Newspaper Page Text
POSSESSED BY ALL ANIMALS.
ghe Instinct of Locanty Not Confne4d U
the Four-Footed Creation.
A cat carried a hundred miles In ,
oasket, a dog taken, perhaps. 500
miles by rail, in a few days may have
found their way back to the starting
point, says a writer in the Spectator.
So we have often been told, and, no
doubt,'the thing has happened. We
have been astonished at the wonder
ful intelligence displayed. Magic, 1
should call it Last week I heard of
a Captain who sailed from Aberdeen
to Arbroath. He left behind him a
dog which, according to the story,
had never been in Arbroath, but
when he arrived there the dog was
waiting on the quay. I was expected
to believe the dog had known his
master's destination, and been a ble
to inquire the way overland to Ar
broath. Truly marvelous! But
really, it is time to inquire more care
fully as to what these stories do
mean; we must cease to ascribe our
Intelligence to animals, and learn
that it is we that often possess their
instinct. A cat on a farm will wan.
der many miles in search of prey and
will therefore be well acquained with
the country for miles around. It is
taken fifty miles away. Again It
wanders and comes across a bit of
country it knew before. What more
natural than it should go to its old
home? Carrier pigeons are thaught
"homing," by taking them gradually
longer flights from home so that they
may learn the look of the country.
We cannot always discover that a
dog actually was acquainted with the
route by which it wanders home; but
it is quite absurd to imagine, as
most people at once do, that it was
a perfect stranger to the lay of the
land. To find our way a second time
over ground we have once trod Is
scarcely intelligence; we can call it
instinct, though the word does not
In the least explain the process.
Two years ago I first visited Doug
'as in the Isle of Man. I reached the
station at 31 p m. I was guided to a
house a mile through the town. I
scarcely paid any attention to the
route, yet next morning 1 found my
way by the same route to the station,
walking with my head bent, deeply
thinking all the time about other
things than the way. I have the in
stinct of locality. Most people going
into a dark room that they know are
by muscular sense guided exactly to
the very spot they wish; so people
who have the instinct of locality may
wander over a moor exactly to the
place they wish to reach without
thinking of where they go. There
may be no mental exercise connected
with this. I have known a lady of
great intelligence who would lose her
way within half a mile of the bouse
she had lived in forty years. This
feeling about place belongs to that
part of us that we have in common
with the lower creatures. We need
not postulate that the animals show
signs of possessing our intelligence.
They possess in common with na
what is not intelligence, but instinct.
fle Horse as a zeasomug Animal.
"It is a mistaken idea that none but
human beings can reason,. and that
dumb animals have not that power,"
maid Professor Albert A. Palmer, of
Buffalo. "I am fully prepared to
demonstrate that the animals inferior
- -- to man have reasoning faculties, and
that what is generally termed instinct
plays an important part in their do
ings and actions.
"Let me give a single example. 3.
have a friend named Downing who
owns a string of valuable race horses.
In his string is a horse known as
Bpeedwest. A day or so before a race
in which the horse is entered he gen
erally sends him out on the track
mounted by a stable boy for a little
preparatory work. This horse 'will
not take kindly to his work, and no
ambunt of persuasion with whip or
spur can get him away from a common
- canter. I noticed this peculiarity in
the animal, and one day suggested to
Downing that perhaps the horse knew
that he was not expected to race, and
for that reason could not understand
exactly what was required of him. I
prevailed upon him to dress the stable
boy in the colors usually worn in a
.race and trythe horse.again. He did
so, and the boy was placed in front of
the animal for a moment that he might
see the colors. The result was that
'when the boy mounted again the horse
broke at the word of command and
'set off at a long, swinging gallop,
which he increased to a run, finishing
under a strong pull. Another stable
boy was put up without the colors,
and the horse refused to leave the
loping gait at which he started out.
A second time the colors 'were used
and again the animal set out at a rato
.of speed calculated to break a record.
"What do you call that, instinct or
reasoning? I contend that the horse
had a rational faculty which he exer
cised at will. He knew that without
the colors he had nothing in particular
to gain by extending himself to a swift
run. When the colors were put on
the horse reasoned that there was
some object in view. He reasoned
that he was already prepared for a raw
and made his pace accordingly withoiit
being urged."-St. Louis Globe-Dem.
Themakerofthe First Stars and Strlpb.
Elizabeth Griscom (or, as it was for
merly spelled, Griscombe) was the
eighth child of Samuel and Rebeccs
Griscom. She was married three timem
-to Mr. Ross, to Mr. Ashburne, and to
Mr. John Claypole, or Claypoole. Sam
uel Griscom, her father, was the grand
son of Andrew Griscom, who came tc
Philadelphia from Yorkshire in 1682,
and-who is known in history as the
builder of the first brick house in
Philadelphia. Samuel was a Friend,
and lived for many years on Arch
street, between Third and Fourth
streets. He was a ship-builder and
- house-carpenter, and assisted in the
erection of Independence Hall. Se
much for Betsy Griscom's family. AE
Betsy Ross, the widow, she lived for a1
long time in the old house before and
after the Revolution, conducting a
drnmlig and millinery business.
She won for herself the name of being
the finest needle-worker in America,
a this, and the high regard Genera]
Washington had for her, led the Con
gressional Committee to consult her
about the flag that was destined to be
come the sacred National emblem to
all generations of loval Americans.
-NOTHING TO RW.OR(aK.4
Bhould some gl'st angel say to me to.
1Thou must retread thy pathway from th'
But God will grant in pity for thy sorrow,
Some one dear wish, the nearest to thy
This were my wish.: "From my life's dir
Let be what has been! Wisdom planned
My want, my woe, my errors and my sinning,
111, all were needed lessons for my soul."
-Ella Wheeler Wilcox.
MISS HOPES ROMANCE. ,
ND now, gentle
men, since we have
finished the busi<
ness of electing a
trustee, it b e
hooves me, as clerk
of the district and
Chairman of this
meeting, to speak
of a teacher for
this ensuing year.
Indeed, it given
me great pleasure to inform our trus
tees that they will have .very little
trouble in securing the services of a
worthy and estimable woman. The
applicant, Miss Amelia Squabbs, came
to me a few days ago and asked me t
use my interference in her behalf. She
probably meant my influence, gentle
men. I did not quite engage her, but
gave her to understand that her mind
might be at rest on the subject. Misa
Squabbs left her photograph to be pre.
sented to the district at this meeting.
I consider it and her manner extreme
ly prepossessing. Just the woman
gentlemen, to train the tender mind.
Mr. Spick's terse remark expressed
so much that Mr. Sawyer was on hit
leet again in a moment.
"Don't feel prejudiced, gentlemen,
because she came to me first. Her
face shows that she has had experience
with boys and girls and I feel confi
dent she may be able to civilize some
of the wild Indians in this district."
This second "indeed" issued froir
the lips of Mr. Spike, who owned twt
of the said wild Indians.
"Yes," continued Mr. Sawyer, un,
mindful of the interruption, "on
school has been degenerating for the
past five or ten years, until the chil
dren in it are the most demoralized
set to be found in the whole county,
They are ignorant, saacy, bad-"
"Have acare, if you please, Sawyer,'
spoke up Mr. Span. "You are speak
ing of our children, not your own. We
quite agree with you that the school
has not been as good lately as it might
be. The trustees have not taken at
much interest in it as they should. We
have allowed others in the district to
monopolize the duties of our office. In
future the trustees expect to hire the
teachers themselves, to say what shall
and shall not be done, sad tosnpportthe
teacher in every way, in their power.
So you.may tell Miss Squabbs, the pro,
totype of this caricature of woman
hood, that we don't want her. We
have a treat in store for the childreg
-Dolly Hope is to teach the schod
A murmur of surprise and disap
proval filled the room, and a tall, burly
man at the end of the room rose quicb
"Neighbor, rm safe to say you don's
mean the yonng gal as lives over thei
"The very same, Dawson, -a What
have you to say against. her?"
"Why, she's but a child, not olda.
chan my Jemuima. Thle children won't
"Give them to understand that they
"I do my best neighbor, 'but those
youngsters are fuller of spirit than mS
olts are. I'm half inclined to agree
with Mr. Sawyer ; get them a teached
they will learn to dread and have.s
wholesome fear of."
The speaker was William Dawson, a
wealthy farmer with a large family,
His wife was an invalid, and Jemima,
his eldest daughter, a girl of twenty,
ruled his home as best she could. Ht
sent six children to school, and thai
Left at home Jemima and Bobert, E
handsome young fellow of twenty-two.
"Is this new teacher the young girl
wo goes gallivanting-round the ooun
try on a big black horse ?" asked Bed'
dy, the father of another big family.
"Yes, she rides horaeback."
"She has just returned from Europe,
hey say, and I doubt not her head is
led with all sort of outlandish
knowledge. A common teacher would
fo just as well."
"Why now, neighbors, I thin we
had better give the young lady a
shanoe," spoke up ex-soldier Brown.
"I am glad for my children's sake thai
we are to have a refined, college-bred
md traveled teacher. She is a stran
er to us all. Perhaps she will do
better than some of you are inclinei
"Oh, yes, Brown; to be sure you
ave no fear for her!i Your children
Lways do get the benefits. It's a fine
;hing to be a favorite pupil."
Mr. Brown's face flushed, but b-'
Luswered quietly :
"Yes, I'o glad my children are fa
ortes. They are accustomed to
>beice and kindness at home. and I
>elieve they are also good in school"
Mr. Sawyer here arose, and making
us way to the door said:
"Gentlemen, the business of the
~vning is finished. I have helped the
chool in the past all that I could. II
biss Hope wishes my advice PIll give
t ; but the trustees have assumed the
eponsibility of hiring her, now they
nust support her. I'm done. Good
And he passed out.
"Tigat is just what we mean to do
'pport the teacher, and if every
ather here will iumpress it on his
hildren'stminds wewon't have so many'
o expel next month," remarked Mr
On the morning when school was to
pen the children congregated early.
"I've bronght a prescnt for the lnewI
-'acher," said Barbara Hunter. "3!
onder how she will like it ?" -
She oponed a box she carried, and
*e caught a glimpse of a little- furry
"Won't the dainty Mis3 Hopo yeilk
bough !" said Barbara. "'Taint
ikel'y she saw any QI these in thezr
ri5rathiiroad on a Blow canter came )
A beautiful black horse and his rider, x:
Miss Hope; she was dressed in a close
5tting dark habit and cap. She stopped Y
at Mr. Dawson's, where she was to a
leave her horse, gave Robert the bridlj n
and entered the house. Very soon she o
reappeared, dressed for school, and <
walked quickly up the hill. F
"Good morningt lam glad to meei V
fou all," she said pleasantly. t<
Forty-two pairs of eyes scanned hek
slosely as she passed into the school l
house. We were all there, and only fh
those who have gone through the or- si
deal can appreciate how very trying h
this first day was to be to the -young t]
teacher. At 9 o'clock the bell rang, c<
and we took our seats. Some good in- h
stinct must have guided Miss Hope iv zD
making the schedule of names, classes, a
and so on, for she began with the roy V
in which the best behaved pupils wer/ k
seated. Next was Barbara's row.
"What is your name?" inquired the
"Some folks call me Red Top." p
"Yes? What do your 'parents c. v
"Barbara what ?"
"How old are you, Barbara Huv
"Past ten." " o
"How many years past?" ti
"What do you read in. Barbara?' V
"A book, Miss Hope."
In this way she and her followere a
.ried all day to annoy Miss Hope; bul r
she seemed not to notice their rude,
Not till afternoon did she discova 9
her present. Barbara had put it in i
crayon box on her desk. The first lan.
guage class was called-ten boys and
girls. Miss Hope, eagerly studying
their sweet faces, drew the box toward a
her to get some crayon. She slid bac] t
the lid, put in her hand, but drew iI m
back quickly with an exclamation o6 h
pain. There, clinging to her hand r
was a blind mole, its teeth nearlI E
through one slender finger. In a sec ti
ond it had relaxed its hold and wa W
creeping round the floor. One big boy 0
with a ready boot would have crushed b
the little creature, but Miss Hope laid i
her handkerchief over it and lifted i
back into the box.
"We will use the mole for our les.
son," she said. "Who can tell mi b
here moles live, what color they are N
'ad all about them!"
Although her face was pale and het
finger swollen, she never asked a wori a
,bout how the mole came there. )
* There were good blackboards in the ij
school room, and the wall had beei 14
gewly kalsomined, but the large apart
,ent looked bare and dismal. We had i
always been accustomed to this, and
were not a little surprised to find, on( 'o,
orning, pretty pictures on the walls, i
polished horns hung up by brightrib- .
bons and filled with flowers, calendars,
a thermometer, little oilcloth mats fox j1
the teacher's desk, and various othei 't
improvements. The room looked very' $1
inviting and pleasant. l
One day Barbara was even more way te
ard than usual. She would not lea1n t
her lessons at all. Miss Hope kepthei q
after school. It was some minutes-be W
ore she spoke a. rd to her. Then i
he did something so naturally and B:
kindly that the girl could not be of- ,
ended. She took her own brush ouf
f the desk and said:
"Barbara, do you know yot have
ovely hair ? I'm going to arrange i/
for u.'husengaged she talked os
he beautiful places and things she had
seen, telling her stories and anecdotes,
antil Barbara forgot her wrath and h
Laughed outright. Then Miss HopeE
put her arms around her.
"Barbara, let's be friends. Don't
rou want to be?" she asked.
"I don't know. I've been so badE3
Ad-and-I put that mole on your
"Andx you are not agy ?"
"No, only anxious about you, dear."e
nd then she talked to the repentant
girl in a kind. earnest way she never
orgot, and which made her Misr
Eope's fast adherent.
The young teacher knew quite wek
how she was regarded in the district.
Eer methods were so practical and new
hat they caused comment, and sheh
herself was so young and pretty and
happy that the old fogies in the dis- g
rict shook their heads and sighed.: te
Lhey knew something dreadful woqld ~
appen in that school before the yeas
was done. :Fancy a teacher standing ~
y and watching a boy climb the ~
tallest tree he could find, or turning a
rope for a girl to jump I She had even
been known to approve of foot races,
and springs and wrestling matches! fo
When the trustees, having been im- fr
ortuned agi and again, consented
o go with ar Swer to expostulate,
she laughed and queried:
"Why, gentlemen, have you fok A
;otten your own youth? You did al]
hse things yourselves. It is a child's
ature, and if my pupils want to b<
strengthen their muscles in the old f'
ay, I'm going to be on hand. if pos
gible, to help in case of an emergency.. SC
o haven't any idea how mueb stronga ty
er some of them are growing. See how P4
rosy and erect they are."
Down the road the scholars came,
b'ty-two in number, with flags,
~roomstiers, mouth organs, tin basins,
boxes, anything with which to make s
"Mercy on us!i Wh6t a din!i How
ian you expeet those howling urchins
,ver- to become quiet, law-abiding
sitizens or even verge on being good
sien and women? If you have any
ntrol whatever over them, Miss
Rope, I beg you will bid them cease
hieir noise !"
"Peace Sawyer ! And you, Miss
Lope, will you let us see what they
il do next, please ?"
"Certainly. It lacks half an hour ,
o school time, but this is one of our
calisthenic drill days." th
We had received several drill lessons, ho
adso well did we acquit ourselves on in;
h present occasion that after fifteen or
or twenty minutes of gesture, singing m<
td marching, M~.r. Spick exclaimed: tir
"Why, it's a's good as a show ! I'm bo
nre they obey even your uplifted mi
hand, Miss Hope. I wondered what Pu
made my boy and girl so strong lately,
and I do believe there is such a thing
a. larning how to teach even in them
frrin parts. You can do as you a
please, gentlemen," he continued an
>plains again 'll. tell him to eoM
id see for himself."
We learned very fast that year, an
ae could tell that, and so the trustees
id parents decided to give us a pic
ic as areward either for studying hard
r for not having broken our heads, as
me of the grumblers contended.
or weeks we all looked forward to it.
re were proud of our school and liked
> compare it with others.
One afternoon, about a reek before
ie picnic, Robert Dawson and his
ther were breaking a young horse. It
;opped directly in front of the school
use. One of the boys whispered
iat no animal Rob Dawson rode
yuld pass Miss Hope till his maste3;
ad looked at her, but the girls woulM
ot listen to his joke. It was recess,
ad we were all out upon the grounds.
e had seen colts broken before and
new enough to be quiet; but Mist
[ope cried out:
"Oh, what a beauty !"
That was true, and the remarb
leased the Dawsons, for they were(
ry proud of their horses."
"Yes," said Robert, "he is a beauty,
ad quite gentle, too."
"Then -why do you keep the rope or
;s neck and in its mouth?"
"Because he is not quite broken yet
ad if he gets frightened a few jerks
a that soon quiets him. I'm going
) drive this team and take a load oi
ie children to the picnic for you
He looked at her entreatingly.
[iss Hope blushed a little as she A
"Are you s-,. - it will be safe ?"
"Why, yes. If you like I'll leav
ie rope on, although it won't be neo
wary by that time."
"Oh, thank you! You are very
The last day of school-our pionk
y-finally arrived. The whole dis
ict-men, women and children
ere going. We met at the school
ouse. How happy we were as wf
)de through the beautiful country!
ven the voices of the grumblers
ose who found fault with the teachei
d predicted dire results from hei
disthenic drills and "sich doin's,"
ecame attuned to nature and helpe/
mplete the harmony of the day.
Oh, what a day that was in t
-oods and on the water I But it ended
a last. The children were to starl
ome first, while the older ones, with
iss Hope, remained to pack up thi
How it was no one ever could qui*
ll; it must have been the horns, I
iink, but after the children were all
i the wagon that colt, without thq
ast warning, suddenly jerked itsell
>ose from the man who was holding
, and, dragging the rope, sprang
way, and before any one could reach
at a saving hand the horses were dash;
tg down the mountain with th'
We sat still and dumb, with whit.
ees, afraid to move or scream, al:
iough some of the little ones hiti
eir heads and cried. We were help-,
es with fear. Barbara Hunter had
iken the reins, but she dared not use
iem, for at each pull the colt reared
ad kicked. We knew nothing could
Le us from being thrown into the ra.
ne if the horses' speed was not slack4
ied before we rounded the sharp, nar
But who was that in the road at
ast a dozen rods from the curve I
[is Hope! Her dress was torn, and
e sweet face and hands all scratched
2d bleeding. In a few moments she
Id secured the dragging rope, which
e had forgotten, and calling to Bar,
ra to pull hard on the reins, the
rses were brought to a stop just as
obert Dawson, on horseback, dashed
pon the scene.
Miss Hope fainted dead away thea.
obert caught her in his arms an4
hled her wildly by name ; but she was
iconscious still when they took her
>me. For days she lay tossing in the
lirium of brain fever. She recov
-ed at last, and soon after that we
arned that we were to lose our
acher ; for Robert Dawson never
sted until she promised to be hiu
We were all sorry to lose Miss Hope,
it none more so than Mr. Sawyer.
"I don't care whether she known
w to teach in the old way or not,'
said to one of the trustees; "but a
r who could climb down the moun
in hand over hand, on the wild grape
nes, to save the lives of a lot of chil
en, is fit to be trusted with those
~ildren anywhere. I'm afraid we
all never see her like again."
And we never have, in the school'
om; but Mrs. Robert Dawson is a
cial power in the district, and her
rer pupils are her most devoted
iends. -Waverly Magazine.
CAR YOU O lI?
Puzzle that Is Calculated to Bothew
The following ingenious puzzle will
ther the boys and even "papa" wilT
id some trouble in solving it.
ake a block of wood about 6 inches
uare and 1 inch thick and bore twen
-five holes in it about % inch deep, as
[ AN2 INGENIots PUZZL E.
Lake twenty-four pegs and insert
mn in the board, leaving the center
le empty. Begin the game by jump
;-always in a straight line-one peg
er another, into a vacant hole, re
>ving the peg jumped over. So con
ue until but one peg is left on the
ard in the center hole. The holes
y be numbered from 1 to 25 for the
rpose of tracIng the moves.
'he less religion people have, the bet
-satisfied they are with themselves;
d the more they have, the better sat
4 CHOCOLATE FACTO1
WEAT COCOA IS AND HOW IT IS
rhe Raw Product Comes From Ven
ezuela and is of Many Different
HE biggest chocolate factor,
' York. It uses 100,000 pounds
of the beans in a year. They
are not at all pretty to look at. From
their appearance one would never sup
pose that such delicious preparations
could be made from them. Most ol
them come from Venezuela. The con
cern described ordinarily keeps in
stock as many as fifteen different kinds
of them. Varieties differ so much in
quality that prices paid for them run
all the way from fifteen cents to
fevanty-five cents a pound raw. Fine
chocolates are made from a mixture of
9he different sorts of beans in carefully
adjusted portions, a few pounds of the
best in each hundredweight contribut
The broken chocolate kernels, duly
mixed, are poured into a hopper on
the seventh floor. They' fall through
i metal tube all the way down to the
first floor of the building. There they
drop into a machine which grinds
them between two great steel disks
revolving horizontally in the fashion
of a mill. From this mill they come
out by a spout -Rot dry any longer,
but in the form of a thick liquid. This
is because the beans contain forty-fi re
per cent. of oil. The cells holding the
latter are broken by the grinding
process, and the oil liquefies the pow
The processes by which the beans
are transformed into commercial choc
>late are very interesting. To begin
with, they are roasted. Then they are
broken in a mill, coarsely. Next,
they are sifted. The shells separated
rom the kernels by sifting are sold for
half a cent a pound to wholesale gro
ers, who grind them up to adulterate
pepper with. Incidentally to the samt
rocess the vegetative germs of the
eans are removed. It is desired to
get rid of them because they are too
ard to be utilized to advantage; but
hey are purchased by manufacturers
>f cheap candies for making a poor
uality of chocolate. Each germ looks
iomewhat like a little clove. All of this
work is 'performed on the seventh fnooy
s4 the factory.
The chocolate beans are called
"cocoa beans." The liquid stuff, some
what thicker than molasses, is termed
'cocoa." It is transformed into the
.hocolate of commerce simply by add
ng sugar. It is commonly imagined
-at cocoa is made from the shells of
,he beans, but such a notion is ab
nurd. 'What cocoa is really will be
>resently explained. The liquid stut
s transferred to a circular receptacle
n which huge rollers go round. Thez
ugar is put in. The rollers mix thE
~ocoa liquid and the sugar thoroughly
ogether. When this has been done
he mixture is passed through other
achines with rollers revolving against
,ch other. It goes through them
gain and again, until it is sonfnely di
ided that there is not the smallest
mp in it. Now it is finished and has
erely to be cooled in molds in the re
~rigerating room in order to be ready
Commercial cocoa is exactly the
ame thing as chocolate, without an3
ugar, and with two-thirds of the oil
aken away. Hence, in a dry state,
t has little more flavor than so much
ust. By subjecting the liquid stuff to
~ressure the oil is squeezed out of it.
)f the original forty-five per cent. of
l thirty per cent. is extracted, leav
ng only fifteen per cent. This oil is
~aught in tubs. It is clear and lim
id-almost as transparent as water.
?oured into molds it hardens when
old, and is thus turned out in th4
hape of great cakes of a yellowish
hite color. These cakes are sold to
pothecaries and other dealers. They
re pure "cocoa butter." To a great
xtent this :,oothing and deliciously
ragrant substance has taken the place
f the old fashioned cold cream. It is
amirable for sun-burned noses and
or chapped hands. In South America
he natives have recognized its virtuer
or many centuries.
Cocoa butter, obtained from the
~hocolate factories. is sold by the ton
rholesale. It is a useful and profit
ible by product of this sort of mann
acture. But how about the cocoa'
t comes out from the precssing appa,
'atus in the form of dry cakes. These
ire reduced to powder beneath rollers,
ad the powder is then sifted through'
,loth to an impalpable dust. Now it
s ready for market and is poured inte
,machine which fills cans with it auto
2atically. The cocoa butter is put te
nother use. Some of it is added to
e chocolate that is employed for
~oating creams and other candies, be
auses it makes the flavor richer. The
hocolate tablets for nickel-in-the-slot
iachines are made in molds and set in
he refrigerating room to harden.
ome people make a sort of tea out ol
ooa beans and recommend it highly.
The factory described uses must of
s chocolate in making candies and
s greater part of that for coating
eams and nuts. The way in which
he creams are made is very od1 A
allow tray of wood is filled with
Inely sifted flour. Upon the smooth
rface of this is -laid down a board,
e under side of which is covered
ith ezerescences in whatever shapes
say be desired. The board being re
oved perfect molds of the excres
ences are left in the flour. A num
ier of such trays of molds having been
~rovided, the workman goes along
rith a cone of canvas filled with
'cream," which is simply sugar and
'ater boiled and flavored. At the
oint of the cone is a small copper
out, through which the operator
uezes enough cream into each mold
> fill the latter. Now it only remains
r the stuff to harden, and the trays
re dumped into a sifter, th'i'sseparat
rig the molded cream drops from the
The cream drops next pass into the
ands of a young woman with deft
ners, who drops them one after an
ther into a copper pot filled with hot
ocolate. As she fishes them out
gain she places them in rows upon
heets of waxed paper, which cover
cangular pieces of tin. To each one
e gives a final touch, as she sets it
mates a sort of curiycue6fbho ooA=
>n the top of it. To do this properly
requires great dexterity, though one
would imegine that the entire process
was extremely simple and easy. It is
just the same if peppermints are to be
-hocolate-coated, or marshmillows or
iuts. When finished in this manner
the lollipops are placed, tin trays and
&ll, upon shelves in a sort of cabinet
)n rollers. Here each trayful is care
lully inspected by the foreman, who
nust see that every sugar plum ispere
fect. -Washington Star. -
The Spanish Bull.
The bulls used for fighting purposes
are a specially-selected, specially-cared*
for class. They are all pedigreed.
Audalusia is especially the district of
the bull. Here, at the age of one year,
the young bulls are separated from the
heifers, branded with the owner's
mark, and turned out loose on the
plains to graze with others of their
When a year older, the young bulkl
tro gathered together, in order that
;heir mettle and fighting qualities may
5e tested. One of them is separated
:rom the herd, and chased by a man
>n horseback, who, by the skillful use
> a blunted lance, overthrows the
scaping bull, whereupon another rider
,omes in front of the animal with a
harper lance, to withstand the ex
>ected attack. If the bull, on regain
zng his feet, attacks the rider twice, it
is passed as a fighting animal; but if
ae turns tail and runs off, then it is
;et aside to be killed, or to be used in
tgricultural work. And so with each
nimal, until the whole herd of two.
year-olds have been tested.
Each bull that has stood the teik
niccessfully is then entered in the herd
book, with a description of its appear
mce, and receives a name-such as
Espartero, Hamenco, and the like.
his process of careful selection goes
)n from year to year until the bull is
ive years old, when, should its mettle
itill prove true, it is ready for the
Lrena, and flaming posters appear on
.he walls of Madrid or Seville an
iouncing that Espartero (or whatever
xis name is) will on such and such a
.ate make its first and final appear.
A good "warrantable" five-year-old
ull for the fighting rings cost from
050 to $400.
Depth of the Ocean.
A dispatch from Victoria, British
Jolumbia, says the United States
iteamer Albatross reports having made
leep-sea soundings off the coast of
Llaska, reaching a depth of 4500
'thoms, which, it is added, is "the
greatest depth ever reached." If by
,hat is meant the deepet soundings
wver made in any ocean there must be
L mistake in the figures reported or the
:laim is not correct. The depth of
20,000 feet has been exceeded three
aes. In what is called the "inter
ational deep," near the island of St.
homas, one of the West Indies, inde
endent soundings were made by
american and English officers and a
epth of 27,366 feet established. In
L874 the British ship Challenger found
a depth of 27,450 feet near the La
Irone Islands in the Pacific Ocean, and
in the same year the United States
ship Tuscarora, under command of
Daptain George E. Belknap, sounded
o the depth of 27,930 feet near the
Kurile Islands in the North Pacific.
his is the lowest point yet reached,
being over five and one-fourth miles,
r nearly equal to the height of the
Himalayas. In the days before scien
tific deep-sea soundings there were re
ports of depths of 7000 to 8000 fath
ams having been reached, but these
are now conceded to have been
apocryphal. The Tuscarora's record
of 4561 fathoms stands without a riva'
as yet. -Cleveland Plain Dealer. __
Deer Caught for the Catskill Park,
,Speaking of the results of hsis at
tempts to capture deer for the Cats
kill Park, Game Warden Fox said to
12 Albany (N. Y.) Argus reporter:
"We employed a little different
method from any of those hitherto
known to get the deer. After they
were driven in the lake a boat would
put out, and, after firing two shots as
a signal for help from the other forest
ers, the men would row up and slip a
sort of noose made by twisting to
'ether two Y-like branches at the end
f a pole over the head of the swim.
ming doe. In this way it could be
held till help arrived. Then the men
in the second boat turned it on its
bak and tied all four feet together,
Mited it out on a boat, and there it
yas secure and unharmed.
"I do not know just how many wil
be sent dowmn altogether, but I think
there will be a herd of at least sixty
ve in the Catskill reserve, aside-from
the three dozen or so now loose in the
woods. This is the breeding season,
and although it is not a fact, as many
suppose, that does always bear twin
fawn, though they generally do, I ex
pect to find about ninety or a hundred
deer in that park next spring. At this
rate it will not be long before there
will be plenty of deer in the Catskills
Those twelve does were shippe4
through Albany via the National Ex
prss, in crates, -and will be placed in
the park at once.
The Pastor-Miss Ethel, you should
be engaged in some missionary work.
Miss Ethel-Oh, I am, and have
been for some time past!
The Pastor-I'm so gratified to
hear you say so! In what field are
Miss Ethel (proudly)-I'm teaching
my nparrnt nnot to saro.
,brorsegs after thE xrIshock of
Vound, make no sound. :
A Tennessee horse thief was kille&
by a pet bear whiehwas bained in thr
Mtable. - .: --~
The cavalry was the isioeratiea
)f the Greek service, . All the horse.
men owned and provided foi their ow
The sun throws vertical 1ys on thA
earth's surface only on an area equal
to about thirty-five squae miles at any
The rei of Brazil is an Imaginary
eoin, no piece of that denomination
being coined. Ten thousand reir
In ten hours as many men fell at
Waterloo as in three days at Gettys
burg, the armies being practically of
It is a fact of curious interest that
iwenty-four of the 6100 2aurderers ar
rested in the United States in 1890
vere blind men.
Albert Bellows, a Brooklynclothing
cutter, got his under jaw caught while
yawning, and it t6ok a surgeon fifteen
binutes to get it shut.
There are people in the interior dim,
tricts of Japan who have never tasted
snimal food, and who look with hor'
ior on the eating of such a diet.
The Hebrew Talmud says that when
Adam was created he was a giant, his
head reaching into the heavens and hir
)ountenance outshining the sun.
A woman named Mary Smeaton, re
iding in the suburbs of Cincinnati,
although past the age of ninety-one,
has within the last yea cut four new
So few of the common people ot
Russia are able to read that an village
stores pictures of the articles for sale
are hung on the walls in place of read
log notices about them.
The first notice of the use of coal ie
)a the records of the Abbey of Peters
borough, England, in the year 850 A.
D., which mention an item of twelve
ear loads of "fossil fuel.
Human hair varies in thickness from
the tw6 hundred and-iftieth to the six
hundredth part of an inch. The
coarsest fibre of wool is about one.Ave.
hundredth part of an inch in diameter;
the finest only the one thousandth five
Uncle Ardle is an aged African who,
antil the Charleston (S. C.) earth
quake of 1886, lived in a cabin oa the
banks of the Savannah-Biver. The
earthquake scared him, and he built a
sort of nest in a big oak tree, ihere
he lived contentedly until the recent
cyclone came along and 'blew him out.
Joseph is now figuring on some othe
cheme to defeat the elements.
The Owner of the Indian's. Land.
The lands of the Five Nations (in
the Indian Territory) are ostensibly
held in common, but as a matter of
fact the disproportion in holdings is
monopolistic to a remarkable degree.
The real Indian derives little ben'fit
from his patrimonial acres. The pale
kinned Jacob has stolen Esan's birth
right. There are farms, rich and
highly cultivated, of from 5000 tos
25,000 acres in a body; pastures of\
long succulent grass whose .fences s
horseman cannot encompass from sun
to sun; mines opulent with their stores
of coal; but they are controlled by
professional red men, or the mixed
breeds whose dominant blood is white,
It is said that a score of Chiokasaw
itizens, in whom combined there is - _
hardly enough aboriginal blood to
make a full-blood Indian, control
nearly ninety per cent. of the arable
lands of that Nation. A Cherokee
squaw man is said to hold more land
than isheld by all the full-blooda in
the tribe.. Under tribal law there is
o limit to the extent. of a citizen's
holding. He can control and enjoy
the usufruct of as much land as he
can fence without encroaching upon
the improvements of a fellow-citizen.
As a consequence the National domain
has passed into the possession of the
more intelligent and enterprising ele
ments of the tribes, the inter-married
citizens and mixed- breeds, who con
stitute probably four-fifths of the
the population. These landlords, many
of whom operate on a scale colossal
nough to make the estates of the
land barons of the Old World 'seem
mere truck patches in comparison,
utilize white non-citizen labor in the
cultivation and improvement of their
vst farms. The Indian agricultural
toiler is an anomaly, and colored labor
isuncommon. As a rule, especially
in the opening up of new farms, the
tenant not only furnisha the labor,
but the improvements also, nder an
nual rental contract based on e
Share of the crop.--Harper's Magazine
An International Fat Xen's Dinner.
fat man's dinner has just takenI
place at Grenoble, in Dauphin.,
France, and the undertaking has been
so successful as to warrant the resolu
tion to make it a yearly institutiQon.
All the fat men in the world were in
vited to the entertainment on condi
tion that they did not weigh less than
100 kilos, or about 220 pounds. Among
the crowd who put in an appearance
there were only two rascals. But that
they had lead stowed away in their
pockets and linings was soon discov
ered and they were expelled.-Londor
iving in Copenhagen, has just tune
showman. He is enormously rich,bni
his ecentricities had put him in dis
grace with his family. He is travel.
ing now with one colored man, two
monkeys, three bears, one lion, four
pigs, forty parrots, innumerable cockt
and hens, and a brand new Hungariar
-'rife of great beauty.
ilaking Imitation Stones.
Th mannfacture of imitation stone.
of various kinds is a rapidly growing
ouraged by the demand for a great
variety of rock materials in the build
ing of modern cities. Architects are
always looking for new substances to
reate variety and le3nd ornamentation
in construction. The production of
artificial stones is one of the most im
portant of the indirect results of the
development of geological soienca,-.