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T-WELYEDITION. WINNSBORO, S. 0.. JULY 2, 1881. ESTABLISHED 1865.
Hdro, daughter, thread my needlo,
My sight is growing poor i
The silken thread has missed the eye.
A dozen times or more.
1 mind when first my mother
The same thing said to me,
Sad as I felt you must not fool
Because I cannot see ;
For I remember, years gone by,
Just so grandmother said,
Now mother's sight was.failing her
And grandmother was dead.
So one by one we all grow old,
And each in turn must ask
The younger, brighter, better eyes
To help us see our task,
Ah I well. dear child, 'tie good to know
That somewhere, by and by,
A strong new sight shall be restored
To every failing eye.
I like to think, as earth grows dim,
Of where I then sball be ;
Eye hath not seen the wondrous things
The Lord hath promised me.
Give me the threaled needle now,
While your young eyes are kind,
And I have such a joyful hope
I'm sure I need not mind,
Though my sight fails as mother's failed,
And grandmother's before,
And though I miss the noodle's eye
A dozen times or more
An Opal Ring..
Leopold Aston, with his happy blonde
face and immense fortune, had brought a
letter of introduction to Dr. herwood, of
the Elmns, and Doctor Sherwood had taken
Leopold Aston by the hand and introduced
him to his two pretty daughters.
Now It happened that the latter had
never been thrown in the company of two
pretty girls in domestic life,.and he found
the household habits aud dainty white
aprons of these young ladies very charm.
In the first dazzle of pleasure, they
looked to him very much alike ; but by
and-by he found that Arabella and Mildred
Sherwood weie very different.
ie was to stry at the Elms during the
summer. In the autumn lie was going
"'I'o Englanid, to Germany and to Italy,"
"Yes, and to Paris," respomtled Arabella;
and she shut her thin, scarlet lips tight
over some resolve.
When Leopold came In from a fine,
breezy walk by the river, Mildred was
dusting the ornaments on the mantle, and
Arabella was arranging some fli-wers upon
Ile came straight to the table.
" Stock-blue and lilac, and crimson and
white gladiolaQ. What superb flowers you
have here at the Elms, Miss Arabella I"
" Do you think so? And do you like
clove pinks?" she asked, handing him one.
"If this concentration of the topics is a
clove pink, yes, I do."
"Then let me give you a button-hole
bouquet," and taking the pink from his
hand, she twined it with a bit of smilax,
and fastened it in his buttonhole.
And lie, looking (town, saw the curl of
in her black lashes, and took the fragrance
of her breath.
In that instant, lie decided that there
was a difference in the sisters. Arabella
was prettier than Mildred.
"I am going into the garden for more
vines for my vases. If you like to come,
I will show you my geraniums," said Ara
-Leopold took up his hat, which lie had
laid down, and they went out into the sun
Doctor Sherwood, readling upon the
piazza, lifted his spectacles from his news
paper ; then look their off, an'l looked up.
"Arabella-perhap ' a father is not the
best judhge-huit. Arabella, it seems to me,
is a very attractive girl!l" lie said to binm.
Meanwhile, Mildred had put away the
duster and gone down into the kitchen to
hell) heri mother make florentines for tea.
"Mother," she said, absently, after
awhIle, " I should like to go to Italy."
" Well, pr'obably you never will, my
dear. Beat, these eggs a minute longer."
At the table, a row nours later, Mr.
Leopold Aston found that the eggs for the
florentines had been thoroughly beaten.
"Iow ice I'' Mildred heard him say,
to Aiabella. ''It seems to me that you
can dho every thing I''
Mildred was aboiut to remar'k that Ara
bella never cooked, bcause it made her
head ache, whlen something in her sister's
look checked1 her, She swallowed her tea
in momentary confusion, and rose from the
table with a bewildering thought pressing
Cast it off as she would, it was a thought
which persistently returnedl as the summer
(lays went by. Mr. Aston seemed to nnd
her sister very attractive.
Was it possible that tIs young man of
fortume, with all the world before him
where to choose, had fallen in love with
Arabella-thiat lie would w-shi to marry
She knew so well all the family affairs
how the Elms was mortgaged-how hard
they all exerted themselves tp keep up the
appearance of prosperity and comfort. It
would be a splendid~ thing for Arabella
for them all I Hut could it be? And then
---Adam Neele i
One night, whmen Arabella's voiec, sing
ing to LeCop)old ini the pai'lor, came down
the stairs, the dloctor remarked:
"It seeing to me thsat Arabella speinds all
lier' evenings with Mr. Aston.'
"' Well, let her, if rho likes. I aii sure
lis company is agreeable,"' returned lis
wife, w ith apparent cnrelessness.
But something in the tonuc prevented the
doctor from saying more, ie unfolded
the evening paper thoughtfully, mind held
it uupsidle dlown for several moments.
Mildred's gulick glance wont from one
face to another. She thought of the mort
gage; -she knew her father and mother
were thinking of it, too. But she went on
silently shelling peas. She had taken thme
(d1sh from her mother's thredl hands a few
P'retty soon Arabella danced by the door
up to her chamber, A moment after, Leo
pold came out upon thme piazza and lighted
a cigar. Prett y soon lhe saw Airs. Shor
woodi's lavendher cap ribbons, and came to
the dining-room window.
"Mrs. ShierwoodA I am called to' New
York for a day or two. I shall be off be
fore you are well astir in the morning."
"But Mr. Aston, you will want your
"No, no I I shall take breakfast on the
le turned and went down into the gar
" Rebecca," said the doctor, somewhat
uneasily, to his wife, " Adum Neele is
coming here to-morrow. He promised to
come and show me about the under-drain
ing for next year."
"Well ?" said Mrs. Sherwood, after a
Her tone said:' "We shall see what
will happen then."
No one noticed the rosy flush which
darted like a flame along Mildred's cool
cheeks and her white finger-tips when Leo
pold Aston, with his handsome presence
and mellow voice, came suddenly so near
her. It was too dark. She had not looked
up, and did not see the quiet attention with
which he observed her small, busy Angers,
and bowed brown head.
The next day Adam Neele came, and
Arabella was confined to her room all day
with a convenient sick headache, and saw
le was a grave, brown-bearded man of
nearly forty-honesty, goodnebs was
stamped In every line of his plain face.
He was the best farmer in the county and
owned the model farm of the township.
"Arabella?" lie said, questioningly, of
Mildred, when they were for a moment
"She-she is sick to-day," Mildred an
swered; but her truthful eyes droppet and
lie saw it.
"Ask her if she cannot see me for a few
moments," he said.
Mildred went up stairs. Arabella lay
upon the bed, one arm thrown up, upon
the hand of which was a beautiful opal
ring Mildred had never seen before.
"Where did you get that lovely ring,
"From Mr. Astou," Arabella said,
She did not seem sick and did not speak
again. A tremor ran through - Mildred's
delicate limbs, She rested a hand upon a
chair to steady herself. .
" Will you come down and see Mr.
Neele, Ara I He wishes it."
"No; maKe my excuses."
Mildred went dizzily out of the chamber.
She was not quite herself, when she en
tered the room where Adan Neele was.
"ghe wishes to be excused."
Mihired, this rich Oernian-"
" lie is not a German."
Is lie anything to Arabella?"
"I do not know. le has given her a
ring," stammered Mildred, scarcely know.
ing what she said.
ilumphi That is enough."
Adam Neele went away from the Elms
the next morning. When he had gone,
Arabella came down and ate her dinner.
She took a book and sauntered down
into the garden then. When Mildred had
coaxed her mother to take a nap, she fol
lowed her sister, and cut gladiolas and
pinks. for the vases, which Arabella had
neglected entirely for two days.
When she came around to the arbor,
where her sister sat, she sat down wearily.
"Adam Neele has gone, Ara."
"I know it."
"Then you prefer Mr. Aston ?"
"I prefer marrying a rich man and go
ing abroad to marrying a poor man and
spending my life at FEdgetown."
"But you love Mr. Aston, Ara."
" Love him ? Pooh! le is just a good
natured simpleton. Adam Neele is just
worth two of him. lInt I shall marry him
if I can. I have meant it ever since he
first came here."
Mildred gave a littlo cry.
"I don't love Adam Neele either. But
I'm sick of wvork and striving to keep up
appearances. We shall all go to pieces
soon at this rate. P'apa earns nothing.
Tihe mortgage will take the Elms. I am
going to look out for myself. I would ad
vise you to do the same, Milly."
"I shall look out for myself. I can earn
my living If need be, Earn it I will,
shall never degrade mystlf by marrying for
a home-or for money. Ara, I had rather
have my hand burned off than wear that
ring as you are wearing it 1"
There was a step) upon the gravel, a put
ting aside of the elematis vine.
" My ring ! Have you found it, Miss
Arabella grew red, then white. She
pulled the ring from her finger and handed
it to its owner, Leopold Aston.
" Where did you find it?" be asked.
"At the end of the linden path," she an.
swered, in a stifled voice. Then, partially
recovering herself: "You are back soon."
" Yes," pleasantly.
Hie had lis valise in lis hand. He had
just conmc over from the depot, and wvent
up to his room.
Burning with her sister's shianme, yet
with a strange joy in her heart, Mildred
I urned and went away from the arbor,
She buried her face-among the pinks.
" How sweet they arc I" she saidh.
" Are we nevur going to have any more
music?" asked the doctor. "'Milly, go tip
and play something lively. '
" When I have finished picking over
thene blackberries papa,"
The twilight overtook- the nImble fingera,
and Mildred took thme pile of jetty fruit- out
upon thme doorstep, under the porch honey.
"Arc you always at work ?" asked a
There was no paied blush nowv. Mil
dred looked up, calmii anid sweet.
"No, I am at leisure now," she answer
ed, in a moment.
'''['len will you walk downm this path
with nme a little way I"
He took a soft gray shawvl from its peg,
and dror pod it around lher. As lie did so,
she saw thme gleam of the opal.
" Do you like my nng ?" asked Leopold
"It Is the most becauliful opal I cver
"I lost it In the garden, the first (lay I
caime to the Elms. Do you know the pro
p~erties which inhere In gemsi"
"rihe ruby restrains w rath, the hyacinth
procures sleep, the topaz banmshes sadl
"I And the opal ?"
"JThe opal sharpens flie sight of the pos
sessor. MildIret-ittle Milly-do yu
think I (do not know what a jewel be3 ond
prIce ,you are ?. Darling, look ump I I love
you I Could you love me, Mildred ?"
She looked up into his eyes.
"Yes. I could love you if you were the
poorest, the most unfortunate, man in the
"God bless my brave darling!" he cried.
They had reached the end of the long,
sweet, dewy path, and turned to come
" And you promise to be my wife ? Let
there be no mistake. Lot me be happy,
"I promise. But, Leopold, I thought
it wasArabella whom you loved."
"You did I Well, I had lost my ring
then and being without its aid, was a little
stupid," he replied, with a slight blush.
And so Mildred went to Italy, and Ara
bella remained at Edgetown, for Adam
Neele never-ca'ne back to her.
how They Atmuse Tihensolves in tile
Nortil-Sunnmor Excursions up
The late ex-President Thomas A. Scott,
of the Pennsylvania Rilroad, jild much to
build up this great thoroughfare, and by
that means to extend, foster and encourage
the trade of the whole country. To this
work was added that of catering for the
amusement and entertainment of the peo
ple-travelers and tourists--and lines are
opened in all directions by which they can
reach prominent and romantic places of
summer resort. The plans hitherto pur
sued will be again carried out this summer
by the oilcors and managers of the Penn
sylvania Rallroad, with such additions and
amendments, as will accomminodate the peo
ple to a still greater degree. Aiong the
many lines of sunner travel projected by
the Pennsylvania Railroad this suniner,
excursions up the romantic Hudson stand
deservedly preeminent. About-the 25th of
June, the superb steamer "tichard Stock
tou" will be restored to the Novburgh
route. She is now being fitted np in a
completo manner for the sunmer service,
and will be as popuilar this summer as she
was in 1879. Captain Bloomsburg will be
at the post of command; there will
be a full and excellent ban., of music
on board. The restaurant will be
conducted on the basis of popular
prices, and no intoxicating drinks will be
sold on board. Thsce features of the ex
cursions cannot fail to commend them to
the confidence and approval of tourists
who wish safety, pleasure and profit com
bined in one trip. The Stockton will run
every day, including Sundays, at the low
and popular rates of 1879. She will leave
the Pennsylvania docks at Jersey City at
9 A. M., excepting Thursdays, when her
leaving time will be thirty minutes later.
The Stockton will stop at Cozzen's Dock
West Paint, in both directions, and passen
gers will have an hour and a half, at that
point, to view the place and its objects of
interest. She will also remain half an
hour at Newburgh, which is full of histori
cal memorials. Jersey City will be reached
at 6.30 P. M. At this point connections
will be made with Brooklyn Annex boats,
and the trains of the Pennsylvania Rail
road. From Jersey City and Brooklyn,
the price for the round trip will be half a
dollar, and children half that amount.
This will be a delightful suimmer jarint,
and the price is put on such a popular
basis as to enable all classes to visit and
enjoy the picturesque and varied scenery
of the Hudson river.
A Model Police 01hief.
Our three young Americans had been in
the ineaniiine introduced in due and an
cient form to the police magnate at Duran.
go, Mexico, but their piesence seemed at
turns to intimidate him, then again to ex
cite his wrati.
At nearly every street-corner lie would
stop short and deiver in a stentorian voice
one of his choicest and most eloquent
Spanish harangues, full of eomphansis and
"Hal youi are Amerleans! Good! Long
nmay live the United States, but may its in
habitants all go to !" (Hie did not
exactly mention the antarctic p~ole nor
Lemnp's icc-house at the time. youi bet!)
"I know what you caime here for; you
camne here to ruin or steal my country; but
you cannot do it until you cut my throat
and crawl over my (lead bodlyl" And to
show how easy it could be done ho usedl
to squat dlown oii all fours and howl like a
"'I am an Indian, I[ know: I am not
ashamed to acknowledge it, but I can die
for my country, and will (10 it sure, before
you Americans can get a foothold here.
Three cheers for General Washimgton; lie
was a brick, but d-- -the Americansl"
"What is it you want here, anyhow?
My country? Yell can't have it without
first taking my blood, and here it Is if you
want It! What else do you want? You
'want to drink? Here! Bring us something
'rho mnozo withm the beer would then come
forward, brandish his bottlo andl exclaim
victoriously: "I have no cork-screw?"
"What else, then, (do you want?" would
continue'the chilef. "Is it money? 11ere,
we have lots of it; thrjw it to them, throw
Th'Ie mozo with thme dollars would throw
some, but very carefully pick them u1p
At every corncr the same scene was r
peated. The patrolmen, with laniterii m
handi, stood spcll-hound, not knowing what
to make out of this. Onme of them, older
or more independlent than thie rest,slightly
lntimnatedl to the chief that lie was really
making a distulrbanlce. "Haii!" shiOnted the
chief, "I. am an Indian! I am a Mexican!
I love my country and respect itsaamonityl
Yes, I bow to the authority! Yes, 1 bow
to thie authority, look here If I dlon't!"
And lie knelt doewn andl kissed the (dirty
toes of the patrolman.
Whi slight variations the orations andl
scenes'were several times repeatedl on thie
way,untii at last the house where the dane
was going oin was reached~ anmd entrance ob
tained. By that time thie procession was
(liite Inposing; for every patrolman met
1had( followedl at a short distance with ian
terns in hand, wondering who was to be
slaughtered-the chief or the Americans.
llowever, before half an hour had elapsed
the proprietor of (lie house found It, abse
lutely necessary to order a forcible eject
ment of (lie little chief of Diurango. Vain
ly lhe defended hImself with knife In hand;
four men got hold of bim and curritd hira
bodily into (lie street.
Tro-(day, if lhe is sober again, you'll see
him bowing to (lie Americans,and assurIng
thiem that lie loves thiem fronm (lie very
bottom of his heart, and is glad to see thienm
comse to help to develop the industries and
time wealth of his country, and so forth ad
The Bieptrio Railway In Berio,
it is announced by telegram that the
electric street railway of Dr. Slemens, in
Berlin, was opened for public travel on the
12th of May, with much success. A num
ber of prominent officials and scientists
were present. It is a narrow guagc 1leva
ted street railway, mounted on posts y,aced
on the street sidewalks, something like
portions of the elevated railway in New
York, but on a smaller scale. The new
railway is located on the outskirts of Ber
lin, and extends from the suburb known
as Lichterfeld to Yeltow, a distance of
about two miles. The passenger cars are
narrow and short, carrying only fourtceu
passengere. There are two tracks. The
cars are propelled by a dynamo electric
machine, which receives electricity through
track and a suspended cable, from an elec.
tric generotor, -me at each end of the line,
each generator driven by a sixty horse en
gine.. An average speed of twenty miles
an hour-was expected to be realized.
The original electric railways, which
were tried as experiments at Berlin and
Dueseldorf exhibitions of 1879 and 1880,
were worked by locomotives whose mecha
nism resembled a fixed dynamo-electric
machine. Thei rails of the line and the
wheels of the locomotive engines were
made of use to conduct the current of elec
tricity and produce the necessafy motion.
The second conductor conveying the cur
rent produced by the staliunary machine
to the locomotive was c nnected with a
system of brushes attached to the locomo
tive. These brushes touched a high edged
rail running in the middle of two other
rails and it.sulated from the ground by a
longitudinal sleeper. In practice, however,
it has been found that this arrangement is
exposed to serious interruptions. The wet,
snow andl mud which (according to the
season) collects in the ordinary course of
traflic upon the middle rail interfere very
seriously at times with its conductive ca
pacity. It has accordingly been deter.
mined on the Berlin electric line to conduct
the current by means of a copper wire
properly insulated, and attached to pillars
erected alongside the line, the current be
ing condueied from the copper wire to the
locomotive by means of cotitact rollers.
A Queer Caning.
A petite lady in a ineat, though notice
ably plain attire, and carrying an arinfu'
of books, brushed Into an alcove in which
a reporter was seatetl at Mercantile Library
Hull, St. Louis, the other day. She begged
pardon, and began a hasty retreat, when
the newspaper man reLonstrated and argued
that the recess was common property. She
acquiesced in this liberal view, and'after
depositing the volume seated herself within
a few feet of the only other occupant.
After quickly glancing over the title pages
of half a dozen of the volumes the lady
drew a note-book from her pocket, remark
in'g that she had a two hours' task before
her. This fractured the congealed water,
so to speak, at.d a convereation was
"These are all books on tho auiject of'
writing letters, about which there is as
much ignorance, even in polite circles, as
there is about deferential circulars or the
contents of the Koran. It has been em
bodied in works on etiquette and cure-all
books that contain something of everything
and nothing complete or absolutely correct
"flave you directed especial attention to
"Well, yes, I have, inasmuch as I have
selected it to furnish the wherewith to keep
body and soul together, a problem for
which I find this following an intelligent,
respectable and lucid solution. I am a
professional letter writer." From her
pocket she produced and handed to the re
porter a neatly inscribed card, with the
name, Aglac Beaumond, Letter Wilter.
"Ihave you been located In this city very
"I havc'been here for two years. Pre
vioums to then I was in Chicago, Cincinnati,
New York, Brooklyn. Dubuque, Milwaukee
and a number of smaller towns. In I~ew
York there are half a hundred persons (10
ing this work, but in this city there is
scarcely any competition. ~The only other
person I know who is a professional letter
wilter is a man at No; 701 Chestnut street,
and~ his b~usiness is really teaching pen
manship, though he advertises as a letter
"What is the character of patrons ?"
"They are of all stations of life but really
can b)e divided into two classes ; those that
cannot write and those who are educated
b~ut desire to frame their crude thoughts in
language with which they are not capable
of clothing it or else are particularly anxious
to 1be absolutely correct both grammatically
andi rhetorically. Or course, one of the
first requisites is to write an elegant and a
very varied style of hand. The first Is ab
solutely necessary, while the great need of
the second quality will soon suggest itself
to any one adopting this queer mode of
making a living.
"Do you dlevote your time exclusively to
letter writIng ?"
'Yes. When I first began this work,
about five years ago in Cincinnati, I also
(11( inscription work, writing cards, formal
invitations, faimily records in bibles, and
inscrip~tions in books, albums and similar
presenits. Since then I have found ample
remuneration in letter writing."
"Well, there is no market price regulat
ing the sale, and I might say that I charge
from nothing at all for seine Work and up
to what you would consider a fabulous
price for more. The class of work you
speak of is alwayn done at bed rock prices,
of course, for the usual customers for this
are poor and uneducated persons. For
these no great care Is required, and I wIll
give them a letter for nothing ; or, If they
are anxious to pay andl are capable-of do0
hig so, I charge them 25 cents, or some
nominal amount. You will readily con
ceive that this class of customers are not
greatly solicited, though I must say that 1
havej worked hours in this way with the
utmost pleasure. Much of the work 1 do
is b r young mcei and shop girls, and it is
needless to say that the correspondence In
th(se cases is all of the lovely stamip.I
soon comprehiend~ed the necessity of writ
iiug a bold male hand when I embarked In
this calling, and can (lash off an accurately
worded epistle or write a neat, sweet love
letter in .a hand that no expert in the
world could pronounce a woman's. These
letters are paid for in accordlance with the
ability of the customer. I have receiyed
as much as $25 for a letter cf t'.is descrip
tion, and usually charge $' & Im ot any
lengrth- Bntwnnn9; 25ncnt. lthu
prices range. though, as I said, I frequently
receive much greater sums for work."
"What is your object in taking notes
from eo many books "
"Well, they are all on this subject, and
nearly all incorrect in some ponts. I am
now at work on the manuscript of a booic
which .1 propose shall contain all the ex
cellences and none of the glaring mistakes
of these. I have written several magazine
articles on this subject, and now Intend to
compile these and other articles appertain
Ing thereto. I have just returned from
New York, where I have been for some
weeks making arrangements for my book."
''You are, I suppose, the repository, of
many secrets '
"Yes, I have some very queer customers
and experiences, but I enjoy and am in
structed by them. By the way, I am just
meditating organizing an epistletory society
for ladies and gentlemen. You cannot
conceive how much ignorance there is con
cerning this, and even about addressing
persons in this county. I have spoken
with several ladies on the subject and think
it will be a success."
To Jail no went.
They give a man a chance out West.
In Deadwood, Custer, or any of those new
Western towns, the spirit of fair play crops
to the surface even in judicial proceedings.
In March last, a Michigan man who keeps
an eating-house at Gunnison, was over
particular about taking a counterfeit half
dollar, and in the row which resulted he
was considerably battered. le therefore
called upon the Justice of the Peace and
stated his case and asked for a warrant.
"I guess I wou Idn't make a fuss over
it," replied the cGillcial.
" But he meant to kill me."
"Yes, I presume so, but he'll leave town
and that will end it."
"1 But he's a dangerous man."
"Yes, they say so; but no one is afraid
"Judge, do you know what lie said
about you when I told him l'd have him
"Well, lie said you were a blamed grass
hopper eater I"
"Yes, but he didn't mean it."
" And he called you a reptile.'
" Well, he was mad, I suppose."
a a Yes, and lie was mad when lie said
you didn't know enough to write your own
name, and therefore couldn't issue a war
"Did lie say that?"
"Then I'll issue on him like a ten ton
avalanche on a yaller mule ! The man
who sneezes at my larnin' must have a
contempt for the judiciary."
The warrant was issued the party ar-.
rested and tried, and the verdict of the
"Gunnison William, the verdict of this
court Is that you are guilty, and the sen
tence is a flue of $25 in cash. This court
can't get over the fact that you vilified its
mental calibre. It is also aware of the fact
that you haven't a red to pay your fine
,with. Now, then, if you will meet this
court lljok of this building on the level it
will eltlmr git away with you in six and a
half nimut's or remit the fine. I want to
prove to Vhe citizens of Gunnison that in
electing in) to the judiciary they have cast
their votes Toi: a man who can spit on his
hands in sififferent languages and git
away wit it, bog-pen full of roughs without
having an eor scratched, Prisoner at the
4ar, have you anything to say ?"
The )ris*cr had. He said he'd rather
go to jail,. apd to jail he went.
Utres in the Telephone.
Ilaving remarked that telephones trans
mit along with speech sounds of iia un
known origin), the author has undertaken
experiments in ordler to find out if the
causes of these sounds are not those wvhich
oppose telephlonic communication in great
(lstanles. To eliminate all possible sources
of error, the following arrangement was
adoptedl. A line of twventy meters was
laid on the floor of several rooms, all the
(loors of comumuication being closed. It
was connected at one end to a pair of
telephones by means of flexible conductors,
designed to arrest s ;unds which might
communicate themselves mechanically
along the metal to the telephones. The
circuit was completed between these con
:ductors by another flexible wire, on the
path of whilch was an interruption pedal,
rendering it possible to cut the clrquit
without changing at all the nature of the
communications between the line and the
teiephones, andl to prove that the sounds
heard had1( an electric origin. The operator
acted at the other end of the line which
was not connected, directly or by Induction,
with any electric generator. ie observed
that the current produced by the friction
of two wires of the same kind or of differ
at kinds andl that produced by closing a
pressure screw were heaird in the tele
phiones. It is easily undlerstood that whoa
suspended, telegraph wires serve for tele
phonic transmission, this cause may occa
sion much trouble, sirnce these lines are
formed of pieces of iron wire connected to
each other and to the stretchers by liga
tures, more or less perfect, which are in a
state of constant agitation. lBut this cause
of failure may he removedl by soldering the
wires instead of tying them. Unfortu
nately there is another cause; the currents
(due to the influence of tihe vibrations them.
selves. To verify tis hiypothesis, the
author placed In the circuit, at the end op
posite the telephones, a rod of iron 1.50
meters in length, and connected to the
system by suipple conductors. This rod
was struck so'metimes transversely and
sometimes longltudiinally with a hammer.
T.he sounds occasioned by thbe blows were
distinctly reprodluced1 by the telephones
with their peculiar characters. This ex
periment if r'eeated with copper or brass
rodls, gave merely negative results. It
seems that the phenomenon is only pro-.
duced as an effect of the vibrations occa
sioned in the wire. Future experiments
must decide whether it Is (1u1 to a molecular
change which the metal undergoes or to a
lpeculiar action. If, as it Is probable, the
vibrations caused by the wind r.ct upon the
lines of iron wires like the blows upon a
rod, it appears difficult to correspond at
gi'eat distances with the existing means of
transmission, till a method has been fomund
of calising the telephones to speak by the
aid of electric action so powerful that th
currents n''ising in the Jino itself cease
be an appreciable cause of dIsturbance.
-T34 ,erowni of IAengland Is va uod at
About Some Fish.
In 1878, while salang south, a dolphin
was caught which wasof unusual sizesome
4 feet 6 Inches lwng. It is exceedingly in
teresting to examine the stomach of all fish.
In this dolphin, however, nothing very
curious turned up,-though the veracity of
the fish was quite evident when the con
tents of the stomach were exposed. A lot
of coal cinders were found, and at least a
half-pound of 8-inch wrought-iron nails.
An explanation of how the fish had swal
lowed such strange and indigestible hard
ware was readily found. The ship's cook
was in the habit of cleaning out his stove
every morning at 4.80 o'clock, and had
been burning a quantity of old passengers'
berth-boards which had been held together
by wrought-iron. nails. These were the
nails, mixed up with the cinders, which
the dolphin had swallowed.
An instance of voracity of a similar
character may be told of a shark. In the
spring of 1861, while at anchor off the
coast of Georgia, a ship's crew amused
themselves by fishing. Their luck was
poor. For some days all the lines were
severed, and there was no sport. A ilot
beat told us that a tiger-shark was under
our bottom, and that It had - taken all our
bait. We set to work to catch him. A
shark-hook was baited with a piece of pork
and this soon brought him to grief. We
rigged a running bowline, a kind of nauti
cal lasso, slipped it over his head, and aoon
had him hauled on board, stern foremost.
After severing his vertebral column, we
disembowled the monster. The contents
of the shark's stomach were exposed to
view. Among many minor items were
several large lumps of clay, fully a pack of
beef bones, many fish-hooks, with pieces of
the lines, belonging to us, two horse-shoe
Drabs, 7 inches wide,pieces of stones, prob
ably ballant, and a half-worn boot. The
most interesting point of this fish story is
the finding of the fellow boot and its
owner. The inquisitiveness of the writer
led him to examine the boot most carefully
to find out what had been the effects of the
4astric juices on the leather and the nails.
On the upper some few spots of green were
visible. This was determined to be green
paint. -The evidences were that somebody
bad been engaged in painting a short time
before. But had the artist dropped over
board from some vessel, had he been swal
lowed by the shark, and was this boot the
sole mortal remains of the painter? That
day a pilot was hailed, whose sides had
just been newly painted. A kind of coro
ner's inquest held by me brought out the
fact that Captain Smith, of the pilot-boat
Savannah. had been decorating his boat,
had accidentally dropped a boot overboard,
splashed with green paint, and that the
shark had swallowed it. In order to claim
property the boot was presented and iden
Miled. The boot was then returned to its
rightful owner, and, for what I know, this
jetsam boot, miraculously saved from a
shark's maw, may be still among the heir
ooms of the Smith family.
The intelligence of fish remainsas yet an
unwritten chapter, which requires future
study. What instincts we may allow birds
a their migrations are followed out even
more miraculously by fish, if birds can see
landmarks, it Is not improbable that the
water fish can be guided by their eyes.
Ihink of the shad in Chinese waters which
mount up from the sea to the head of a
river 2,000 miles distant from the ocean.
There must be exceeding intelligence in the
black bass, who protects her young as va
liantly as does a hen her chicks. Think to
of that fish which secures his food by a co
ordination which is really not equalled by
any other creature. The fish sees an insect
on a leaf or spear of grass overhanging the
water, lie arises to the surface, sights the
insect as a rifleman would his weapon of
precision, and unerringly fires a drop of
water, which never misses the tiny mark,
he i~Asect, which, knocked off its perch by
~he globule of water, falls Into the stream,
mud is swallowed.
The assumption that fish possess a great
imount 01 natural intoJhigence need not 1,e
:ioubted. A certain sagacuhy a absolutely
accessary in order to enatwle ah 1t over
somie tihe diilceulties they must encounter
.n obtaining food. An instance of this
sharacter may be cited. Near the Mar
auesas Islands, the peaceful wvaters abound
n fish ad birds. T1here are constant
cehools of flying-fish and bonitns. Th'le
atter exist almost entirely on the former.
The flying-fish, by clever flymng, are always
mndeavoring to escape the jaws of the bomn
tos, while the devourers are up to all kinds
of stratagems to circumvent their agile
prey. The bonitomes seem to study the
surve the llying-fibh will take in the air and
the detlection caused by the wind, and
shooting across in a straight line, will catch
he flying-fish as he touches the water at
the end or his flight. On one occasion,
when the sea was smooth andl the wind
light, opportunity was taken to throw out
i surface dredge in order to secure speci
mns. 'This diredge was made of gauze.
F~or several evenings in succession I observ
id that shortly after sundiown there were to
be seen on the surface of the water nuim
bers of flying fish. Many of them were
caught in the dredge, and when taken out
were found to be disabled' or dlead. Trhis
occurrence was so remarkable that I1 was
led to ask the reason why, and at once set
about fInding the cause. Watching the
sea from a position taken on the bow of the
ship as she was slowly surging thirougui the
water, I observed a large school of bonitos,
who separated into three- divisions. One
took position directly ahead of the ship, t e
other two at some distances on either I) w.
Presently the party on the starboarti at
tracted my attention by a disturba cc on
the surface. I saw them driving a school
of flying-fIsh, who, to avoid thi bonitos,
triedl to pass ahead of the shi , but they
were prevented from doing by the party
on the larboard side. F hitened, then,
by the bonitos advancing .,wardsthem and
flanking them on both si es, they took wing,
ad after a few~ mfomii ts of hesitation, flew
directly towards t e ship's bow, always
pursuedi by their iemies. T1hiey were cor
raledl to their fat . Hindr-eds were dashed
against the 8111 's piow, and fell Into the
water, mali edi or killed, to be immediate
ly gob~bledl y the bonitos, who waited the
ship's ce~ ning, passing astern to gorge
themns yes oii their victims. This act was
plal my observable from the stcrin of the
shi . where the movements of .the bonitos
auld be stuidied.
-Gu~y Fawkes was executed in 1600.
-Germany has $100,000,000 in silver
--Cromwell refused the crown of
E ngland in 160.
-It is said that there are 23,000
feminine farmers in Great Britain.
-Tho Buik of Englani was founded
in 1094. The capital is ?14,533,000.
-Incendlarism has been a capital
offense in 8outh Carolina since 1878.
-The first volume of Gen. Beaure
gard's history of the war is completed.
-Tho number of miles of telegraph
wires In the world is placed at 492,578.
- Abon t 3 000,000 copieb of the re
vised Testament have been sold al
-The mileage of telephone wires in
the United States i8 estimated at 60,000
--he resignation of Gen Melikol'
has been accepted by the Emperor of
-England manages to keep up her
Ppirits on $50,000,000 worth of liquor
-Tho new Texas Capital will cost
1,500,000,and will be built by a Detroit
-The desert interior of Australia
p)robsbly olfords the hottest climate in
-The population of Prussia Is in the
proportion of eleven Protestants to
-More than 35,000,000 pounds of
honey are produce(d and sold in this
-Nebraska has a school population
f 142,348 and an enrolmont of 92,5949
with 4,100 teachers.
-Since 1800 9,000 divorces have been
granted in Italy, Milan being set down
ror no less than 3,000.
-The first normal schoolon this side
af the Atlantic was established at Lex
ingtou, Maes., in 1789,
-Lord Calthiness was burled in the
3lapel o1 lolyrood which, strango to
;ay, remalom rootless.
-Jay Cooke has paid all his crediters
in full and purchased his country seat,
3gontz, near Philadelphia.
-In tMe whole commonwealthL of
Miassachusetts, only 4,258 women have
voted in the last two years.
-The gift of the Ancient Order of
[Iibornians to the Irish land league
will amount to about $25,000.
-Since gold was discovered in Aus
ralia In 1851, ore to the value of
$1,355,0C0,000 has been dug out.
-The Supreme Court of Nevada has
leelared unconstitutional the lottery
ill passed by the last legislature.
-The cold water spree of the Mis
;ourI river cost the people along its
3ourse $4,000,000 at a low estimate.
Seventy workmen were killed and
300 were wounded, lait year, in the
great tunnel at Mount St. Gothard.
-Partial records of the live stock in
terests of TeXas show a yearly yield ot
s6methling over 400,000 head of cattle.
-The reportof the Marylebone Club,
the nost promninent cricket club in
England shows a membership of2,679.
-A pension of Z4,000 was granted
In 1790 by the British Parliament to
the heirs and descendants of William
-The Common Council of Boston
has appropriated $15,000 foi' the cele
bration of the coming Fonrth of
Louisiana and Florida are the warm
ast climates in the Unitud States; Min
tiesota and Wyoming Territory the.
-Mr. Ashmead-Bartlett, otherwise
known as the husband of the Baroness
Iurdtt-Coutt , will visit this country
--Mrs, Jessie Fremont has organized
classes in history among the grown-up
inns anti daughters of poor settlers In
-In 1850, 5,361 hands weore employ.
ad In the manufascture of agricultural
machinery. Last year 40,080 were so
Tihe roonlpts of the (Uunard Steam
ship Company. for 1880 were close on
01,400,000 and thn net profits about
-Theis gross value of the mannfae
bured silk products in the United
sates for' the census year 1880 was
-The tota' diebt of the United States
3lutstandicing is now $2,030,248,433. Do
Einctiag tihe cash in the treasury it is
--Thec Cowpens monument. ivs un
vell at Spartansburg, So~ith Caro
ina.on the 11th of May,hn the presence
of 23,000 people.
-Th'le school fund of south Carolina
amounte:l to $351,4l5,50) In 1880. There
were 0,973 schools in the State, with
~-Moody and Sankey will sail for
Scotland in OIktober. Mr. Moody is
now 'at Nor,~lfleid, Mass., and Mr.
Sankey at B!-ooklyn.
--The g oss earnings for April, 1881,
of forty~.wo railroads amount, to $12,
285,494; For the same month last yeair
they /v're $9,919,254.
hAe French ascribe the Invention
billiards to Hienrique Davigno, in
thAe reign of Charles IX., about 1571.
Slate billiard tables are very modern.
-A bronze statue of Dinte has late
ly been set up in tihe square of tihe Col
loge dhe terance, this being the qtaiarter
in which he iivedl whein In Paris ini
-A company has been formed in
Chicago with a capital of $500,000 10
run the .300 Hlerdie coaches on the
stra e',s of that oity. The faire is to be
-E'x-Presidenit R1. B. Hayes hai
been elected Preaident of the Board of
Trrustees of the Green Spring Acad
emsy, recently founded *at Green
-Judge Robertson, the new Collec
tor of the port of New York, is fifty
eight years old. Ills hair is a gray
whIte, and lhe wears a large goastee.
is eyes are blue.
-The Revolutionary war cost thte
United States $135,193,703. Great Bru'
ains lost 50,000 men, incurred a debt of
?100,000,000 or $500,000,000, and lost
her Amneric.mn colonies.
T'he United Brethren of Christ re
cen~ly held their eighteenth quadren
nial session at fAsbon, Iowa. The de
nomination lhas a membership of 160,
ano. and 2,242 churchies.