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TRI-WEEKLY EDITION. -WINNSBORO, S. C.. JULY 12, 1881. ESTABLISHED 1865
THE SMOKER'S HYMN.
This Indian weed nowithered quite,
Though green at noon, cut down at night,
Shown thy decay;
All flesh Is hay,
Thus think, and smoke tobacco.
The pipe, so lily white and weak,
Does this thy mortal state bespeak,
Thou art e'en such,
Gone with a touch,
Thus think, and smoke tobacco.
And when the smoke ascends on high,
Then thou behold'st the vanity
Of worldly stuff,
Gone with a puff,
Thus think, aud sinoke tobacco.:
And when the pipe grows foul within,I
Think on thy soul defiled withl sin;
For then the fire
It doth require,
Thus think, and smoke tobacco.
And see'st the ashes cast away ?
Then to thyself thou mayest say,
That to the dust
Return thou mnust.
Thus think, and smoke tobacco.
And see'st the ashes cast away I
Thon to thyself thou inayest say,
That to the dust
Return thou must,
Thus think and smoke tobucco.
"Uot 'Em Both."
How strange it all seemed to little Wini
fredI - One year ago, or, as she reckoned it,
one snow-time and one. flower-time ago, she
was living in Boston, and now she was in
Colorado. It was a great change-this go
ing from comfort and luxury to a place
where comfort was hard to find, and luxury
not to be thought of; where they had a log
but instead of a house, and a pig in place
of a poodle. But, on the whole, she en
joycd it. Her father was better, and that
was what they came for, because the doctor
had said Colorado air would cure him.
And though mother often looked tired and
troubled, she certainly never used to break
forth into happy bits of song when father
was sick in bed, as she did now that he
was able to cut down trees in the forest.
Beside, who ever saw st6h beautiful blue
flowers and such flaming blossoms in Bos
ton I And what was the frog-pond com
pared with these streams that now, in the
spring-time, came rushing through the
woods-silently sometimes, sometimes so
noisy that if it were not for their sparkle
when they passed the sunny places, and
the laughing way they had of running into
every chink along the banks, one would
think they were angry. Yes, on the whole,
Winfred liked Colorado; and so did her
little brother Nat; if you had told him
Boston was just around the corner, he
would have started to. run there without
putting on his cap.
Such a little mite of a follow Nat was,
and so full of sunshine I Only one thing
could trouble him; and that was to be
away from mother even for half an hour.
There was something in mother's way of
singing, mother's way of kissing hurt little
heads and fingers, mother's way of putting
sugar on bread, and mother's way of rock
lig tired little boys, that Nat approved of
most heartily. He loved his father, too,
and thought him the most powerful wood
cutter that ever swung an axe, though
really the poor man had to stop and rest at
-44 See these two children now trudging to
the little stream near by quite resolved in
having a fine rocking in their father's
canoe. This queer boat made of bark, and
&harp at both ends, was tied to a stake.
Now that the stream wap swollen and so
fast, it was fine fun to sit one in each end,
and get "bounced about," as Winnie
" You get in first, because you're the lit
test," holding her dress tightly away from
the splashing water with one hand, and
pulling the boat close to the shore with the
"No, you get, in first, 'cause you're a
girl. said Nat. ".I don't-need no helpin.'
k I'm going to take off my toos and tockics
first, ;cause mamma said I might."
Nat could say shoes and stockings quite
plainly when he chose, but everybody said
"toos and tockles " to him; so lie looked,
-.--upon-these words, and many other crooked
ones, as a sort of language of Nat, which
all the world .would speak if they know
In at last-both of them-and a fine
rocking they had. The bushes and treea
threw cool shadows over the canoe, and
W' the birds sang, and the blue sky pecepedi
down at themi through little openings
overhead, and, altogether, with the splash
ing water and pleasant murmur of insects,
it was almost like mother's rocking and
At first they talked aind laughed softly.
T'hen they listened. Tihen they talked
very little. Then listened again, lying on
the rushes in the bottom of the canoe.
Thlen they ceased talking and watched the
branches waviug overhead, and at last they
Sboth fell sound asleep.
This was early in the morning. Mother
was very busy in the cabin clearing away
tihe breakfast dishes, sweeping the room,
making beds, mixing bread, hieatin~g the
oven, and doing a dozen other things. At
last she took a plate of crumbs and scrapp,
and went out to feed the chickens.
"Winnie-Natl" sne calleti, as she
steppedl out upon the rough door-stone.
"Come, feed the chickens I" Then she
added, in a suirprisedi way, to herself:
"why, where in the worl can th'ose cil
dren be ? they must have stopped. at the
new clearing to see their father.".
At (dinnler-time she blow the hig-tin horn
that hung by the dloor, and soon her hus
band caime home, hungry and tired.
" Oh, you little witches I" laughed the
mother, withtout looking up from her task
of bread-cutting. " How could you stay'
away so long from mammna-tired, Frank?'"
"Yes, very. But wht do you meani
Where are the youngsters?"
6 he looked up now, and instantly ex
~'claimed, in a frightened voice, as she ran
(out past her -husband:
"0, Frank Iil've not seen them for two
or three hours I I thought to be sure they
were with you. They surely' wouldn't have
staidh all this time in the boat I"
He followed her, and they both ran to
the stream.. In an instant, the mother,
hastening on ahead through the' bushes,
"0O, Frank I Frank I The boat is gone I'"
All that day, the next, and the next they
searched. They followed thQ streamh atid
at last they found the boat--but it was
empty!i In vain the father and the mother
and their only neighbor wandered through
the forest in every ditrection calling:
" Winnie!i Winnie! Nat! INat !" in vain
thn neihbors tonok the bat and nwnloreA
the stream for miles; no trace could be
found of the poor little creatures, who, full
of life and joy, had so lately jumped into
father's canoe to " have a rook."
Where were they? Alas I they did not
themselves Know. They only knew that
they had been wakened by a great thump,
and that when they had jumped out of the
cqnce and started to go home, everything
was different. There was no foot:path, no
clearing where trees had been cut down,
no sound of father's axe near by, nor of
mother's song-and the stream was rushing
on very angrily over its rocky bed. The
canoe, which had broken loose, and, borne
on by the current, floated away with them
miles and miles from the stake, was wedged
between two great stpnes' when they
jumped out of it; but now it was gone
the waters had taken. it away. After a
while, in their distracted wanderings, they
could not even find the strean., though it
seemed to be roaring In every direction
Now they were in the depths of the
forest, wandering about, tired, hungry, and
frightened. For two nights they had cried
themselves to sleep in each other's orns
under the blacK trees; and as the wind
moaned through the branches, Wimnie had
prayed God to save them from the wolves
and Indians, and little Nat had screamed,
"Papa I Mammal" sobbing as If his heart
would break. All they had found to cat
was a few sweet red berries that grow close
to the ground. Every hour the poor
children grew fainter and fainter, and, at
last, Nat couldn't walK at all.
" I'm too tired and sick," he said, "and
my feet's all tut. My toos and tockies is in
the boat. 0, Winnie, Winnie!" he would
cry, with a great sob, " why don't mam
ma'n papa come f Oh. if mnamma'd only
come and bring me some bread I"
" Don't cry, dear, don't cry." Winnie
would say again and again. "I'll find
some more red berries sooh ; and God will
show us the way home. I know he will,
Only don't cry, Nat, because it takes away
all my courage."
"All your what I" asked Nat, looking
wIldly at her as if he thought courage was
something he could cat.
"All my courage, Nat." And then,
after searchibg l vain for more red berries,
she would throw herself upon her knees
"'Dear father in heaven; I can't find
anything more for Nat to eat. Oh I please
show us the way home I"
What was that quick sound coming to
ward them ? The underbrush was so thick
Winnie could not see what caused It, but
she held her. breath, thinking of wolves
and Indians, for there were plenty of both,
she knew, lurking about in those great
The sound ceased for a moment. Selz
ing Nat in her arms. she made one more
frantic -effort to find the stream; then;
seeing a strange look in the poor little face
when she put him down to take a better
hold, shje screamed:
"Nat I Nat I Don't look so! Kiss Win
" Hello, there 1" shouted a voice through
the underbrush, and In another instant a
great @tout man came stamping and break
ing his way through the bushes.
"Hello, there! What on airth's up
now I Ef old Joe ha'n't come .upon queer
game this time. Two slek youngsters
starving, too, by Josh I Here, you young
uns, eat some uv this 'ere and give an ac
count of yourselves."
With these words, he drew from some
where among the heavy folds of his hunt
ing dress a couple of biscuits.
The children grabbed at them frantically.
"I Mold up I Not so sharp 1 he said ;
")ou must have a little at a time for an
hour yet. Here, als, give me the baby, I'll
feed him; and as for you, jest see that you
don't more'n nibble."
" Oh I give me a drink I" cried Winnie,
swallowimg the cracker in two bites, and
for an instant even forgetting Nat.
The man pulled a canteen or fiat tin
flask from his belt anid gave her a swallow
of water ; then lie huastened to moisten
Nat's lips and fed him crumb after crumb
of .the broken biscuit.
-'Another hour,'' ho muttered t'o himself,
as he gently fed the boy and smoothed
back the tangled yellow hair from the pale
little face, "anothdr hour av'd he'd a bin
Winnie looked up quickly.
"JIs he going to (lie.?" she asked.
*"Not he," said the man ; he'll come
through right end up yet. H~e's got a
fever' on him, but we'll soon knock that
under. H~ow'd you get here, little gal?"
Winnie told her story, all, the while feel
ing a glad certainty at her heart that her
troubles were over. The strange man car
ried a gun, and lie had a pistol and an axe
and a knife im his belt, H~e looked vcry
fierce, too, yet she know ho would not
harm her. Bhe had seen many a trapper
bef're since she came to the West, and
though this man looked very grand and
wore a wondierful hunting 'dress all em
broidered and fringea, andi a big hat and
yellow leggins, she felt sure lie was the
very trapper who had been at her father's
cabin a few wceks before and takeb supper,
and warmed himself before tiit fire, while
he told wonderful stories abozat the Indians
and furs, and about having n any a time
hmad " fifty mile o' traps out on one
She remembered, too, that her father
hirA told her the next day that trappers
lived by catching with traps, all sorts of
wild animals, and selling their furs to the
traders, and that this particular trapper had
beena very successful, andi had great influ
once among the Indians-one of the big
men of Colorado, as he said.
These thoughts running through her
mind now as she told how they had been
bt for three whole days and two nights,
and the sight of Nat falling peacefully
asleep on the trapper's shoulder, made her
feel so happy that she sud~denly broke forth
with, "0O, Mr. Trapper I I can run now.
Lot me go right home I
The stars came out one by one that night,
andl winked anad blinked at a strange figure
stalking through the forest. lie had a
sleeping child under each arm, and carried
his gun rea'dy to fire at an instant's notice.
Trudging on, he muttered to himself:
" Well, 01(1 Joe, you've bagged all- sorts
of gtqme in this 'ere forest, tuod trapped
most everythiing agoin', but you ain't never
had such a rare bit o' luck as this. No
wonder I stood there on the edge ot the
timber-land, listentbg to .1 .didir't know
what. Reckon here's a couple o' skins
now'll be putty popular at one 'market 't
any rate-fetch most any price you scould
,name-but I'll let 'em' go'ohdhp; all thme
paylIwant for these here critters is just to
enar the klanna of them oor frihtned_
hello I there's a light ! What,' ahoy I
Neighbor, hello I hello I"
"Got 'em both 1" he shouted as three
figures, two men and a woman, came in
sight through the starlight. " All right,
got 'em both."
The, children- are awake now. What
sobs, what laughter, what broken words of
love and joy fall upon the midnight air I
And through all, Winnie wondering and
thrilled with strange happiness, is saying
to herself : "I knew God would show us
the way home I"
Winning a Wife at Cards.
When Hazleton was first settled and
laid out as the town of the middle coal
field, a number of young men used to
congregate in some of the shanties at
Crystal Ridge and play cards for such
stakes as railroads, mines,' mill horses
and pretty womon. On one oocasion the
boarders were playing forty-five for the
servant-girl,a Wlooming maid whose name
was Biddy McGee. Biddy was of course,
unconscious of the fact that her fate
hung ol a pack of cards, and was at the
time washing dishes in the housd, when
a loud guffaw caused her to [run in the
"Phat's the matter' wid. yees now ?"
said she,- and in a jiffy Charley McGin
nis jumped to his feet and exclaimed :
"Biddy, Begorra, I won you this
minnit, and bate Tom Brannigan.
"Troth, I did, and phiat do you think
"Sure, I think you got a prize Char
"Are you in earnest, Biddy?"
"Of corse, I am."
"Vell, would you marry me I"
"Troth I would, Charley."
The next day there was a wedding,
and Charley and his wife, who are still
living' will never forget the game of
forty-five played by the boarders in the
shanty at Crystal Ridge twenty-six years
Cnning of a Fox.
Some fishermen on.the west coast of
Ireland were in the habit of going to a
small island, a few hundred yards from
the main land, in quest of bait, The
island was inlhabited by a large number
of rabbits, and could be reached at low
tide by wading, the water there only be
ing a few inches deep.
One morning they went ill their boat
quite early, it being high tide, and oil
landing saw a dead fox lying on. the
beach. The fur of the animal was all
bedraggled, and he seeme'd to have
been drowned. One of the men remark
ing that his skin was worth something
pitched him into the boat.
Procuring their bait they returned to
the main land, and the man who had
possessed himself of the fox seized him
by the tail and flung hini on the shore.
As soon as the animal struck the beach
he picked himself up with consi(lerable
agility for I dead fox, and shot off like a
flash up among the cliffs, while the men
stood staring at each other in mute as
The men concluded that lie had cross
over to the island during the night,when
the tide was low, in search of rabbits,
andl finding ill the morning thlat lie was
cut off from the main land, couinterfeited
death, with tile expectation of thereby
procurinlg a passage to the shore in the
boat, an expectation which was fully
Perhaps 110 country in England has
shared more richly ini the memories of
its great and interesting personages than
?Buckinghiamshire, the p~lace of residence
and burial of Lord Beaconsfield. Miltoni
completed "Paradise Lost" in one of its
villages; Gray, in his "Elegy," telebrat
ed Stoke Pogis, and Cowper wrote in
Olney. Of eminent statesmen, Bucks
was onme way or other connectedl with
Johnl Ham~fpden, Temple, George Gren-.
ville, Lord William Russell, of the Rye
house plot,. Lord John Rtussll, buried at
Chenies', thle burial place of the Bedford
(ducal house, and Edmund Burke, who
lived at Beaconsfield. At Slough Her
schel erected his telescopeO, and at Pit
stone abbey Queen Elizabeth spent a
good deal of her youth. In the same
country are Stowe, thle splendid scat of
the Duke of Buckinghanm,and the abbey
of High Wycombe, belonging to Lord
Garrington, and close by where the earl
rests is Bradenliam house his fatheor's
house, from w~hich lie (dated his election
The doctor arrives at the hospital to
make his daily visit of inspection and
receives the tickets of a now patient
X-musician in German band, pulmo-.
He p~roceeds to the patient's becdside,
surrounded by his admiring class.
"W~ell, my good fellow,you spit blood(,
"T~hmat'll do; we know all about it
and you have cold sweats at night oh P"
"Yes, sir, and
"S-sh I You belong to a brass baud
and you hlave over-exerted yourself,
fairly blown your lungs away, puflin
and blow~ing into your insetrument. Gen
tlemeon, you perceive that sicknecss has
no secrets for science. What instru
mients do you play, "my 'gbodl man ?"
"The cymbals, sir I"
--The resIgnation of Uen. Melkoff
has been accepted by the Emperor of
What I Nickel?
Since the convenient five-cent coin
which in common talk, is called " a
nickel," has come into general circula
tion, the question above is asked either
mentally or orally hundreds of times
every day,,and. but few get an intelligeiit
answer. - i China and India, a white
copper, called pack tong, has long been
known, and has been extensively used
both there' a4d in Europo for counter
feiting silver coin. About the year 1700
a peculiar ore was discovered in the
copper mines of Saxony, which had the
appearance of being very rich, but in
smelting it yielded no copper, and the
miners called it kupfer-nickel, or falso
copper. In 1754, Constadt announced
the discovery of a new metal in kupfer
nickel, to which he gave the name of
nickel. In was in combination with
arsenic, from which he could relieve it
only in parts. The alloy of nickel and
arsenie which ho obtained was white,
brittle and very hard, and had a ielting
point nearly as high as chat iron. It was
not until 1823 that pure nickel was ob
tained by analysis of . German silver,
which lid for a number of years been
produced at Sul, in Saxony. Its com
position was ascertained to be copper 10
-parts, zinc 5 and nickel 4. If more
nickel be used the alloy iq as white as
silver and susceptible of a very high
polish, blut becomes to brittle and hard
to be hannered or rolled, and can be
worked omly by casting. Pure nickel is
a white metal which tarnishes readily in
the air. Unlike silver, it is not acted on
by the vapor of sulphur, .and even the
strong mineral acids attraidt it but slight
ly. Nickel has the hardness of iron,.
and, like it, has strong magnetic prop
erties, but cannot be welded and is
soldered with difficulty. Pure nickel
has heretofore been used chiefly for,
plating, for which purpose its hardness
and power to resist atmospheric influ
ences admirably adapt it. Within the
last year the French have succeeded in
rolling the metal into plates, fron which
spoons and other table furniture may be
pressed. Nickel bronze which consista
of equal partm of copper and nickel with
a little tin, may be cast into very delicate
forms, and is susceptible of a high
polish. Mines of Nickel are worked at
Ohatham, Conn., and Lancaster, Penn.,
and it is said to be found at Mine La
Motto, Mo., and at several points in
Colorado and New Mexico, where but
little attention is paid to it.:. It is exten
sively mined in Saxony and ,n Sweden,
but the ate discovery of a neiy ore (a
silicate f nickel) in New Caledonia -will
probably suspend the use of the arsenical
ores, and yet bring nickel into common
use. Switzerland, in the year 1832, made
a coin of German silver, which is iden
tical in composition with our nickel coin.
The United States made nickel cents in
-1856, and eight years later coined the
five-cent pieces. Belgium adopted
nickel coinage in 1860 and Germany in
1873. England has lately coined pennies
for Jalmaica, but at home she and France
still adhere to the clumsy copper small
The New and Old veorsionu.
-A middle-aged married man of our
city thought he would trim the trees in
his garden one Sunday, on the sly, but
while lhe was. sawing oll' a limb, his wife
watching him from the window4 and tell
ing him to wvait till to-morrowv, a good
lady came along on her way home from
church, and seeing him at work on the
Sabbath (lay, was very much shocked.
She called to him and wanted to know :
''Have you ever read the ten conmmand
ments ?" ''Oh, yes, hundreds of times
knowv 'em by heart, every one of 'em,
and know I have broken thme seventh
comnmandlment three or four times already
to-day ad exp)ect to break it as many
more times before the aun sets, for these
trees and1( b~ushes have to be trimmed
and I'm in b~usiess from sun up till sun
down on week( days, and am too poor to
lure it (lone." Th'le lady started on homec
wvithmout saying another word and his
wife roared out laughiing, and lie couldn't
tell for thme life of him what was the~ mat
ter until his wife gave himi the ten comn
mandmndnta to read. He (lid so and then
wanitedl to know where she got .the newly
translated Bible. "'It is not thme new
Bible you arc reading, but it is the 01(d
oue, anmd Mrs. knows the ten
commandmaents as we'll as you knowv your
A B C's. Nowv what (do you sup~pose she
will think of you?" Hie studied for a
minute. "Well, I'm as innocent as a
lamb, I am, be gosh ; but confound the
seventh comimandmnent anyway,. that'i
all I've- got to say, and I know veiry well
the numbiers have been chainged." Tile
subject was dropped, but lie knows onme
of the commiandmnents now, you bet.
The builder selects sh~ow~of the proper
consistency b~y' sounding a drift with a
cane made for the purpose, of reindeer.
horn, straightened by steaming, and
worked down to aiboult half an inch ini
diameter, with a ferule of walrus tusk or
the tooth of a bear on the bottom. By
thrusting this into the snow lie can tell
whether the layers .deposited by succes
sive winds are separated by bands of
soft snow, which would cause the blocks
to break, When the snow is.isolected he
digs A pit to the depth of oighteen inches
or two feet, or about thme length of the
snow blouk. Hie then steps into the pit
and proceeds to out out tihe blocks by
first cutting down at the end of the pit
andl then at thm bottom after.ardA ct
ting a little channel about an inch or two
deep, making the thickness of the pro
Now comes the part that requires
practice to accomplish successfully.
The expert will, with a few thrusta of his
knife in just the right places, *split off
the snow-block and lift it carefully out
tQ await removal to its position on the
wall. the tyro will ahnost inevitably
break the block into two or three pieces
utterly unfit for the use of the builder.
When two men are luilding an igloo,
one cuts the blocks and the other erects
the wall. When sufficient blocks have
been eut out to commence work with,
the builder umarks with his eye or per
haps draws a line with his knifo descri
bing the circumference of the building,
usually a circle albout ten or. twelvo feet
in diameter. The first row of bl9.ks is
then irrranged, the blocks placed so as
to incline inward and resting against
each oth-er at the ends, thus affording
.mutual support. When this row is com
pleted, the builder cuts aivay the first
and second blocks, slanting in from
the ground upward, so that the second
tier, resting upon the first row, can be
continued onl and around spirally, an(d
by 'gradually increasing tho inward slant
a perfect dome is constructed of such
strength that the builder can lie flat
upon the outside while chinking the
interstices between the blocks. The
chinking- is, however, usually done by
women and children ats the building
progresses, and additional protection
secured' from the winds in very cold
weather by banking up, with a large
wooden snow-shoVel, the snow at the
base often being piled to the depth of
three or four feet. This makes the igloo
perfectly impervious to the wind in the
most tempestuous weather. When the
house, is completed the builders are
walleA hi. Then a small hole about two
feet square is cut in the wall on the
side away from whero the entrance is to
Lie located and is used to pass in the
lanips and .bedding. It is then walled
-up and the regular door cut ajouit two
feet high and niched at the top. It
would bring bad luck to carry the bed
ding into the igloo by the same door it
would be taken out. Before the door is
opened the bed is constructed of snow
blocks, and made from one to three or
four feet high, and occupies three-fourths'
of the entire space. The higher the bed
and the lower the door the warmer the
igloo will be.
Not a Wash.
One morning an ofilcer walked an old
vagrant to the Central Station, Detroit,
to have his ease attended to, and lie was
locked up in a cell with a inisoner ar
rested at an earlier. hour. The two looked
at each other pretty hard for a iinuto
and then the last arrival said
"My name is Stevens."
"And mine is Thomas," replied the
"Well, Thomas, what are you here
"No I So'n I. I was awfully afraid
you were in here for sone high-toned
offence and wouldn't care for my coni
panUy. H~ow's your clothes ?"
"GOood I So are minle. Got anmy nmon
''Neither have I. WVill anybody help
y~ou out ?" *
" 'No. "
''Splendid! We'll both go up together.
Hlavo yeou had good wash this sp)rin~g ?"
"'Not a ws.
''Neither have I. Hlangedl if there
isn't a bond of Symplath~y between us !
What will yeou do after wo get out of the
"'I'm goinig to tramp)."
"'Are you ? That's my line exactly,
and wec'll go snooks and work alternate
houses ; Say, TIhomas I"
"'We're iln luck; Ninety-times out of a
hundred amid oneC of hH woulld have turn
ed out to be0 a bank defaulter or an cmi
bezzling clerk (whio'd have sneered at
our clothing, found fault with our En
glish anid wanted to wash three times a
dlay. Sa~y Thomas, le't's embrace and
go halves on tohaeco."
T1homas being willinhg, theiy embiiraced
andl muade a fair division of thle last
The following suggestive facts are
gathered from Prof. Atwater's papers
before the annual meeting of the Fish
cultural Association :Fish consists of
waste matter anid flesh. The waste con
sists of belies, skin, entrails, etc. ; the
flesh of water anid two solids ; the solids
are the nutritive material. .The propor
tions of waste in dliferenlt ymples vary
widlely :A floundei- 68 per cent., while
one of halibut steak' only 18 per cent.;
making the halibut the cheaper fish at a
higher p~rice. The least waste is to be
found in fat shad, fat mackerel, and dry
anid salt fish. The p~ractical applIiention
of these facts is of the utmost value.
The same nutritive substance in the
different samples of fish were found to
vary in cost from 40 cents to 3S a pound.
The high price, bear in mind, being for
fish having the greatest waste. "It
makes little difference," it ia added, "to
the man with $5,000 a year whether he
pays 40 cents . or #4 a pound for the
albumenoids in food provided it suits his
palate ; but to the housewife whose
family must be supytorted upon $500O a
year it is a mattdr of great importance,",~
---Di& Fooma's HDAwrPu Mowcar,.
Testinir MaltN for Acdity.
The existence of abnormal 'acidit.y In
malt iS not only injuri6s in itself, bItt
this very exces, of acidity undoubtedly
hastens clanlge in the resulting wort
and beer, which tend to their Ultimate
destructi, as drinkable fluids. 'From
the conhnounenm ent of the malting sea
son till the nwarmer weather of spring
sets in, the development of acidity' in
malta4 proceeds but slowly, but after
April, and especially in malts which have
been stored for some time, the anm6unt
of acidity will be found to have increased.
To determine with accuracy tie atlsolite
quantity of ticid ill a sample of malt is an
operation atteided with moiie difficulty,
and requires the skill and appliances of
a practical chemist ;'hut a valuable com
partitive test for acidity can he made by
any brewer with but few appliances4, and
with Ibut little lkowledge of chemical
manipulation. We say comparative teAt
ill contradistinction to an absolute test,
because the former will really give the
brewer all the information he I equires
he wants to comparo 0o malt With
another, and he is generally able to fix
his own standard of excellence. T1hore
fore in testing malts for acidity (and the
remark applies equally to othergiuatlities)
all that is necessary for the bTower to do
is to subnit. them all to precisely the
sam1e1 treatment. Two iifsions of the
nallt are prepared, one with cold water
ant1d the other at the average ma.shing
temperature, say 160 deg. Fall, ; till
stmples to be tWsted must he0 treated in
exactly the sinme manner tia regards quali
ties, tille, aid temperature, and th'ey
are then palssed through a filter paper,
1and tile aiidity determined in each by
meIs1 of a standard alkaline solution,
using delicate litmus papers as the indi
cator. It is not well to operate upon too
5m11 a1 quantity, and ill practice 1,000
grammes to a liter of water will be found
.colvenient. Every sample of malt uiust
be cruslled to the stale state of fineness,
ind fo' this urlillpose anll ordinary coffee
mill answers admirably. The water used
ill making the infusions should be pure
distilled water, unless i water (if very
contstant composition, such as is sipplied
to London. is at hand.
The standard alkaline solution is best
lade with ammonia, and can lbe of any
desired strength, but of course very di
lute ; it may he titrated so thlat every
cubic centimeter corresponds to 0-01 per
cent. of lactic acidbut any other strength
will do equally well, ag the tests wve sug
gest are only for the purpose of comhiar
ing samples of malt one with another.
Tile acidity -of the cold infusion gives the
actual aliollut of acid existing inl the
nilt, but that. of the hot. infusion gives,
in addition, the amount of acid developed
during the mshliing. process. From the
experience dorived ill the examination of
111111y hlunldred samnlples of malt, wo are
able to assert that the presence of an ex
eessive am1oun11t, of acidity ,il tile hot in
fusion is an almost sure sign of umsound
nes in the malt. The diftferenco ill the
tcidities of the cold and hot infusions
ought Iever to exceed one-fimlrth of tile
acidity of the cold infusion ; thus, su1p
posing a malt gives at cold intfusion re
Cluirin~g 20 cubic centimleters of the
stI1ada'd so luntionl to exactly neultralizo
it, the hot infusion ou~ght not to require
more thani 25 c. c. This method of conm
paraltive testing may also be exteiided to
thte color and gralvity of thle resulitintg
wVorta4, and. muchl usefiul information as5
to the <iality oaf thle malt cant tihus be
Everybody knows thlat trees take the
cairblonic aicid thlrown out inl tile breath
of men and animals, separate it in~to
cIompjonenlt patrtsetcarbon anld oxygen
give back thte latter to be used over
agauil ; and w arik up the former into wood
It is also coming to be generally under
stoodl thlat forest trees doi ihportaint ser
vice in promnotin~g rainf ails, and ini help
ing to retaini tile surfaice waiter for sp)rinlgs,
streams and general use.
It is also known thlat certain spe'cies
planted ill malarial localities, 1help to
render the latter hlealthty by somtehow
using up the deadly miaiSmal.
It would no0w aippear thatt trees grow
hag near dirains carry off' the sewerage
A genltlemnan, whlosCe css-drain was
conistructed just like his neighbor's and
in tile same kind of soil, had found it
unnecessary to clean it out, wile tile
otheors hlad to be cletaned out frequently.
An dxam~linationi showed thttit thlree
large trees, whlose roots hlad penetrated
into the v'icinity of is seconld, or walste
cess-p)ool, were clearly chlannlels thlroughl
vwic theO wasIte all escaped.
Whlether it was chainged into liant
food, as is likely, or was exhatledi through
thle leaves, inl either case it wvas disposed
of with equal fgaifety.
In alehuousos, in ancien~t tinrea chlalk
"sacores " were marked upon the wall, pr
behlind tho' door of the tap-room. It
was customary to put the initiails "P"
and " Q" at tfie head of every'mian's ac
count to show the number of' pintts and~
quarts for whlioh lhe was ill, arrears.
Wheon a person~ was indulging 'too freely
in his5 potations a friend would oxolaimn,
pointing to the chalk' score, -" Mfind your
P's and Q's." In thtis way.- originated
the old sainqii
FOOD FOR THOUGHT.
There is no charity in helping a man
who will not help himself.
Compliments are often nothing more
than gilt-edged falsehoods. .
We seduce ourselves into downright
lying by slight provocations. .
The man who feels certain that he will
not succeed is seldopi mistaken.
He who is ashamed of his poverty will
surely 'he arrogant of l1iH wealth.
Humility is the safest foundation to
build any kind of superstricture oil.
OatlHs are straws, men's faiths are
wafer cakes, and holdfast is the only
He who has filled the measure of his
days has only- learned how to-begin to
Some men seem constantly turning an
intefilu griiidstone to keep thei- anger
Many have blown into the trnup of
fame, but few have filled' ii so that it
The boy whose highest ambition it is
to equal his father, seldom amounts to
Most of the .luIappiness in this life
comes from nyt knowing the true value
It takes two to, make a quarrel and
two to keep it going ; it only needs one
to end it. :.
It is' not the niany oaths~ that make
the trutli, but the plain single vow that
is vowed true.
Let no. man-presume to give good ad
vice to others .tl.tt hats not first given
good conisel to himself.
. No o - believes that ie ettn mystify
his mind ; but every one imagines that
he dan gull his ponscienco.
How in it ponsible to expect that mail
kind will take advice when they will not
sio iich as take warning ?
Youth is the spring for planting the
seed of knowledge ; age' tle autun for
watching them ripen into wisdom.
Good qualities are the substantial
ricLhes of the mind ; but it is good breed
ing that sets them off to advantage.
The hapl)l)iest lot for a. man, as far as
birth is concerned, is tlat it should give
him imut little occasion to thitik much
Bad habits are the thistles of the
heart, and every indulgence of them is a
seed from whichl will spring a new crop
'A lie will die from neglect sooner than
in any other way. The only reason wiy
some lies grow so large is that everybody
pots and feeds theim.
Childhood often holds a truth with its
feeble fingers, which the grasp of man
hood cannot. retaiin, which it is the prido
of utmost age to recover.
A man who does manly work, in the
world is 'respected, .but he who trifles
away his time with toys receives tile
world's contemiptuous smilet
. 'lie patriot ik he who obeys his coun
try's laws, and if they are oppressive and
uijust strives earnestly and within the
proper limits to rectify them.
Old age is the ilight of life, as night is
the Old age of the diy. Still, night is
full of magnificence, and, for many, it
is nmore brilliant than the (lay.
Falsehood, like poison, will generally
be rejected when ad imistered alone, but
when blended with wholesome ingredi
ents may be swallowed unperceived.
Worldly faces never look so worldly
as at a, funeral. They have the same
e1Ieet oif grating inconlgruity an the sound
of a coatrse voice breaking the stillnless
Truth, thley say, lies at thme bottom of
a wiell. That is reason eniough whly so
few of us are alcqualinted withm her. Few
like to~ enltrulstb,hemselves to the bucket
Surely thiat p)1eehming Sybib:anos
from the soul most works on the4 A~l.
The divinlity of charity Consists in re
lieving a lman's nieeds before they aro
forced upon01 us.
There is among men such ilntense af..
fectation that they bften boast of defects
whlich thmey hlave niot, mocre willingly
thanu of qualities which they have.
Th'le wise onmes say -that nothing is so
hafrd to bear as prosperity ; but most
men would like to . engage mn some hard
wvork oif that dlescrip~tionl, just to have a
p~ractical illustration of tihe adage.
Th'ie last, best fruit, wvhich comes late
to perfection, even in the kindliest soul,
is tenderness toward.,tho hard, forbear
anice towar'd thle unforbearing, warmith
of heart toward tihe misanthlrop)ic,
Be nlot diverted fronm your duty by
an~y idle reflections tile silly world may
maiike upon0 you, for their censunres are
not inl your power, and consequently
should not be0 anyl part of your concern.
Lover, daughter, sister, wife, mother,
grandmlother-inl those six words lie
gybat thc hmumanl hegirt conltains of thle
sweetest, the most ecstatic, the mlost
sacred, tihe purlest an~d the most inefra
You find yourself refreshed b~y thle
p~resencee of cheerful personls. Whly nlot
mnake earlnest effort to colnfer thmat leas
uro on others ? You will find half the
bafttle is galined if yell never say any
Unselfish and1( noble1 acts are t~lm most
radiant ep)ochs ill tihe biograph)ly of souls.
Whem wroulght ill earliest youth they lie
inl the memnory of age like coral islanlds,
greenl and1( sunny, amlidst the mnelanchloly
waste of oceanll.
All injury unalnwered in -thnoe grows
wearly-of itself and (lies away ill an1 ill
volunItary remorse. In bad disp~ositionsl,
cap~able of no restrainlt b~ut fear, it 1has a
dliffer'ent effect-the silenlt digestion of
0o10 wrong p~rovokes, a second.
Homes are like harps, of whichl 01ne is
finely carved and bright with gilding hut
ill-tuned and1( jarring the air with its dis
cords'; whlie aniother' is -old and1 plainl
and worn, but from its chlords float
strainls that are a feast of music.
Give not thy tongue too great a liberty,
lest it take the~e prisoner. -A word un
spoken is like a sword 'in a scabbard
thino ; if vented, thly sivord is in another's
hand. If thlou Pesire to be held wise,
be so wise as to hold thy tongue,