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TIl-WEEKLY EDITIO)N. WiN NSBISO,' S C., OCTOBE2R 22,185ESALHD1ff
~OAD !I PROVEMENT ANALYZED.
Mr. Niernsee's Address to the Road
Congress. Important Suggestions.
Tho following -vddress delivered l>e
fore the recent South Carolina Road
Congress held in Columbia by Mr.
Frank Niernsee, gives some interest
ing informuation iu regard to roads of
the past and contains some suggestions
as to the nulprovanient of the roads
of the present period that seemed to
strike the conventioni favorably:
"Fro:n th-: ti:n of Mos- sthere have been
royal r-nds. Fir-zt the- Ey .tnsftrad
h I-radit-s a" tieu the Grves called
eir lnos of tra 'hat were not used for
Ie.:al jurpos rIAI rad -r kings' high
ys. In GC t r.,yal roads were in
.(et-d and card fr y thV U enate at
eis. T L.!:n,iib alnd oth
te th.:v wi-re m-ar the supe:rvision
i mo- en ?nt j.. T her roads. how
cer. w.rot f-:-t(f t.fth anciielt. It
it was re-'rv-d fi A m city, Cartli
age. t . uI thi ai, pav'd roads The l-11
man f .,-; the eample of the Cartha
giiiat and tihir great highway. which
coneteld loj:uc wit I its provinces were the
mA::.t ranown-:L and Jurzoa.,l ever constru-:t
ed. All over ,Erop. A;ia and Africa
where;er their emlprors ruled, they build
roads that lavi beea .-uposed by the si
paerstitin: of dilerent a-.) have been of
supernatural ori.iu. Thu. is attested by the
iames applied t thtm Ji Italy. England,
France and Spain. In ti -st mentionedi
they. have been known lay such names as
calzadadl-diablo (roads of tle devil). cal
adu d las gigantes (roads of the giants).
ecording to Sr. Isidore, the first paved road
as built by the Caethagcniaus. and the
same authority states that the Phonicians
opened and left to their succe_-rs. a , end
across the Pyrennees and the Alps many
centuries before the- Christian era. The
most ancient Roman road outside of Italy
was in Spain and led from Cartha:ena to the
Pyrennees, where it connected with others
that led across the Alps to ]omic. This road
.as traveled by the l"gio s a.af- Seipio. The
eign of Augustus is renowned for
he roads thea completed. The
-mperor made the s.ystem of commun
-ation so complete that little else was left for
his successors to do than to care for the
roads already constructed. Of his successors.
Trajan was tue most zealous. as is shown bay
various inscriptions, in preserving the public
highways and in constructing others. His
example was followel by others. but after
wards the authority of the em;.erors declin
ed and little eare wa,s given to distant public
work. The removal of the court to Byzantine
by Constantine omoleted the noanonment
oi road buildiug and was the beginning of
the decline of that niagnificent system of
shghiways that laced loeie to its most distant
provinces. 'The Roans divid.d their roads
into military highways. callel pretorian
thoroughfUrez and local vias. The 'irst was
built to facilitate the marching of armics and
toconnect the capital with the principai
cities and strategi points. They were con
structed and kept in repair by the imperial
government. The second were the routes of
commerce and connected towns and trade
centres, and were constructed to assist the-.
relations z atercourse of traffic. They
were built and maintained by municipal
governments. In Austria there are two
---aTss's of roads--one called the state road
'w hieh is entirely under the control of and
kept in complete repairs by the government.
The other, known as a provincal or distriet
road. which are maintained and kept in re
pair partly by the government and partly
by the provinces through which they pass.
"In France the public roads are divided
into three classes. as follows: First, national
or state roads. coan'struered anid maintained
bya the state. Second. department roads,
-.enitirely at the nest of the departments, and
third. township roads. which. though con
s tructed by the communes, receive, in most
cases. sup)port either from the state or from
the deaaartments for their maintenancc.
The modern road system of France was
inangurated bay t be First Napoleon and car
riedi forward to its satisfactory and splendid
conclusion by Napoleon the Third.
" The road system of France has been of1
far greater value to the country as a means
of ra.ising the valuie of lands and putting
small proprietors in easy communication
with thi!r ma3lrkets than have the railways. -
It is the opinion of wecllinformed Frenchmen
wh naeiade a practieal study of economic
- ooblms,that the superb. roads of France
Invoeen one of the mtost steady and potent
contributious to the material development
and, marvelous financial clasticity of that
ountry. The far-reaching and splendidly
maintained read system has distinctly fay
red.the success of th' small landed pro
prietors and in their prosperity and the
ensuing distribuntion of wealth lies tho key
to the secret cof the wonderful financial
vitality and selid. prosperity of the French
- Int Germany the roads are also under
F'In .England the turnpike system 'took
tare of the maintenance of roads up to 1878.
when bay an act of paarliame'nt the system was
abolish"d. The new system puts the duty
and maintenae of the highways upon the
.taxpayers of the parish and is managed by
their highway surveyor. Seca.ond. parishes are
-united into districts for the common object,
tinder the supervision of the highway btoards.
Third. mtuni'ipaal boroughs and towns have
powers c'onferredl upon them to per'foirm the
duties of iiighway surveyors within-r their
boundaries. Lastly, the central authority. the
local government board. Lon don,.is intrusted
with general superintendence of the sev~eral
-systems for the benellt of the natioii at large.
*'A general invitation for all those in
terested in good roads has been wisely issued
by the road supervisors of our State. This
action is in the line of progress and in the
s everal States there are societies devoted to
road improvement and a union of all these
interested should hasten the day when the
different parts of the country will be joined
by good. ~permanent high ways. instead of
roads that now alternate between sloughs of
mud and almost Sahara-like dust. There is
no reason why the State of Souith Carolina
should naot have her public roads incondition
.to compaara! favorably with any ini the
ULnited States. In the lOW a'tuntry
the ground is level and in thosye
seations aret abunidana:. of shell anud good
gravel. The middle an. northern poartions
- also have plenty of fine .vel, gnei's,
gra'nite and flint rock, all easly i at'essible
which could b.e b,roken and a'rn-he. "pread
upon our raoads and then rolled with a nleavy
- roller, which Svoubii naot only mnas a chleap,
material for ma'a-lana. i-ut a moas4t rabale
* The State slhuld ai tihe cunit is bay an
annual approplriation,. learinlg ini ruind. that
our public roads are th' pari:nary. 1'esa
the c-ommerce of the nation: tht hy r
.iustly entitled to Simt and n:atio na atim
Tbh.'state andnal a -ub ;.n
havring the hig'hways. a:-.' . ''a~i 'n w: ri
tia'n adurinjg Tthe year: 1r....r:v a adI a
haa'r baina. -Ifstaiig f not lhir"'ly
mar' larO:itZial. The saaving in tinm' nd
lalaar are very important items in less.uning
tlh-a'.a't o produatian. The~ :nerebant of
9 our 'itie.s are ia a lPaadirelv hllait?d.
a Ommeciall organizaionsaa' .-tanize thea
f or.:' of this argument and the uttai"s o a
e taaards of trade. chambers o& cmer"'
-kingr anti linanci instLitutionsa --1jan b
i. In 192 theatnal.oard of at1 hrolI
slat rtation passed'a the" foalowing' ra'
*- recaogni. ha' t'reeding. pov'
Up ie highways anid I'y..r a y
whih will provid for th-ir iarn.'.u* -
tuiru. hoIuwl haw- te power t I I r
rv:.-r- fro:n ea'h countv and bh ' :n
- h1-uid bemade-_ to.work upin t. od
of ~ C .h1 1.ut fro whchthy were enn
i Tii, rlad queitirn is now 1::
ar.:wne :ontrucingroad.; of t h1 \u
a-gir-ion Th litlestate New Jr-y
w.:h~i: auti21n'like tie? -jizI- of our.'La
ex;i.: .1 ii 18%4 on road in 'irovemewntth
in un Uof r0. 0a3. I I! the Sta lt
Y;)r% it has tn.p - t r:li Ibe un
-_uit. road.S. It vwlbl b SIVIivient t. -
4tvUl"Itan averageof 5 ml' .f :Thf-f
roz : i in evvry v,Aty ofI the, Stat at l I;:,.
ili I1.I r11l , lth th:n 52.
"Vur adjoninDg StaIti. N'rth~ Carina
ha;s I J- -.x-:-Hent progr-_-s ini pauli.- r.:wl
r l a. will be- foiw-d an\ .wi-i:ro. -The, 1ir-1
::nporta-t vt was tS -5ur fr2m the Sa
I-i- r Ailtua rity tu lvVY a r.,md tax 'f
7.n 7 teo 20 mlill ona I worth of talo,
alutim. Therat-! at prk-nt bv:li
aJ (ut! 1.5 mil,- NW:h vi:lsm :0"0a
ar. N-xt th' p.a"iage wa .:: urd by law.
;1nd o-ou lty oourt-4, 1:he. pu1ni:4hnafLt frn)a!!;
- b'n'-" binafl'tin or so many d: w
1U Ihe publil' rod. It i- ti' b 'Of iIn 11hiN
Zllr t aL.this i h., b01%.ile U
pO-tiO1' that cali n:-. lad of 0t u1- .:' .
the y are not thi i.r cughlg t ito dir -t i' :
tw_ttin with hon!t. free laior, W:ile th.ir
wi.-rk iaure to tht- direct iIenefllt uf tle lpu
li. Tbe- work of building. re.istruati
atnd r!pairing streets aud roads in .14"I'kin
ur" isg now in rvgres: 4i tiir'e d1prt
-irt. in th. -:ity of Charlotte. uald-r th
direction of tll- eity conIl, 1y th' inayor.
ity engineer and -upervisorof streets. Th,
work is paid for out of the vity trrasrY.
-ecoiid. the county nt 1.arg. ind-er the
direc tion of thv ou romtviner 11)JI ,SOII-1'
i.,.qrd of five .le.ted annutaly by a vote f
ail the Nmagistrates in t! he -unty. hy t he
-ount v engin.er and th. silriitindenl 'f
tl- .-.nviet vaLp,. H:af th.. .:ro id. of Ih
r'N':l lax is dibu -eVb tkis brardl
L" -Eni townsbip. throulh its. b'oard tf
Ir-4tee. expends for lI-,;0 wurk in n-,:td
i:.!!ng, one-half the procevd.; of the roaId I
t'x raie-I withiin the town.--'ip. T' OvI'
Of r"ediI, 'lothing and uaini LlyIg cits
durin- the lir.t li,.*e nionths of 189:j amont
ed4to 20- coats per day. the average umm
.r cared for being 91 per mohth: dIrim:,
the ,irst nine n tihs of that year an average
ci 90 conviets moved W0.247 eubi? y:n!s of
rarth on the roads and mi:.hd and plak-d
~.51 liu-ai yards ifour and a h:.lf milwi f t
niaadam 12 fet wide.' I quite largie '
1r,;m different State and government rv_rts
:md "'r. D. A. Tompkins on roals in 3ik
ieiburg outy.~ N. C.
"Wbat i; most inperatively need--d is to
hitnato the poople aw e5pcQially those: w)o
are -latd in eharge of th41 rotas how to
proced and that road miking and r-pairing
is an art uid trail- that needcairef%l studly
ad e.re 1o su-:. e!l:ily varr. rut. :a Ih
sooner the idea. and praoti,:e th'. onv (,i
who can haul a load of mud or sod from
where the ditch ight to be an d-Amp it iiju)
thc road. is a fit peri;o-n for road re-pairing k
abandoned. the better. At the nutset, an ,n
ineer should be not only cnsultd but e:
loved, because he has made a study of roni
.uilding under all possible conditions ail
ecnee is able to not.only advise you what t
do, but often what is equally important.
what nLt to do."
FAR31ERS HO1sD THEIR WHEAT.
A Combination 'n t'e Northwest
Formed to Raise Prices.
it is reported throughout the Nrthwe:wt
1hat the wheat growers have formed an "r
:anization for the pi rpos-_ ,f advanoing the
ie i-f w nheat so that it will pay them io
.ke the "rain to mnarket.
An anon'ymous ir.tular w:a. seaitired.
rondeast ver the Northwe'-t som' we'Iks
i", elling upon01 the farm-'rs iio h1.oldhir
art'u"s for themise'lv'':. t':eeipts- hiave
alilin tiT ;'roatiy in the: last Ien da:ys thr.ughi
olt Inc entire wb.:'al region. Thei farmnra
dvithe will li I e grain iie! inl .-to'rc'
hi farms bief.re t''y wvill:o-'liit forha
han 75 cents.
If at large amIlounlt had not bee.-n taken inl
sooni afItr Lhe harvest wmas begtun not' a
el1P ':co1ld b." sent away until th"r-' shoul-1
Ve a chang('in the situation.
Wheat i.s ni)w as li'w. as it ever has 1:ec"n.
t i:, alleged that th" dleale'rs will not o.ffer
what tih" wheaOit is really worth. The farni
r I'r'.fis, to hauv" r.o.h iv" iniformnationt that
hIn:~pri''s will advancle fr''mt 25 to 514 pi'r
:eit . ins-id" 'f a few mon' t hs.
Th'l' receipts~ of all kaid.' "f)~ --ear graia
w're uo'ver so htir'g' ;iS 4iw..
EM odaNS.Vx STICS
.Xs fCport e-1 a :e .i ~tz.:-:e2L' ''Jn
In the HIij14. of D';,.ic: 'f th'' E;ip
port on the stat" iif th.' ch1ur'b. saIid that
sinie the last oonf're'nce in '92, t"i bi-hr
four of whomI went in11. to is'1i.nary i trids.
-.h' church no0w hadi 79 lishopsii. .54 eliebr
vlen. 567 en a didlates fir lay' ir 'mrs. 190.s20
t'aptismns iln thl' pa5t yea r. lind i.U1. l73
firmaions. Tlhiere wire: wIiw l;18.500 4 co
nunicants. 5,117 erChI edi'i tiies. and nIa
600 institutions o f :a tenevolent ..r e'duoatin
indt ren'hed 38,000.000.
Dr. Duncan show-I that tihe bl.ly if'c:n
4unicants was growing~ moire thanif the num
e of elergy. The: inicrease in th1e tr'ieniumtl
ad leen 65.791, whlibi t hI' Iti., of piriests hadi
grown tbut 157, a fact hie attribuit.d to "n
ufficieney an1 diminutl'in of stl iends.li.' h
nome for the? thr'.' yOars was &35.000 1I
han for the proederingr period.
Richmond Protduce 3larket.
irv. 174 1.-.:- ehoi'i faimiyI ipa''k'-d . I 7
20-.:'bhoil-e st.re (pa'ck'd, 17.: nwdsom:
tr" (pa:kei.-. 14465. l c iommloi~t graidl"-,
Eno --Inl :rates. n"ar biy and fresh ,;4
17.: ini irates. fri-h and( clea"n. 16" .; it,h r
ri- ani wi'box"' fre i). lo3 16 .
7''.: di o'ks liive(. p"r llud S1 140--.: h'
liv', pt: jOII4 pon. 7-malt ''ni.'ken- .-i -
1-'.i -r oldi. 15 2400. apte'".
1.m:.rg ST clv~es. per pound14 'aross
11-. 1h-t.i 'ri'oun. 2r21.ii. b-f
.wi pe po 'n. 2 B . h iir..-o
1nu,,4 ;10 . yon bees. 25 pun. ..
Ii~-.: -h ti . 5al . pmrl 51, p uw .. G o.
mald., ierliarund.f :-.lrg,v.
1"m'ked. Pe ol. per 11r. side2 4-1r:d,
-re e-1 o id-.2.0 ncr . re barrel.
00 TI U0 .2NT1
FOR IONL a
Ls: u ltin of Sympathy Wit.h the
Cubau Patriots Adopted.
'II LL31ACN and SH EPPAR I) DEBATE
Th Convenition ent T i u 11rsday inl
A ameing t he I1oimestead Liv.
Tit cviititutional conventiou dc
voted the proceedings of their *25th
s.i l to tIhl discussion of the s;ection
providm for a humest-2ad law. Sen
ator Tilliian antl Goveriior Shcppitrd
M:Et p werful s1.eeche1s oil the sub
ject. The ldebate was of a higher class
than ay f the deb.ates thus far. At
2::) 1'clck_, by a vote of S2 to 44, the
c en11%Ctionl :,truck oUt all the special
pir i:-ious in the se,tion as reporte,
letaving" the sectjion providing for a
simpl leStead exemptiol of 8I,J00o
worth of real estate and ;5100 worth of
p(ers)Inilitv. The stricken out portion
gape ma Cy spial Provisious, onc
-I:.*ing the cotr,)l of such preperty
in the htuds of the court and virtual
.y lulking the mall who takcs advan
tag(.f the exemnption minor. There
are ALe eight or ten amendments still
At the night session the greater por
tioi of the time was taken up in the
further debate on the homestead see
tiou. MIanv -mall iilaendments were
conlsilered and acted on It is im
Ib ayet to give any idV3 a.s how
the homestead provision will go
thi viougl. ft will go through all right.,
Senator T'illmau. near the end ot
the ,es: ionl, gt theu floor and stated
thatt the vote: tailenl i1uriig the day
had shon a that at least one-fourth of
th' "people's representatives" were
not in attendance upon the conven
tion. These men were all drawing
their pay from the State, and were
doing nothing. while those here were
bearing the responsibility of acting on
vital matters. He moved that all
leaves of absence be rescinded and
that all the absentees be notified to
return at once unless they could pro
Iduce ph\ sician's certificates that they
were ill. This was adopted and the
The article on jurisprudence was
presented at a late hour.
The chairman of the conmittee in
dividually presented the following
anti-lynch law section: "Section 6.
Iu the case of any prisoner lawfully in
the charge, custody or control of any
oficer, State, county or municipal,
being seized and taken from said offi
cers by force or strategy, by a mob or
other unlawful assemblage of persons,
and at their hands suffering bothly
violt-nce or death, the said officer shall
be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor,
and upon a true bill found shall be de
posed from his office pending his trial,
and Iupon his conviction shall forfeit
is otlic and unless pardoned by the
Governor shall be ineligible to hold
any olhice of trust or protit within this
State. It shall be the duty of the
prosecuting attorney within whose dis
trict or county the offense may be
onanitted, to forthwith institutc a
proseti on against said officer, who
hall be indicted and tried in such
ounty, other than the one in which
the offence was committed, as the At
torney-General may elect. The fees
and mileage of all material witnesses
both for the State and for the defesa
shall be paid by the State Treasurer-in
uch manner as may be provided by
FOI~( AN INCOME TlAX.
theC Sectilou Regarding Taxation Dis
cuissedl anid Amended.
ont Friday, the 26th day of the con
stitutionad convention, the article on
penal and charitable institutions pass
d its third reading after the killing
f the section providing for a board
of pit blic charities. The following see
tion~ 'f the article on finance and taxa
tion was adopted after a long discus
ion ans a after several amendments had
hseen puit in:
The General Assembly shall provide
byv laiw for a uniform and cequa1 rate
of assessment and taxation, and shall
jrcribeC such rcgulationis aLs shall se
ure a just valuation for taxation of
all propjerty, real, personal and posses
sary, ec ept miines and mining claims.
the proieeds of which alcone shall be
taxed, andi also such prop)crty as nmay
be cxeminpted by law for municipal cdui
at i in. literary, scienitiei, :-eligious or
elharitab.lle putrposes: pro\idecd, howv
ever, that the General Assembly ruoy
inupoirse ; capitation tax on xuch domes
tie anuals as fromt their nature anud
habits aire destructive of o)ther p)rop
ertv; anid provided, further that the
Genieral Assemb)ly my provide for a
graluated tax on incomes and miay
irovide for graduated licenses on oe
euplationls and business."
An ellort by Senator Tillmaan to pro
vile for a SI poill tax on every dog ini
the State, the pr'oceeds to be devoted
to the school fund. after a rich debate,
was killed biv a vote of 102 to 211. An
effort tos impose a municipi,l tax on fthe
cip ital ,-t cek o.f nll banks ini the State
ThI nighit session of t he constitu
tinas C lcnve2ntion wats at li.s and fedi
n one. Thie convention still dealt
w ih the repiort of the committee onl
1'inance ad taxation and it took several
hIr ti ads spt the two sections. TheC
fiI scion fixes as at mlinimiumn fssr the
binde sus eb15 t of any ~ countty. township,
ei v . r tow 8 per ceut. cf the assessed
rilus it all the taxable property there
ii. The ost impuiortanit action taken
toi.:h lt was to Pass a section prohibit
in as iiunty or township froms levying
.. .I ..,. ia ng bonds to aid in the
b,ilding of new railroads or for tn
other purpose save edacationaill and Or
diuary State and county purposes.
A resolutici' was adopted also thai
State bonds should not be issued for a
period of less than 20 years or iore
than 10 years.
The convention, after voting se,,eral
times to limit the speeches from this
time on to 10 iinutes each, save on
the dizsii.sSon of the suffrage article,
finally refused to put on any limil
TIIE BILL OF RIG1ITh.
The whole of the Bill of Rights wat
adopted at the night session Wednes
day with the exception of that section
on trial by jury, which was passed to
await the judiciary report, the sections
on elections, which were passed over
by a vote, and the section which pro
vides as t.o lines and bail, which has in
it that "the power to punish for con
tetipt shall not in any case extend to
to imipri.onient ir the State Peniten
tiary,- was passed ovec by request of
31r. Miower, -\ho had the report in
Large as chairman of the sub-commit
tee that reported the proposed article.
The article as adopted, with onlv
three sectious left pending, is as
Section 1. All political powers are vested
in and1 d-rived from the people only. There
ifv, therf have the right at all tunes to mod
ify thvr fvrmn if government. when the pu
Ji-- good demiand:s.
Seetion 2. All powers not hercin delegated
are ri,sarved to the peole: nor shall the
e1nm1rati,in of certain rights herein ie cou
strued to deny or disparage others retained
jy the peiop,le.
Section :;. Representation in tlo. House of
]}.'pr:-sentatives shall be apportioned ar-or
din;g ti' population.
N'cio 'IP 1 The General Assemibiy ought
fre'quentlA to assemble for the redress if
grievance and for mnaking new laws as the
onnon goo, may require.
Sectio '5. Tho General Assembly shall
niake a' law respecting an establishment of
relig-.n or prohibitingthe free exercise there
of !r :arid,,-inig the freedom of speech or of
thw p:-:re-s or the right of the people peacea
I.ly to as-imtble and to jetition the Govern
int. or any department thereof. for a red
rss ,f --rievances. -
I The privileges and iuimuni
ties if vitizens of this State and of the United
St at's. un.r this Constitution. shall not be
ahride1 nor shall any person' b' deprived
of life. liberl'y or property without duo pror
es of law. ior siall any person be denied
tha equal protaetion of the laws.
Seat aikn All property subject to taxa
ti-in -bal b taxed in proportion to its value.
'-:tean 8. No tax subsidy. charge, impost
tax ir luties shall be established. tixed. laid
or levied under any pretext whatsoever
A%ith:.t the consent of the people or their
repr-sent. tives lawfully assembled.
facto la,w impairing the obligation of cou
travts, nor law granting any title of nobility
or hereditary etnblenent shal be passed and
no -onvi,ti' 'hall work corruptioia of
hblroial far f, irfciture of estate .
Se-titn u . The right of suffrage as regu
lated in this constitution shall be protected
by laws rogulating lections and prohlibiting.
under adequate penalties, all undue influ
once from power, bribery, tumult or impro
-ction 14. Teiiorary absence from the
State :hall not forfeit a residence once ob
ectiaon 15. The power of suspending the
laws or the execution of th; laws shall only
be exercised by the General Assembly or by
its authori-y in particular cases expressly
providtd for by it.
Section 16. In the GovernLI)t of this
State. the Legislative, executive and judicial
pow,.'is o-f the Government shall be forever
separated and distinct front each other, and
no person or p,ersons exercising the functions
of one' of said. departments shall assume or
dischlarge the diuties of any other.
Sea'tiona 15. All Courts shall be public, and
every person shail have speedy remedy there
in for wrongs sustained.
NSetitin 1P. The rih of :he peop)le to be
seur in teir persuons, houses. papers and
e1Te'ats againsat uxnreasaonable searches andr
saizutra' shall not be violated and no warrants
shaill issue bitt noon probable cause support
d iay aathi or a'irm'ation. and particularly
dse'ibuig thae placc to lie searhed anr.i tile
prtit or thin" to lie seized.
Se'cttin 2. In all1 criminal paroSe,Cutiaons
ttthectused shall ettjov the right to a spaeady
andl i ublie trial by animpartial jury and to
b: fiill'a itnformed of the nature and eatus' of
the aca-usation to be confronted with Lihe
win-s.s against him--to hav'ae eompunls>ry
praoess foir obtaining witnesses in his favor.
and to iba fully' headin his defence by himn
self orlbv his~counsel or by both.
Section 22. Excessive bain shall not hae re
gutired nor excessive fines i:nposed. iaora'rucl
noar unusual punishments inflicted.~ nor shall
wit ness's ic unreasonably detained. Cair
poreati putnishament shall not ho inflicted.
Thae lower to putnish for contemhpt shall riot
n tiny 'as" extend to iimprisonmenit ina the
Secation 23 All' persons shall before a'aan
'aietiaan bei laillable by suaflicie2nt sureties ex
cl at for aptital ofTenees. when the piroof is
evident ra the presumnption great.
'S 'ation~ . In all indictments or paroser-a
tins afar liat-:1 the truth aof alleged libe ay a
e ''iv n~ in a'vidlence' and the jury shtall ba'
thi' jadi:s~ of the' latw atnd the! facts.
Section 25.1 Traasou againt tha 'Late
sall 'onasist 'alaonc in levy'iang waar air in giv
ig tala anal conafairt a eneis against the'
S;tat. No pearson si hail ba hiald ;'uilty'a of
treasatt exacept utpon ts-timnya of at least
two''a witness'- to th sani overt at. ror upoin
a.atnf's,iont itna 't (pe Couit.
5: tional 2'. Thea praivilege~ of tht writ aof
abtla:s corpa t'ailodaii not lbe suspiendaeda imh-ss
wl'an in as of-' inasurreactaon. rebellion air ina
va iian. thi. pubtlil arfety. mnay require it.
uuo "7. Na paersoLn shall be imprrisona
ad for dla b1 .\aatpt tat eases of fraud.
Sei 2.t Thae right oif trial by) jury shalh
N"ationi 29 N well ra-gulated mtilitia b'iig
neii'a.at ry a1a tat' securitya of a free State. thae
rui t ft'ha'peole to keep and bear atrms
Itall nt ba infringd'.1 As in timnes of peate
armi' .'are dangierous" to liberty. they' shall
lt be m : aaait ained wi'athouit a'onsent of the
Genearal .cembhly. fhe military power of
th' Ntatt s-hail alwvysahe held in subordina
tai t to th iv'a 1a'uthoritya and lie governedl
v at. Nra "oldier shall in time of peace hie
ua1trtarta'i anvn; house without consent o,f
tat own'eaar naor an tin"e of war, but in mnanner
'-tion 30. Na' person shall in ay, casL
het auject' to martial law oxrLa toany' mains oar
pena:lties liv virtue of that law except thosa
fmxlalayedi in the army and navy of the Unita.a
Si:xl s antd e-xcept tihe militia innaetual saervia:a,
but by t' iattority of the Genral Assent
Si.tonll :tU. All navigalle waters shallI
f,r,tvar riemtain paubiie higlhwaay-. free'. to the
-iiizinx af ihc'State and United! States. waith
t tax, aip ast car toll imnpose'd. and no tax.
1ea11. imtla ar 'aharfage shall be imipasaa.
.'.n-:nx" uta rt rea''ived froma thi! o)wner' 'f
in a- echla'ndlisi:or eaoxmcadity for use of
th.c-:-aures or tin>' wharf erected on shores air
lax 'r-r a- ilae waters of any navigable stream
unts L th'5 ' samne hea' authorized iby the Gitnara
Stin :ii:8. Th' parovaiSionas of the t'aonstitia
ti i. :-hall bI e takeix. adeanied and a:onstrued
toi 'a' maa.ti:rv and parohibitorya tauad ntit
m.-ii' dir.--!tor". eept where cxpressly
-l' d IiLrtry or permnissery>b I't oI wn
Frank Meirose, a supernumerary at
one of the New York theatres, knows
all ofShakespea' plays by heart.
GLEANINGS FROM 3MANY POINTS
Important Happenings, Both Rome
and Forei.-n, Briefly Told1.
Newsy Southern Notes.
The National Road Parliament met
at Atlanta last week. Ex-Governor
Fuller. of Vermont, was elected presi
A committee of general passenger
agents, who are at Atlanta, announce
that a cent a mile rate will begiii soon
to Atlanta fro!u the Ohio river and
At Montgoraery, Ala., at a public
meeting 8100,000 was subscribed to the
People's Cotton Factory. This is one
half of the capital stock and the enter
prise will now be pushed to immediate
There was a large'and enthuisiastic
re-union of the confederate veterans
at Frederickiburg, Va.. Friday. Steps
were taken to build a monument to the
Confederate dead in Staffurd. General
Fitzhugh Lee addressed the meeting.
Mrs. Mintz, living south of 3g
nolia, Ark.,locked two ef her children,
aged four and six, in her house and
went to a neighbor's. The house
burned and the chiidren were cremat
ed. The mother lost her mind.
At Charlotte, N. C., the great audi
torium, with a seating capacity of
6,000, was burned on Wednesday. The
efficiency of the city's fire department
was shown by the fact that with seven
buildings on fire at one time, only the
auditorium was consumed. The loss is
about $4,500; insured for $2,000.
A special from Fort Smith, Ark.,
says: Cade Miller and his wife were
assassinated in bed, at their home on
the Oklahoma border. This is the
fourth assassination of persons who
are important witnesses in the Dutch
John murder trial. The other two
were Bruce Miller and a deputy sheriff
of Pawnee County, Oklahoma.
The President's family was re-united
in Washingtun Tuesday evening.Presi
dent Cleveland reached the city by
land and the children arrived by train
over the Pennsylvania railroad at 1:10
p. m. The President's summer outing
at Gray Gables has ]?ad a beneficial
effect on him and he returns invigor
ated and refreshed for the winter's
work at the capitol.
At London th'e revision of the Bible
has been completed, itieluding the
apocbrypha, upon which the revisers
have been engaged since 1881, and it
will shortly be issued from the Oxford
Press in various sizes, uniform with
the revised old and new testaments.
The Thomas Iron company of Allen
town, Pa., gladdened their 3-50 em
ployees by voluntarily increasing wages
ten per cent.
Smith & Wesson, Springfield,
Mass., will dismiss all their employes
on November 1st, as after that all its
work will be done by contractors. The
object is to avoid weekly payments of
wages, which the law now requires.
Mrs. Joseph Langdon, the wife of a
farmer living near Delta, Ohio, gave
b)irth within a space of three hours, to
five children, all of them males. She
is past 35 years and has three other
Near Richmond, 0. T., Joseph
Gazee attempted a criminal assault on
Mrs. Holcombe, b)ut the woman's 12
year-old son seized a shotgun, went to
his mother's rescue and shot her as
Reports to the U. S. Supervising
Surgeon General indicate that during
the present epidemic of cholera in
.Japani there have been 42,706; cae
and 28.513 deaths. It is believed the t
the epidemic has reached its climiax
and is now declining.
Millions of bushels of fruit are go
ing to waste along the Ohio river -
cause of the close of navigation. -
tween Cincinnati and Evansville 150,
000 barrels of ap)ples, in additiou to
potatoes and other produce, will bc
lost by decay.
At Chicago Thursday by the prema
tare ex;plosion of a dynamite blast in
the ruins of the Maunfactuirers' Build
ing on the World's F'air grounds,
Samuel Hobart, a laborer, mas instant
lv killed. Hobart's hea~d was blown
off au:1 carried three blocks away fro:n
the scene of the explosion. The build
ing was being torn down and dynamite
was used for blasting purposes.
CAROLINA IN ATLANTA.
A War Welcome to the P'ress of the
State by the South Carolina
IO(ver sixty miembers of the South
Carolina I'rcss Associatio n were ex
tended a reception by the South Caro
lina Society of Atlanta Thursday night,
and1 notable addresses were miade by
President Calhoun, of the South
Carolina Society;: President Aull. of
the Press Association: Thos. IR. Cobb,
Co]. ,J A. Hoyt. J. C. Garlingt.'n,
.udge Wilkes, Col. Franz Mlelchers,
Col. JIames (4. Bacon, Eb. Willitus,
Commuissioner Rdoche and other-s. The
welcome was heart y,. and punch and
eloquence tlowed unrestrainedly for
Warsaw, Poland, has a population
of 571,300, according to the last cen
sus, and is inerasing at the ra:e of
20.000 a year. The garrison consista
of 37,000 men
The constitiltion f th- Cut.an revolution
ary governtment, has ben proniulgated. The
itroduction an-I t-.-.f.llo
The revohitin f-,r thi! inudep.endence and 1
"reatien in Cuba cf a demliiocrati-: retui,,
initiated Ilth 24th day of February last,solely
Helared the separation of Cuba from the
Tie eletede delegates f the revolution,in
ennvonti.,n assemled, have now foried a )
01,rrup1aCt bertw,-n the world and Cuba. andit 1)
ph-dgi themselvesto the following artioCles A
o)f the costtitition of 1hen- w n u biNn re-- C
Artitc 1.-Tlh suirreme: ie- pnier of the re- (
pu!ii: will be vestel in a outil of Ministers. (
'Po,sed of a [rosideut. anii ridnt, and
ur ;-eer"l ries, f-r th" dINpatCh1 Of l.uiin16S
f War, --f tho InIvri-r. of Foreign Affairs,
Ari. 11.-- E'vory -< r.kry will have a u-1
SeCretary, ill ord-r t, s-ippcly any vac'ancy.
IIIL-Th' att ritett's of te ninisteriul
-overimiut will I- to li-tato all the relatiVe
dispositioi of the civil awl p,olitical life of t]
the rep.ublic; to re.:eive ioitribtitios: to
VoItrAct pt)li,- loans; to issue paper mon:y;
to raise troops anl to maintain them: to 0
elare relrisaJs. with re2slect to the: eivnmY.V
and to ratify treattes. exept the peae with
Spain: to sub1mit juhicial authority to th1
Pr'esient: ti a;cpyrce:re the law of inilit:try or
::minization, aiu nrdinances of the military
..rvii.as d1r:iwn "p iby by the Commandr- I
Art. JV.- Ministeri:al Council only will
be al. t." iUt.-rvlnw in taking part in the
inlitarv operations wh-n. in their judgment,
it will be' tblely nce.sary. t
Art. V.-lt ik reeuisite for the validity of e
I the Ministerial Council decrees that two
thirds of the members will have concurred 0
Art. Y.-The office of counsellor is in
(omnpatilil: with the others of the republic. i
an.I rti'Iii re: aU member to be 25 years of
or aii Iward.
A rt. VI .-The Executive will rest with the t
Pet.4 or, in default. withthe Vice-Presi
Art. N1III.--The work of the 3Iinisterial
C-oin.-il will be san4.,ioned by the President.
who w-ill lie al,le to dissolve it. not to VX,ecC 1
A rt. JX.-Tb Preident may enavt treaties
wili tie ratification of I ie Ministerial
Art. X.-The Pre .ident will receive am- o
\rt. Xi.-The traty f pee,-av with Si
whIh it i-i nt--:<.<arv to have to form anuab
So'ilute e11sis of inel-pendeltce for the islan
-cf Cub, should be ratiflie!d bey the 3Ministerial e
Coiuncil ad by an assem iv of renresenta
tiv.--s convoked for that ent.
Art. XII.The Vie-Pre'id.mt will act for
the th-e- Presitdent in case of neei'vmty. t
Art. XIII.-In caii! the otnees of Presi- c
lent and Vice-Presid'Lt *hould be vacant by .
resifation or by death. or by other cause. 1
.t the same time. an a.emibly of representa- a
tivo,i will I)e called for an election. h
Art. XIV.-The sieretaries are to take part a
.rt. XV.-It is pormitted to the secretaries 1
to arrangp for all the employes of their re- t
Art. XVI.-The suib-secretaries will consti
tate a legal body in cases of vacancy of the
Se-:ret-ries of State, having their voice in
tLe delilxrations. t
Art. XVII.-All outside armament of the
republic, and the direction of the operators C
of war, will be direetly under the hand of
thee Commander-in-Chief, who will have at
his order, as second in command, a lieuten
anut-general, as a substitute in case of ne
Art. XVUI.-All functionaries, of what- 1
ever class, who are able. must lend recipro- I
cal help for the )etti:r accomplishment of the e
resolutions of the 'Ministerial Government. t
Art. XIX.-All Cubans will bie obliged to
stirve the repulic ..ith their persons and in- d
t:rosts. according to their power. b
Art. XX.--The property, of whatever class, 2
appertaining to foreigners. is exempt from
paving taxes in favor of the republic, pro- b
viIinig their reCspectiv'e governments recog
nize the belligerency of Cuba.
Art. XXX--AIl debts contraeted from the
a- tual initiation of the war until this consti
tution is promulgated will be piaid.
Art. XXII--.The MIinisterial Council hasj
the power to red cc any member for just a
'ause, in the judgment of two-thirds of the
Art. XXIII. -The judicial authority will
proiced with entire independence of all the
othr.-New York .Herald.
Big F alling OiT' in Value, but Not in
Quanity. Due to Decrease in P rices.
A~c.,ir,lingC toa speclal bujlletin issued bcy
itle i>epiartmienit e.[ Agricu ltu re there has *
1h'en ai birge fadlug off iu the: value of agri
cutural r'xports for the fiscal year e'nding
Juily let as compunlared with preeceding yetirs.
Te litires are? 8553.215.317 for the cur
rent Iise:al year. 8628,363.638 for 1804. $615.
32OM for' 189:3, and $799.328.232 for 1892. C
A e.ompareMi with the average of the si.x l.
yers from 1890 to 1893. e)tr agriculltutra1
C'lue:ts fell if abiout $00.000O.000.
Thliis she rtage. ne:cording to Secretary Nor'- -
1ie. is duii miainily to) shrinkage ofC prices. s
ThCII eCxle>)rt vaihi.!s of wheat, hlour, andi *'ii
t'in fer JS5t wecreeinly $300.000.000,t) while
hi:el iih e ries oef 1812 pirCvailedl the eleani
Th'le total e.xpiorts for the last liscal year .f
:ill kinds of mnerebandlise were less Icy $55.
000.00) thian in 1894. butt the falling if wa ~':s a
ute toe lw perieris tee suih an e'xtent, that hal
ceott' n. h,a.en, anml lardl b>ei. sold at the' samie
pr.e sthe' previ(ous year,. they woul ale ei
lhtvi'e euhit ut 1c he ital expoeris tee lie tig
0re'ee of the lreeios year.
S3.retary Moth rt 'i', hoerer,e l i ues e n1
hat Ite: lha' biee ; re'trogre''l o'.vrl't:u
CC..rni. aem' ar;/arbrte. se'eds, hee. buter iCi
hp.hblls. il enake':ani eciiiler. while to r
ha--eo weooel. e eltin 'lothiS, e'en!. aiultais, a:t
hele their own.
lTh.-: ias bee'n a nileire o.r les uirked in'
'reasee int oil, hiili, fruit.s, an] nuts. mnanufa
turtrs o)f iron and st::el, cotteon seedl il. viu
sOUl'HIERN BANK CLEARANCES.t
Large Increase Over Last Year. Imi- T
proved Financial Condition of :a
Thi Manuitfac.'t'.:r' Ri.e:eord rei arts th,::t
tle beank eIeairanes. lire ug:h.eut the S,uthi e
r the w-CkCl :,h.w a large gait i.ve'r th e C*Cr- I
etcndi: peeri'od cf laist yvar, wilth rauilreindl
tram.-' alsee ine'rcasing mante'rially. I
While the prevaillig high priCe fir c'ottCin.
an Ithe abnudanut suplyI. of corn and lacne t
have put Soutlhiern farmers in better linane'ia II
cni.ee~ltio n than feer som" ycars. there isuno
lieialiercns'' ef na'tivity in th ''e rganiJ:'n
Iitin ''I newO nchinstri ednterri,e. -
CIintra tC have b'een let for heeilers andI
enginesu'C feer two furunees to lie loe?nted( it
in- mr-'the llrst new. furnace-btuildin:,
werk end Ceritaken'i in the Se utth foer al eenfid
erblele 1im.' .\mong seimte of te. enterp riC.e C
repor eci f ot thec week were: a &100l.0)00 eOletin
m nill in McisseCiC.Ci lii: a $3.000 e.leectric: lant ini
TeunesCelC,:C a 61.000 comflpreSs in Texas: t
.: 110 bew'c~'' er icpany' in V'irgtiin. and aI
.e5.00( feritii:.e:r complany in the: .came St:at'.
and a :nnaber of milecellaneo eenterrr-CC: t
In Terrell, Tenas, boys who smnoke cigar- e
ettes are not allowed to attend the public Ie'l
NTERESTING ITEMS FROM ALL
OVER THE STATE.
Prosperous York County.
Wc believe that York county is in a
etter condition to-day than she has
een in before at any time since the
ar. While it may be true that the
tton crop will show up less than half
I an average, it was made with a great
eal less expense than any previous
rop, and while during forme yearsit
as taken anywhere from 60 to 90 per
ent. of all that was made to pay for
ipplies. this year the supplies have
een made at home, and from 60 to 90
er cent. of all that has been produced
avrc-e_nt- profts. -, Yorkville En
LAW OF THE LAWLESS.
Vm. Blake, Under Life Sentence,
Taken From Courtand Hanged.
At Hampton,Wm. Blake, Sr., Jason
lake, Prince Gravei and William
rasier were convicted Thursdayeven
ig of the murder of Mr. Raymond
[eares on thie 9th of August last.
7m. Blake, Sr., was recommended to
ie mercy of the court, and his sent
ace was life imprisonment. The
ther three were sentenced to be
anged on the 7th of December next.
After the prisoners were sentenced
was evident that there was dissatis
Ltion a.t the jury's recommendation
> mercy of Wm. Blake, Sr., and some
ersons were licard to say that Blake
ould never reach the penitentiary.
'he convicted persons, as soon as court
1journed, about half-past 7 p. m.,
ere htndcuffed and taken out of the
Durt room. On their way to tha jail,
IC sheriff and his constables were
verpowered by a number of men,
ud Wm. Blake, Sr., and William
'rasier, who were handcuffed together,
-ere forced from the custody of the
nstables and taken off into the
-oods. The handcnffs were unlocked
i some way and Frasier was retuined
> the custody of the jailer. The
rowd, numbering about fifty men,
roceeded to a dense piece of woods
bout one-half mile from the court
ouse and hung WIm. Blake, Sr., with
m%I*Nc1" ke rib of aIage
ito his body and the crowd dispersed.
The coroner's jury returned a ver
ict that Wm. Blake, Sr., came to his
eath at the hands of partiesunknown
> the jury.
AROLINA'S CROWN OF GLORY.
'he Girls State College at Rock Hill
Tuesday marked a great day in the
istory of Rock Hill and of the State.
n the morning, amid applause, Gov
rnor Evans, in behalf of the board ol
custees, formally delivered to Presi
ent Johtiscn and the faculty the
nilding and pupils of the Winthrop
,ormal and Industrial College and
ade them "God speed."
The exercises wers opened by the
inging of "Praise God, from whom
11 Biessings Flow," led by Prof.
crown an the piano, all the audience
>iing. After this the Rev. H. R.
Ioely read Psalm CV, and prayer
as offered by the Rev. Alexander
prunt. Then the audience was fa
ored with a superb rendition of
'aure's Sa?nta-Maria, by Mrs. Brown,
ife of Prof. Brown. The other num
ers of the musical programme were a
ino duet overture, Zampa, by Her.
Id. This was given by Miss Waddell
ud~ Prof. Brown. The third number
-as Mattei's "Canta," a vocal solo by
iss Souther. Last cf all came the
inging of "The Coronation."
These musical performances were
aterspersed through the programme
f the morning. The exercises wvere
osed by the benediction pronounced
y the Rev. George T. Harmon.
Gov. Evans, Senator Tillman and
r. W. J. Roddy, were the principal
HlGR PfICES IN DARLINGTON.
otton Urings 9 Cents and Tobacco
10 to SO Cents.
It was high water mark for cotton
na tobacco at Darlington last week,
oth in p)rice anid quantity. Several
undred bales of cotton were sold in
ne day, 9 cents being the highest
rice p'aid. About thirty-tive thous
nal pouinds of tobacco were sold,
ries rangin g from 10) to 30 cents per
ound. and M) eents per. pound on the
Lguar imrket. No "b,reak."- This
t waLs splendidI in every respect, and
ill go to A tl:3uta.
Souath Carolina and Ohio.
South C::r!ina is the only State of
d Uniun w bia refuISes to give divorce
n any grounds whatsoever, and in
als regard1 her record, when compared
-ith thiat of other far more wvealthy
ud progressive States, is particularly
riht. 11er" iu Ohio. for instance,
.5 suit for divorce wer" begun
uring' tbe year *ndling September 1.
nd of the-e 2,'9 were granted.
pi '.. which wecre refxeed the
,:'i:iI r 'f the cem till remnaining
utried.-- ('incinniat I 5%uth&est.
NO EXTORTION IN ATLANTA.
resident Collier of the Exposition Is
sues a Card to the Public.
On Friday President Collier of the Cotton
ates Exposition. at Atlanta. fuirnished th
ll'wing .ard al>out the charges of extor
u and iueompiete: condition of th'e expo
ion for the press:
--Ufounded~ rumors have been ceirculated
the effect that the Cotton States and In
rntionaI exNposition is not .comp)lete'. I
:u it myV duty to make an official and au
:ritatve anno)uncment that the exposi
u i: omplete and ready for the elesent
rtinv. The reports that extortion is by
prietied upon visitors and charges~ i' -
.easedi are untrue. Reasonable prices are
nrged in every instance.
ined) --C_ A. _OWEmn: President."