sold
for taxes or* reel ned, except oneh lanids
as were lorfeito pior to .878-70i, may
be iredeemed ott e paymlent i't the taxes
wl ich may be d ti unpaid thtereon,
itti costs, bnt without pen ltjes: Pro.
rulud, said payr itt shall be miado *'n or
tbglorc thme 31 st -of any, 1.21, as pr11".
vided for ini thi \ct of t -e tIeneial As.
tsembly, aipprove Decembor 21. 1880
JAMES Q. DAVIs,
jinn '2 hexm Cem,.. Tri.. rr
BswAnx o Oi usocunv.-Ono thousand dollars
in gold willy.e paid for every grain of mercury
Or other iinieral substance founi in May Al
Plo Liver P i ts. Price 15 conta for large boxos.
8 dcby al Druggists in thitscouuty.
Er ArA, ALA., Maroh 0. 1878.
Ir. L. oenfeld-Dear Sir--I talke pleasure in
a atng t at I have used your Medicated Stook
Feed tIot on hoimes and cat te, and with great
sucemes, t ecially on a very poor cow, which
I bough auction. She gives iow ove'r tjvo
gallons of Milk. with a oord pros et Of 'n
cre1 . Nntwithstainlng tho prI udice I en.
ert ni for o hiri nliowders that, had tried,
and %v Ieh proved wortnless, I do riot. hesitate
to en iSe yotir invention as being till you
< naim or it. P. T. t-11 ENA N'
tet lemen-V-We have given I6hoenfe-ld's Block
FE el- your horses. and 0ind that it is alt you
'! e I
cnn ain ior 1t. Yours truly,
O(JAPMIAN & DAVIS,
Prop s Livery and Sale Stables. -Id St., Sirreon,
Ga. Iold by the Druggists of this county.
I e f n assure you that in no aing'. itnstance hpe
the thIa erer proved afa 'ure. We h ve tried
the othing micrineltes, and everytliig knlown
to us and 'Ohi Women," and Teethinifls pre.
emir'ntly it succe.3, and a blessing to mioters
and hilaren. J i DELACY
A/ter tryin Soothing Itemedles without
avail, and paysitehens without relief, I gave
your rcethina and it acted like nagio. I occa
slona! give a poder to keep i chfid'A umq
coften]. 8. R ALDw-_ .
BUCHU HAS LONG
been used by t lottentots in a variety of dis.
eases. Froin I hese rude prae' it lotior-s he rein
edy was borrowed b. the resident Eniiglich and
Duten hysicins. byv whose recommendation
it, was eshployed in Europe. and has since como
into) general us. Combinied with Juniper and
other dimirabie ingredients as in I ho prepara.
tiot of Ilankin's Compouni Fluid Extract of
BTichu And Jtuiper, it proves a mst reliablo
ieried$' for Konretention or Incontinence of
Urine,-Irritaiion, liflanmation or Ulceration
of the laddler and Kidneys. Stone in the Bad-'I
d'r, (travel or Bt ick Dilst Doposit. S'ilky Dis
chargs 'nd nil dsensl's of lilndder and Kid.
a n Dropsical Swelling in inan, wonian or
PrOPared onlv by I'int, Itankin & Lrnir,
rDrii~sts, Atlanta, Oa., and for sale by all
M)eswrs Lamar. Rankin & Lataa'r entimen:
Mi wifo had been troubled for several inonths
with BroneihitLi, an11 during that. time t. ted
llearly i ver3 litng mngiln:m ble without tie
Sihttest. benefit. A friend of hers to whom I
niiioned It told me to get a bottle of Brewer's
Lurig Restorer, which I died. antd .es tan one
but'e cured her ent Irely. I w 11 recommend it
to all who are iilarly affected.
Yours very truly
4ATHiAN C. MUNRIOE,
'MACoN, (IA., M1lroh 1, 1880.
Messrs. Lainar. Rankin & l.nena', Dear Sirs
I had Irequent hemorrha e before using your
I 'onumittuptivo Cure, and iand been treated by
Dr. Crowell Johnson and other skilled physi
c:htns wit hout beltig reiieved, and aftejr using
three bottles or your Brewer's Lung Restorer,
'the hemorrhage was sopp)ed, and I have never
had one bince. I am now in better lealth than
beore, and icel it, my dity to stato to the pub
lie the effects of your wonderful Consumptive
cure on me. tours truly,
Mrs. E- O AVANT.
This Is to certify that I have h-id Asthma
for thirty-fave years and used a great many
dillerent kinds of nitedeiines Was treated by
Dr. 1I01ion /1e years without lnalmig relicf. I
then used your Brewer's Lung Itcstorer uni
found in 'It a permtnent cure.
Very truly youra Z. J' PARKS.
Sold by all Druggists In this county.
- -iv. l'ikir.
I'iItY. HioU.'i ON COUNTY. (A., .Jai. 28, ISS.
In the 1873 there were two negro prisoners
confiled in the jall of I his county, who were
very baidlv alilioted with that, loathsome dis
ese Mpiiuills. lit miy ofilelal capaity an Ordi
airy, I enwloyed Capt t T. Sw1ft. then a rest
diII. of this place, to cure them, under a ('oil
I rait, "no enlre no iay "' lie administered to
I hem his celierated Sphiti,1e SpeWitie nati in
a few weeks I felt, bound. undhr tuv contract, to
pny liini (lilt ol tihe conillty treasuryi, as he had
-elTete- ' .. cimpeteC ati raicn. .u....
t.. nA T'rANooOA. Tl:N r.. Feb 14, bsig
Wet~i take pleasure in ayi~g 1 hat ihe s. s 's'
I tai~ 'vi-ig p"oot satisfacti on We have bad Cx.
- Irel''nl resuit.. iromn -1 nunlme of cases. O)ne
gi'ntl, m-1i'i wein had bei-n coniid to hits hied
*'iz '* withI Syphillit I e niuma.'sm ha:41been
ti red enitirely, lunid spi'nks ini ihe highest praise5
of li. It in'so inets as we'll In primary as in sec
Iond~ary and tertiary ease::.
'l'iE SWFT *,~(tl'.E8 &t UEllHY.
1 tit: . PECIFI COiANY. P'roie.
.Ii ihv ai l ruggcists
ti for a copy' of'. Younig Men's Friend."
EDITORS~ AND NFMVPA Pifl1 3MN
i of tihe ('Crnttry t1(or'e James Bhoss' renut
.Gol Wati:li C~tses. As a pr'oof. read the fol
I fl'31imnyre. Md , Afirehl 8. 19SO0
I1' ivn mi' pleasu ri to ii Or'nt ou liar t'he
-J .'a., BlM.. W tehi U:Isi I haiv' c 0-riid las
I'J. TI IRIN00000m,
- Ed. n nd Pi op't 'Jw.cgram.
LaFayette. lnd . Maer'h 8, 1980.
Itiak.e lea~ iuie in Itln nu 'ilhr.g t he Jim'es
i M at liih "l.e ais1 hb13li\d i'.faetory a nd
3lta InWia t .ew m 1( giTih'iey are
Ed. at1-m11( ,,r1r
Our managi-r hi: s c..ri ii a J uu h- s
Pd 1011 , it~iiCIII, i Ii rru'i l.,ii sa. s'tuar it,
T\TE LEAlm 00Ki .
1-ub'rs huu-a State Leadecr.
m 1(0 dhi saye t ha~ (it the J1 mies ioss
I.til s h aveI en iCly sad i toetory,
Ed. 1a3nd Prap I '/'ore/ o/ /Ae4nrty.
Th^ Ebhve are (3EriEre iti by hitn:irEd~sor
andinilr.- ii ll 111 r of lii ,'01 i'hy. e
i~ s i C'(ie~:I(lt nilE -ill. of
S 1880er haslti(bd pa s 'i~u1d aay, T amC
Stowe ( on1ll In by, m 03' linltomerIlisi a
hter. Laalnuecaernn am (liild oun
Sles a dustesa dthtIavelco
*ecte exedn* wl,Antwithtad
nwINSBte O co, and wC.
SMUT8 11S AND~Cr H RICSIII
tn ii ul faoi, upon their m'ainge
mo 'good0( papes. SfI also1 iie cob
-mers, ast ca e othma lwa
the lowes'Ct J'for Cash.
1 DEF~Y COMPETI1TION.
Jon 11 A. WILLIF.ORI,
e. E. 1YCDONALIJ,
ATTORNEY ATl LA w.]
YO. 3 L A W 1i'ANOG, 3
WJI'NNHOR1O, 8. C.
I I tEaitior Cout-t Hlouse,
WET OR DRY TICKET
Is the qnestion whIcb agitates the mind of the public, not only in
Winnsboro, but ill over the State; yet Mimnaugh thunders forth in lines
of living truth, bearing the impress of Mbimnaugh's genius and wearing
the mpajestic foi m of his
In Dry Goods, Notions, Boots, Shoes, Hats, Clothing, Carpeting, Glass
and Crockeryware, ete., etc,
EIBB2NS! i IBBOJTS LI!
Here, my bayer, in the strong, terse language of the West, baR "struck
ile." I name a Imighty sacrifice to the power of ready cash 2,000 yards
of Grosgrain Ribben, worth JiftPen and twenty cents, which I uname at
I)ppuar lgures,teu cenats,
Q A& L_ I C 0 Ea S.
My buyer on the floor of the great auction house of Field, Morrison
& Co. has just brought clown the hainmer on a big drive in Standard
Prin-ts, worth eight cents, at the surprising figures of 6to.
SL4 A < EM T e.
The very small, dilapidated stock of these goods which the recent
cold snap left on my hands, .I have determined to offer as a holocaust to
my -"fetish," the god of bargains.
Jeans, Cassimeres, Flanuels and Dress Goods are the leaders of the
LINEW I-ICTCE, TOWELS
Fifty dozen Linen Huck Towels, a drive fearlessly offered as the best
Towel in Carolina, at twenty-five cents.
T I T W -A ~ M.
To close out an odd lot at loss than the material cost. Examine it
I still reiterate the words so often expressed-polite and courteous
attention given every visitor, whether buyr or not.
J. L. MIMNAUGH,
jan 2 THE LEADER OF LO JV PRICES.
At iH E CuRNER SI1ORE
FaLL MDl WTNTERL GOODS3,10
BEG leave to inform our customers and the public generally, that we hA
r nteloy <isposed of our Grocery Department for the purpose of making mor
roomi for our
Which are now in store, and ave been marked at J)rices to induce quick aale. WO
('In ol. en k "'" a d ti e h arinm; hind,- nni styles, tint cordil.Ily invite all to call and, x.
rvniro our ,doclc, and we sliari e nideavor to imake it the interest, of all.to purclhase
CLTH ING, h A T AXD GEXTS' FUR NISJyG GOODS.
l'his department has been extenlel, and we guarantee iricca as low as the loweet.
u ity "rtect itting Crown bhirt cannot be srpassed. Laudried or Un
lauadriedl made to order if desired.
BAY STATE STANDARD SCREWED SHOES
A ro ur seeiialtv, and to thowe who have frie- them we need not odd word. To
those whoe arer yet tranigers to the durabihity of t'i 'onestly addo Sho we as. you
t' -ill andl1 - oan -it c 1r Toiely, m a -Al e pi 1 3', if ycu prefer trying them.
-Y.o: ill -aI laarvL 0 ((nset 0 l.e% tia aCllrNweld1. 41 by nuany to outwear ary
ZFlGA Lh;R Bl TI lL - Gent.', Ladi ',s ', and Infants'' Fineloo. Reduce
your , o bill an.1 foave emoiey by buyir.g thil btvt. haIn eir tho plaee
J. M. BEATY & Co.,
Oct . ON TilE COHlNE.
FOR, TilE GOOD, THE T UE, AN.D TlE BE AUTIFULI
WILL BE D.ISTRIBUTED BY
DE.SiORT S i:EM~VS
(UNDER WRIGIIT'. IuyTrEL,
N M(-rehnige, during FAIR yV.EI, at nioxl affracjivo pri-e. &o ourDrevi
Good inl all the late-st -tyklTrimnt,1 a n osat r oeie ry, elandkerois
aind Notions in newest novellies. G(Nts' a and Y tin' MO il lage oc , Ladie s'
Geits' arid Children's Boota iad lioe, I Y o fa in a etyli, at Now York
price2s; l3ankebs, Carpets, Confortalkls5 alit) Ia11 les, ne tho New tore of
nojJ D PO it vX H& DjUNDS9
--ov - Under Wright's. Hotel, Columbia, S. C.
The Best E ver-1lrflucl
rHE ]DAVIS VElICAL FEED
CIALLENGES THlE JWORLD TO I'ObUCE ITS EQUA J
arn Oe fwrkanrd dollas rewnl1Ard offered to any Peisol (hat will do ag grea
ftb e " AVI VWell, OIy other macinec as as can be (Osc grea
he onestwil e nndIN NGMA IllE "t AR .l be done oni
tlre -D AVIS V ERTIC,~I"ll'.,jiI;I;1) ,S ,, %,1 N C' MACiJINI;" Arrmigertig for
lie Contfest N1ill be tilittle 1%w~lil oilHI te desirling to C"ollipefe for. tire, frhovcr118rnod
reward, withiitn atreasolna blo thile 1111C). wri l Ie r r~eeii( Is
DAV18 WING M1ACINE' CO.,
A ither large lot of tie above MacInes and te Improved Weed jus re
J. 0. BOAG, Agent.
Whrite and Colored PiqnDcsoosi aetfiioSkStn,
R~ibbons,. Corsets. Glove5 s t1oo) , onovrey, llson, Silk5, RSainn,
3elts, Linen and1( Lace Collars, Fiehu siery, ace'vBonnets, ~O)Ruchn
cud i first-ce 5 r aos blnc aoc s an M in r ng t bls .