Newspaper Page Text
'EWS AND IIERALD. i
?"VISI&U T9I- WE rLY *
M V'iX)JgLD G)UM.0T. st
res a IA A1,VANCE:
A Year, . - - - as.ee a'
c 4eathe. - - - . 1.50
10 rffU17SIYU IUA TX. JAS&: s
e~ ~ ~ ~~v -i ''i sN a . s[t iner- le
i a i;r,--' *si r : *4 fl r i i t--ta lser
wri. - to
Regalar rates charged fei- ebitaa:les.
Orders for Job Work solicited. rc
This nrwspaper is uot responsible for E
r .u*tons anld views erpwssed ,any where at
The than in tbe editorial column. Il
All articles for publication must be ac- t
.:t:panivd by the true iane of the author d
'uI written in r-spectful language and 1
ritten on one side of the paper The true
a-no required as an evidence of good faith ti
All co:jmunicatsons-editorial, business r4
local--should be addressed to THE g
.4 EWS AND HERALJ CO. 0
W. D. DOUGLASs, Editor. E
JAS. Q. DAtis, Treasurer.
W. J. ELLIorr, Business Uanager.
W INNS BORO, S. C.
Tuesilay. March 19. :
HISTORY BECIrATIONS. h
A Paper Read by W. R. Minter at the a,
Teachets' Meetiag. p
History is easily taught, therefore, 0
not necessarily but as a matter of fact, t
poorly taught. To get the best re- g
salts in teaching any branch there are :
some essential conditions to be Illed. s
A brief considera:ion of the main re
sults for successfully teaching History a
i4 the intended scope of this paper. 8
First of all, and without which the t
highest success cannot be attained is
this condition. A teacher should know b
what he teaches. It at irst may seam e
very useless to mention such an axi- t
matic statement as the above, but <
from some observation and my own e
experience I know this most necessary
condition to be not infrequently ig
nored to some extent by teachers.
I say we must know what we teach. a
What is'it to know a lesson? You e
may be able to answer any question b
put to you from your text book, and a
yet not know the lesson; you may P
have it perfectly memorized and yet q
not know it. It is one thing to be a
able to recite a lesson and quite a
another to be able to teach it. In the
first case to have memorized the lesson ~
is suafcient; in the latter, something d
additional is needed. That something ~
is the separating, grouping and ar
ranging into a connected series; in j
other words the digesting the idea of s
the lesson. To know a lesson then, 1
we must carefully read it, and corn
pare and classify the ideas in it, and
assimulate the knowledge by viewing i
it in comparison with our present
knowledge and placing it in its proper
group or series. In other words a fi
practical knowledge. d
Second, In - teaching History we
shall not be confined in our knowledg'e ~
to what one text book tells. In that a
case the bright boy knows as much as
we do. A teacher should know more t
than he tries to teach, for in no recita- J
tion can he teach as much as he knows, ~
however sinall that may be. If he b
know. only what one History tells q
then he cannot possibly teach that u
much. The teacher must go before, a
his pupil, and not beside or behind. k
Every one should have at least two ~
differentHistories of the United States; a
should keep one for parellel reading, r
for greater detail and for illustration. IE
And what interest and eagerness it a
creates when we can continually add . t
intoresting anecdotes, new stories and a,
giv3 life-like pictures of what our r4
text-book scarcely alludes t->. If E
teaching Barnes United States' his-k
tory what rie stories we can find, in
Montgomery's with which to illustrate 51
and expand the meagre stories in IS
Barnes, or whzat a quantity of brand- SC
new things we can get from one His- "I
tory that add a 100 fold to the interest ol
and zeal of the class.
Third, We know the lesson. Now a
how teach it? Before getting to the
recitation proper, a few words about ~
History in general, for knowing His- h1
tory is a diferent thing from knowing (1
mathematics or grammar. What is te
History? I say, a chain of erents. A i
chain, then there is a connection run
ning throughout. To show this con- i
nection, sequence, cause and effect is d4
the prime object of the study of His- al
tory. Let mte illustrate. To properly
appreciate why France favored and T
aided the United Celonies in 1776 we (
must go back to the bitter rivalry be- to
tween France and England engendered C~
by the Friench and indian war, and ?
further still to their old territory dis- i
putes, even back to the History of
France and England themselves, where.
we find them extremely jealous of '
each other, each willing to do any
thing to humiliate its rival. This 4t
same rivalry explains why France sold 9.
what is in'cluded in Louisiana pur
chase to us at such a bargain, lest it
should fall into the hands of England, fo
her rival. ca
Again Jackson's Bank Policy caused
the great financial panic in Van flu
ren's Administration. Without a brief wi
Nistory of United States Bank, its no
being chartered, the expiration of that ta
charter and failure of Congress to re- ea
new it, the cause of this crisis cannot tal
intelligently be grasped. Then failure C'i
to emphasize this connection and to re,
trace it from its beginning is where fa<
one great mistake in teaching History qr
is made. e
We are not teaching disconnected tr;
isolated facts. How hard History ti
would be if we were! As it is' some- kra
times taught, it would be as well to pu
have one lesson on the Mexican war, an
the next on Grant's Administration, tbh
and then one on Quevn Ann's War, en
for this vital point of connection is tai
The error of the above method is ap
parent, wher we regard History in a
proper light, that is as a chain of :
events andis indeed very like a chain a,
of iron. It is composed of links, each by
link is closely joined to another, and d u
hOOn to the end of the chain, Hlow c
dmifiut tn carry a chain if each link is es
>se and out of connection; how easy
all the links are securely fastened
gether! Just so, how hard to carry
istory when each link is loose and
it of order, how easy if every lesson
I nk is simply and securely tied to
e one next to it!
By keeping this thread of unity con
intly in view, we increase the power
the memory many fold, we arouse
id stimulate to action the reasoning
ower, two prime objects of teaching
Now for the recitation proper. Be
re beginni. g the assigned lesson, let
me member of the class briefly and
>intedly summarize the yesterday's
ssen; this is very necessary for it
nounts to reciting the same lesson
ice (in time fcr one) and it leads up
where the today's lesson begins.
ore than this, it is well frequently to
view the chapters of the History or
pochs. For instance, every child
udying Barnes' History should be
)le to rattle off the six Epochs of
e United States History: 1st, Early
4covers and settlements. 2nd, De
flopment of Colonies. 3rd, Revoln
nary war, etc. But without that
iviewing the average child will after
uing through the book more than
ace, after be unable to tell how many
pochs in the Histo:y. I once had
:casion to question a class that was
early through an advanced Geogra
by, and found that they did not
now in what Hemisphere they lived!
ouldn't mention the continents, and
)uld not give a good definition of
ipe or isthmus, and all because these
estions were in first part of book.
'hey bad never been reviewed and
ad forgotten. One of the best teach
rs I was ever under, would call on
)me one at least once a week to re
eat in order the chapters of the book
p to the present lesson.
Next, the teacher should never tell
ie class anything, it can tell him to
et the best work out of a class, it
ould do the reciting. But you may
xy "Frequently the pupil cannot
nswer even a part of my question."
'hen either draw him out by simple
nd more direct questions or call on
)me one to give him a start. Often
mes that is all that needed. Another
istake is made in asking questions
idi-criminately. You can without
eing partial, generally give the hard
st questions to the bright pupils, and
ie less difficutt ones to the duller
oys. Thereby the bright boy is made c
) be en the alert, and the dull one is
Next as to kind of qiesthions: There
i great art in questions. Some ques- I
ons can be answered by observing F
is tone and form in which they are
ked; such can do no good but rather
acourage indolence. Others, litt!e
etter, are those requiring a yes or no I
nwer. Again a question should con
in no information in it, that the
upil can himself give. What about
netion in back of historr? Shall we
se them? I saw, decidedly, no ! They
re very excel'cnt and from an expe
inced educator; but to use any
rinted set of questions, is to givet
our class an impractical and depen- g
ent knowledge of the lesson. The e
oy thinks if he can answer all the r
rinted questions he knows it; while E
es fact is generally, if asked, a dif-t
rently worded or more comprehen-,
ve questiot, he is unable to answer I
.By way of illustration: suppose
boy is asked the question about Jno. e
abot in Barnes' History, which are:
What was the plan of Juo. Cabot?
ihat discoveries, did he make? Did
is discoveries antedate those of
olumbus? Where and when is it
robabe the American continent was
rst diseovered? What discoveries 5
id Sebastian Cabot make? Did Eng-1
md improve them? Of what value a
~here they ?" and he may be able to
nswer every one. Now ask him a,
ider question as, give an account ofr
te discoveries and explorations ofr
ohn and Sebastian Cabot, and he b
rould do well to get one-half of it. A -r
ay has been slavishly following the i
estions in the book would be una ble t
>make a start, or at best to give o.nly .a
very imperfect answer. Then what t
nd of questions should we use? To d
hich I answer, original ones clear a
d direct. To answer such questions a
quires a ready knowlede3 of the,
sson and some individual thought i
id quickness in wording those
cughts; hence your answer is almostb
ways in original language-which ti
sult is greatly to be desired and
ows an assimulated and practical.
rowledge of the subject.
Next we should get the opinions of
e class on debatable subjects. Here
the opportunity to impress the les
m by a little debate or exchange o
inen, and of equal importance to
tain that mental training that should
a part ot every recitation. To ask
boy his opinlion, to) let him know lhe
s5 a right to think for himself, and to
rm an opinion of his own, provided
gives his reasons for it, is a won
riul stimulus to quicken interest and
encourage personal andl inidepen~dent
ought. For h:im t) know that he
n even differ from his teacher is a
erty which gives him ito end o
ight, and just that much adds to hi
ertness and attenti mi.
Lt mec now briefiy' re-:apindlate:
le pri ~ne obj.-et in teachig . II stor y
side from developing the mind) or.
get a connec'ed view of a series of
e:s, which go to make up the like
a country, to trace the causes lead
g up to these events and the effects
wing from the~n.
Plan of recitatilon: 1st. Br ief re
ew of last lesson. 2nd. General
estions. 3rd. Particular que-stions.
b. I!lustrationas from history of
her nations, 5 h. Prnc-ical disens
n anid application.
To conscien'in-ly and inateligently
llow suchi a plant itn teaching history
nnt fsil :o brinag about; g>d re.,ni:s.
Catarrh Cannot be Cured
th LOCAL APPLIC iTIONS, Cs they Calne
t reach t he seat of the disease. Cs,
erb is a blood or constitutional dis
se, and in order to cure it you must
e internal rementdi.-s. itall's Catarrh
ire is taken' internally, and acts di
tly on the blia.> aund mnucou~s sur
:el II,!i's Cnaa Cure is tnot
ack medicin-. It wue precribetd b '
e of the be~r pehoic~ ans itn thi cotin-t
for y ears, atnd is a reg ular prescrip
ir,. It is composted~i or t he be-t toni.
own, -omin~td wihm the benr bio--di
rifiers, act inga dirctly on 16' mu otis
races. The perf.-et cotmbitnatin of -
two ingrediet<k i what prnmluc' s
ch v--nder-l results itn .turing Ca
r. Send for testimnonials, fr-. e
F. J. Cut ri & Co., Tel-edo, 0.
WSeld by D~ruggi-n, price 7> -. *
oss of strength atnd flesh, wasting
a-a from any can-e pr ne ptly arrested
uing that gre ates? < f all fat pro-g
cers, Johnson,'s Tauz les Compounmd 14
d Liver Oi!. Wit-n-boro Draw
,,.. * A.
for Infants an
T HIRTY years' observation of
mlions of persons, permit us
It is unquestionably the best s
the world has ever known. It Is
gives them health. It will save
something which is absolutely a
ceid's me &icin
Castorla destroys Werms.
Castoria allays Feverishnee
Castoria prevents vomiting t
Castoria ures Diarrheas and
Castoria relieves Teething T
Castoria cures Constipation 0
Gastoria neutralizes the effets of ca
Castoria does not contain morphine,
Castoria assimiates the food, reg
giving heAthy and natural sleep.
Castoria is put 3p in one-she bottle
Don't allow any one to sell you any
that it is "Just as good" and "wJ
See that you get C-A-5-T-04
Children Cry for PI
FROM EAST WATEREE.
Mr. Editor: The middle of March,
rn planting time, and scarcely a
arrow bas been run.
The farmers are probably farther be
Jd than they have betn any year
ince the war-certainly much farther.
ban any year in the last decade.
I have been keeping a record of my
rm work for the past six years, to
hich a reference from year to year
ives me a good deal of information, s
s I can tell how well advanced my 1
>rk is each year compared with
rmer ones. I find nine days' less 1
l>ughing done to date than aTy s earI
ftbe past six, which means at least
o weeks, for an average of four;
L)s a week is as many as can be
ounted on at this season. All theI
ugh ploughing, which is usually done
rly when the weather is cool, is vet
bie done, and will have to be done in
arm spring days, which will doubt-[
ss soon set in, and will be mucht
rder on tstock. Many of our fitrm
;a will no donbt rash, improperly
epare, and half plant, in order to get
a full crop, which I thuinki.will be a
or policy. It will be much better to
eide et once and reduce the acreage
feach crop that they had contem
ted planting t wenty per cent, leav
g Gut tbc poorer lands, which can be
lasted in peas much later than any
2er crop. Twenty acres to the plow,
oerly prepared and well Icultivated,
1i1 make more thant thirty scres
T'he fertilizer question has virtu 'iy
en settled by the weather. The
ads are in such a conditioni that it
impossible for a team to pull more
i a half lo-d. Farmers living ciese
delivery points may drag a few tons(
-ogh the mud, but those living at tu
tance, where only one joad can be
nde a day, will find that they cannot
frd to haul it, and when the weather
s good and the roads firm they will
id that th~eir sieck~ will be worth
re at the plow thain in the road
aling guan o, even if it was given to
m. . . I
arch 18, 1895.
means so much more than
you imagine-serious and
fatal diseases result from
trifling ailments neglected.
Don't play with Nature's
and generally ex
Bro~1~,have no appetite
and can't work,
~begin at once tak
Brown's Iron Bit
Bit ties cure-beneit
Ds S comes from the
veryer 2rt os-i
_...._ __pleasant to take.
Dyspepsla, Kidney and Liver
Coteti1'ation, Bad Blood
Maladla, Nervous allments
Get only the genuine-it has crossed red
lines on the wrapper. All others are sub
r ill send set of To e tiful 2 . 'trps
Fair views and book-free.
BROWN CHEMiCAL. CO. BALTIoE D
DR. E. C. JETER,
Pi pician and Surgeon.
)Tfrs tids m'i'fessienal services to the
't aiier aiddres4 Jenkinsville, S. C.
se Barnes' Ink
.'astoria with the patronage of
to speak of it without gueuing.
emedy feor Infants and Chlren
harmdes. harn lke it. It
her ]ves. In it Mothers have.
1. and practicafly perfeet~a a
Fbonio acid gas ow poisonous air.
pium,o eother narooi pr'opty.
lates the stomach and bow
Ionly. Itis not sad in buL
ang else on the plea or promise
I answer every PUrpose.
tcher s Castoria.
For Over Fifty Years'
MEs. WINsLow's SooTamG SYUr hS
een used for over fifty years by millior
f mothers for their children while' teetl
, with perfect success. It soothes tt
ild, softens the gums, allays all pai
ures wind colic, and is the best remed
r Diarrhcea. It will relieve the poor 1i
le sufferer immediately. Sold by Drul
sts in every part of the world. Twent
ve cents a bottle. Be sure and ask fi
Mrs. Winslow's Soothing Syrup," an
ke no other kind. 5-20t11y
Don't be talked into having an opei
tion performed or injections of cai
olic acidiused as it m.y cost you yoE
fe. Tri Japanese Pile Care. Winni
oro Drus Store. *
hildren Cry for Pitcher's Castoria
~Thnsaslsck, we gayv her CAairta.
When sh s a Child, she cried for Castoria.
Then she em Miss, she clun: to Castoria.
They sh AdChfldrea,sbe gave them Castoria,
bildren Cry for Pitcher's Castoris
hoice Eating. Apples.
Choice Messina Lemons
Red and Yellow Onions
n'ie Eating Irish Potatoes.
ine Assortment Mackerel.
Breakfast Strips and Hams
~resh Fish and Oyste rs.
ce lot i.arly Rose
-FOB THE HEALING OF THE NATIONS
B Dotail6BIo00 BalM
THlE GREAT SOUTHERN REINDY FOR
fill Skin and Blood Diseases
.lt purities, builds up and enriches
the blood, and never fails
(Jto cure the most inveterate
BLOD AND SKIN DIS
EAEif directions are fol
5 low ed. Thousands of grate
ful people sound its praises
and attest its virtues.
ETWRITE for Book of Won
derful Cures, sent free on ap
If not kept by your local druggist,
send $I.oo for large bottle, or $5.oo
For six bottles, and medicine will be
sent, freig-ht paid, by
And choose at random. You can't
go amiss amongst the immense line of
Snits that we've tho own en the special
tables to be sacrificed this week. Any
one you put your hands en is worth
more than we'll charge you for it, and
never before has such an opportunity
been presented for obtaining a fine
Suit of O'thes for a small amount
One lot of Suits and
Overcoats that the
marked $22.50, $18,
50, $15 and $12.50
your choice now for
One lot of Suits
that arc marked
choice now for
One lot of Prince Al
bert Coats that are
marked $22.50, $18.
50, $15.and $12.50
your choice now for
One lot of Overcoats that
are marked $8.50,$7.50
and $6-5o-your choice
now for only $5
S This sale is for spot cash, and none
1- of these goods will be sent out on ap
Our line of Men's Furnishings is
complete, and contains comfort and
If you do not reside in
d Columbia, write for what you
M. L. KINARD,
I- THE PEOPLE'S CLOTHIER,
138 Maii Street,
At Sign of the Golden Star,
COLUMBIA, S. C.
-As we wish to make room for
Spring stock, we have marked
our heavy Winter Goods, such as
WOOLEN PIECE GOODS,
way down out of sight. The
winter is not yet gone and
YOU WILL NEED
We will beat "between season"
prices to death.
When tiines are hard and money
YOU W4NT YOUR DOLLAR TO
GO A LONGI WAY8
We will give you more for ONE
DOLLAR than any one else.
We will treat you right and
save you money.
Checked Homespun, at 3c. per yd
White Homespun at 3c. per yd
Will beat the record on Flour
A. MACDONAL & CO.,
Blackstock, S. C.
lso aih weten
t rain, causing Misery, Iniyn ath
Lcorrhca and Female wekness. A month's tre
pr 'ox,6 boess 15 ith eery 1s or r r e gve
riten Curantee to cur r refund te ione.
WIN NSBORO DRlUG STOiJd.
Wiunnsber.. S. 0.
DR. DAVID AJXEN,
omee : No, 9 Washuinuttn Street, 3 Doors
We~st of 1'totoffi e.
EWln Ridgeway S. C., every Wedne&
Our Miss Lilla Ketchin is now in Baltimore
buying our Spring Stock of Millinery. She has
instructions to buy a FULL stock. Her experi
ence and taste is a guarantee that the stock will
be worth seeing. We want you to see it.. We
will fix the prices to suit the times.
We are now receiving -the first arrival of Spring
Goods in all lines and ask an inspection from
every one, We study to please both in quility
CALDWELL & RUFF.
One Ton Cotton Seed Meal
For 375 Lbs. Middling Cotton, Payable, in the Fall.
This is the offer we are now maki. and e des're to call the attention of
farmers to the cheapness ot Cottoni Sccd Mean -at present as compared with
commercial fertilizers. Taking the Clemannu Colar-g valuation of ammionia
at 13c.- and 15c. per lb., respectiv I. it. cotton seed meal and in m .A
fertilizers, pbosphoric acid at 5c. an'd potash at bc.per lb., we. have tiz rol.
CoUon Seed Xeal-Analysis, 8j per cent ammonia, 21 per cent phos.
acid, 1U pet cent potash. Commercial value at Charlestoi with
freight to Winnsboro ...... ......... :.. .$29.20
Commercial Fertilizers-Analysis, 3 per cent am moia,S per cent pho-.
acid, Ij per cent potash. Value at Winnsboro.. . ........21.40
The above .shows a difference of $7.80 per ton In -favor of cotton seed
meal over high grade fertilizers, and yet we are selling cotton seed mal for
less than you can buy standard fertilizera.
3-7-1 m FAIRFIELD OIL & FER'ILIZER CO.
All parties indebted to us must make arrange
ment for immediate settlement. We must have the
money, or paper satifactorily .secured. I-lavipg de
cided t. go into a new business it is absolutely neces
sary that our business here be closed-up at once.
All parties owing us will be given a reasonable time
to settle; afterthat all unpaid notes or accounts due
us will be placed in suit.
T. H. KETCHTN & CO.
TRIMMED AND.UNTRIMMED LADlES', MIME6' AND CHIILDREN'S
Hats in all the latest shapes. A large stock of Ribbons, PFancy Feathers, Birds
and Tips. Fancy Pins, Buckles, Velvets, Silks, Crepes an: 1 0her goods per
taining to this department. As we hiave a large stock of these goods which
must be sold in season, we have marked ot prices on them down.. Now is
your time to come and buy at .J, 0. BOAG'S.
>Staple Dry Goods.se
Novelty ai~d Solid Color Dress Goods of various
styles and material, wiulh Trimiigs for same.
1 Fancy Goods and Notions as low a. tie lowest.
Q Come and see for bargain. at
O--J. 0. BOAG'S.
CROCKERY, GL ASS WA RE,
Shoes, Hats and other goods usually found in: a general merchandise 'tore to
be found at - J. O.BOAG'S.
Furniture, Sewing Machines, Cooking Stoves, Organs, Baggies, Surreys,
Road Carts, and One and Two-hnrse Wagons.
J. C. Boag,
The Thoroughbred Stallion,
wilt maike dhe s'ea-tiu 4.. 189,5ar w~iis-. CYA81AEM
boro and at myi larms for $A for coUS
mns marse-i an $25 for tho~rontghbtred . COPYRGHTS.
mares. ('olts insure.t ile is.: grand -CANt I OBTAIN APTENT '9 Fora
,ano ofC Lexington and a .on of the E~l d uhoaeaanit
c klet ad Enqurer:. D aia A na 11e.4,'***tineni~nws.'d'adoker~
hv Jack Nim.~ne, he~ b' L-xingt-', .-utti to ow~gatts saahe o.
.f Gloriana, by Aamer iesn Ecdipse. teraaceac or~i'N'
Edurer's colt s are stylieb. gentle at.d Pa~tuake thsrouhMua & co. neso
.p.y. p:a&s .g g sa t bor, t'som and b~wrough widl berorsteh "Eewtk
ensti ution. Hle has been fitti-five ..ewe~eteatyts~tdh
times a winner andI as manyi time a.(nt se ne
-laced. The well known. sire , Blue i
Eyes, Falset"w, DeW I 'woj and Fau~tus s a colors, or nh
are by Enquirer, while Maumie Grey,.ees witfh, nr trei.h *t*
his dauaghaer, prod~uceds pommIfZo an~d Xmfl'o..NEW YoRE. 361 au.D~ T.
Corresponsdence' solicited. DENT] STrRY.
JOHN G. MOBLEY.
1-24-6m Winnsbore, 8. C.
NOTICE. B. J. QUATTL EBA Um, D D 8.
~URTETING DONE AND SOLICIT
rita1y -?.i.,I e . j WSsef Ro..S. C.