Newspaper Page Text
TLU-WVEEKLY EDITION, IVNSOO OR1 88
WHEN THE PO
Oh., the sun is -on the kiver, an
And the inoon. its light is gain]
And the band Is playin' sweetly
And th&eeS pretty girls amany
-Oh, this,'unset gun Is boomin' f
'a Indim and purple distance I
-NP. it is just a pipe till supper
say, who wouldn't be a soldler'
Oh, there's hurry and there's bv
To be loaded in the darkness wl
And, the caissons are bulky, and
And the're isn't any wonder whe:
Oh there's or4ers to go somewh
* it's'nothig to the orders ti
- t the stocs-car doors wo.a't
Say, who wouldn't be a soldier i
Oh, the women they're a-weepix
And there's hearts a-feelin' heai
And there's shoutin' and there's
And there's kisses from the Mo
Oh, the darned old band is tooti
And "The Girl I Left Behind M
For we'll not be back, my dearie
And some will be a-missin' whe
a 0 " V Q c ~ '
THE LAST (
a 12 0 0b a 0 0
BY to imagine a
- 'away to the east
for three hundred
miles-a plain so
fiat and sterile
that its very
monotony is men
acing." To the
the . c stunted pines;
the south a tongue of sandy desert;
'Ao the west a succession of barren
;ridges, on which neither wolf nor buz
zard can find a drop of water nor a
pnorsel of food. Right there, a hun
dred miles from the nearest pioneer
,ramlet, they built Fort Brown and
garrisoned it with men, who thought
of suicide day by day as they looked
upon the dreariness. There - was a
*keleton company of infantry and a
skeleton company of cavalry-the last
f B troop. There was a time in the
istory of these horsemen when B
mumbered a full hundred men, and
-hen its officers were the proudest
men in the regiment, but there are
fatalities'in army life as well as else
'One day, over in Greenvalley, as B
troop rode gaily along, five hundred
Edian warriors rose up in the dry
gullies and emptied forty saddles at
he frst voley. There was a court of
inquiry, and the captain resigned.
Again tedroopers were sent over to
covei airagon trAin, and the Indians
a aered the whole number. In
th ext three months five troopers
WE and three eommitted suicide.
e afternoon the first lieutenant of
1he troop rode out for a hunt but had
not gone a mile when he was thrown
from his horse and killed. One more:
Two tr9opers were sent out to catch a
- orse kVhich had broken loose and was
cavorting around within blf a mile
bf the post. They were on foot, and
s they ran they were bitten by rattle
~nakes on which they trod, and
'were dead before sunset. The army
said that B troop was under a hoodoo,
and the remnant of the company felt
,themselves almost outlawed. The
-day they rode into Fort Brown they
ziumbered thirty-seven men, and they
~were under the temporary command
of a second lieutenant. Captains and
fist lieutenants assigned to B troop
always fought off the day of joining,
'and some had pull enough at Wash
ington to have the assignment coun
'termnanded. There is superstition in
thyi army as well as out of it.
f( *Here is our graveyard!" whispered
~he men of the troop, as they caught
sight of Fort Brown and its lonesome
environment, after their long ride to
reach it. They looked at the foothills
~o the north-at the plain to the east
-at the desert to the south, and the
ridges to the west, and man turned to
.man and repeated:
*"Here is our graveyard--the last of
'If you know an unlucky man you
pity him, but yon also avoid him. The
infantry at Fort Brown could not avoid
She unlucky troopers, but they pitied
them and displayed no fraternal feel
~ng. It was so from the colonel down
to the last private. Wo smile in de
'rision at the idea of a hoodoo, and yet
we do not like to rub elbows with peo
ple who are pursued by ill-luck. The
freshly graduated cadet knew nothing
about the hoodoo when he was assigned
to B troop. With a boy's ambition
and impatience he had hurried from
\Vest Point and home into the wilds of
the Far West to take active service.
TJhere was no superstition about him.
-He had heard of the fatalities--he saw
the dispirited look of the remnant of
the once gallaut troop-he was made to
pelieve that ho was under a ban, as it
~rere-but he was not disheartened.
Army records will tell you what hap
~ened at Fort Brown within a week
after troop B rodca through the gatee.
She infantry had been there three
onths, but not an Indian had been
geen. A corporal and three men were
Bent to the foothills for fuel, when
they fell into an ambuscade and were
gut off. The four troopers were
pnounted, and yet all were killed,
wrhile the teamster made a safe escape
en foot. This was The hoodoo again.
That there might be no cavil about it,
Strooper hung himself, in the barracks
at night. Thus five more men were
iriped off the rolls within a week, and
he troop reduced to thirty-two. The
~Zudians had no sooner wreaked their
qengeance on the unfortunate four
*than they disappeared and none were
~en again for long weeks. It was as
they had come to assist at the final
~erinfation of the troop. When
the neysreached the east a captain
nad been assigned to B and was
' ea pulling
m ~ attrey as M
T BAND PLAYS.
I the sky is-gold and red,
ng in the azure overhead,
as Old Glory fluttets down,
from the quarte-s and the town.
ad the echo rumbles till
t is lost behind the bill:
time, so fill and make your blaze;
1rhen the Post Band plays?
stle, and there's forty head of mules
ile the steaming coffee cooks;
the gangplank's blasted steep
i a bloke is halt asleep.
ere, and to go there mighty quick;
at the horses rare and kick.
>pen, that the sergeant's in a daze;
rhen the Post Band plays?
', same as women always do,
y underneath the army bluE-;
cursin', and the bells a-ringin' loud,
-hers and the sweethearts in the crowd.
a' and the fife's a-shrillin' high,
i" makes a feller blink his eye,
s, to you all for many days,
a the Post Band plays.
ichard Stillman Powell, in the Criterion.
)F B TROOP.
04.1 0 0 0 0 a 0 0 0 't 0 0
orders were revoked and he was sent
elsewhere. The officials at the War
Department seemed to recognize the
The colonel at Fort Brown had re
ceived the young officer half in wel
come, half in pity. He knew the his
tory of B troop, and he realized that
any connection with it must cast a
shadow on the career of an officer.
Had he been in commaal of the de
partment he would have recommended
that the troop be consolidated and its
name lost on the rolls. The loss .of
the five men gave the colonel anxious
thought. No one could be held to
blame. It was simply one of the fa
talities which had so persistently pur
sued the troop. One day he got news
which determined him on a certain
step, and he sent for the young lieu
tenant and said:
"A scout is in with the information
that a band of hostiles is headed for
Brown's Valley. That is where the
pioneers who came along two weeks
ago were going to settle. I fear they
will be unprepared for an attack and
will all be wiped out."
"And you will send B troop out to
head the Indians off!" eagerly ex
claimed the lieutenant.
"If you could reach Panther Gap,
thirty miles away, before the hostiles
get ahead of you--"
"I would push on after them and
hope to save the settlers. I can be
ready in thirty minute."
The colonellwas a man of forty
five-the -lieutenant not yet twenty
three. The older officer looked out of
the open window upon the sandy
desert shimmering in tho hot sun and
thought of the long ride-the fight
which must surely take place. Then
he looked at the boy and wondered
how he would carry himself in his
first battle-whether his men would
stand by him-if it would be the last
of B troop or the turn of its luck. He
was both a soldier and a man. As a
soldier ho desired to give a soldier a
'ance; as a man he feared to send
out a boy like that where it needed
an experienced head.
"You know th~e hoodoo," whispered
the lieutenant; "The troop is slowly
but surely being wiped off the face of
the earth. The men are objects of
pity and sympathy, and have almost
become children. Let me go. I will
either win a victory or it will be the
last of the troop!"
The spirit of the old soldier was
stirred. He had given many a young
soldier opportunity to distinguish him
self, and but for the hoodoo he would
not have hesitated in this case. Dis
spirited men-au officer who had
never seen a hostile redskin-a hoo
doo which had walked at a company's
heels like a ghost-it would simply be
sending out more scalps for the war
party. He shook his head and de
cided that the scout must ride hard
and fast, but ride alone, and warn the
pioneers of their danger.
"I beg of you-we all beg of you!"
pleaded the lieutenant, with tears in
his eyes. "Cavalry is needed to head
those Indians off. If the settlers are
wiped out it will be said that you
thought us cowards and were afraidato
order us out."
"There will be thirty-two of you
and a hundred of the Indians," said
"But we will turn them back, sir
we will fight them!"
"And if they are too many for you?"
"I know the history of the troop,
sir," said the boy in trembling tones.
"It has lost almost seventy men by
desertion, suicide and skirmish. It
has not lost a man in a real fight.
They shall say of ii in the next three
days that it has won a fight or been
wiped out. I would rather be lying
dead there on the sands than to con
tinue to serve in a troop which has
not a single victory on its banners!".
"You may go,"said the colonel. "If
it is a mistake, then God help me!
Turn those Indians back and I will
recommend you for promotion; if they
are too many for you-"
"Then you will know it by the buz
zards hovering over the battlefield!"
Half- an hour later the thirty-two
men of B troop rode out of Fort
Brown and beaded across the desert to
the south. They were one of the arms
of a V. The apex was Panther Gap.
As they moved along one arm the In-I
dians would move along the other.
The Indians had nearly a day's start,
but their route was .-augher and their
pace a ould be slower.
"There goes the last of B troop!"
whispered every soldier left behind,
as the troopers rode away, and as they
said it they instinctively looked up. at
the flag as if expecting to see ii at
The troopers bad received that or
der without enthusiasm. They kn'et
a fight was probable, but they were
neither exultant nor despondent.
Like the ArabA, they shrugged their
shoulde'rs and whispered "Kismet.'
They were in the hands of fate, and
fate was likely to be against them.
With scarcely a farewell and with
never a look over their shonlders, they
rode away, two by two, and it was not
until long after dark 4hat the .boy
officer at the head did*ew eik and or;
dered the camp for the night. .Before
they slept he said to them:
t'We shall be Up add away at thd
drst tigus of daylight. Men, listen
to me. We are riding to reach Pan
ther Gap -ahead of a war party of a
hundred Indians. We shall get there
first and beat them back or die fighh
ing. I have promised the colonel
this. You have had one disaster aftei
another until Yout fellow soldiers
sneer and pity and wonder if coward
ice is not at the bottom of it. I dc
not believe it is. I believe every man
of you to be game, and we will win a
victory which will place the old troop
at the front."
A cheer bnrst forth from every man
-the first cheering heard in B troop
for years. Each man drew himsell
up more proudly--each man muttered
to himself that if need be he would
die in his tracks. Their mind worked
even as they slept, and when daylighi
came the officer looked from face tc
face and wondered at the change.
There was an eagerness to make him
glad-a personnel to make him proud.
Breaking camp as soon as it was lighi
enough to see, the troop tode at a
gallop until midforenoon and teached
the gap ahead of the hostiles. OnlI
by a short hour, though. The horses
had not yet ceased blowing when the
advance of the Indians was made out.
Panther Gap was a narrow road
through Panther Mountain, and its
southern end debouched into Brown's
Valley. five miles away. The boy
officer knew nothing of war, but com
mon sense and his veteran sergean!
suggested a breastwork across the en
trance to the gap. One was con
structed of rocks and logs and stones,
and it was hardly finished before the
skirmishers of the war party were fir.
ing upon it.
No man will ever read what is called
'Cunningham's Defense" without his
palse quickening. One hundred and
twenty Indians pressed forward againsi
a force of thirty-two troopers, com
manded by a boy. Three different
times-once on horseback-the Indians
charged right up to the breastwork,
but each time were driven back with
slaughtei. The defenders did not
escape death, however. When the
last eharg&was beaten back eigh+ of
th were stretched out on the rdeky
soi. and there was but twenty-four to
fall back for a mile and build another
breastwork. This move was necessi
tated by the Indians working up the
side of the mountain and securing a
flank fire. The second breastwork
was excavated the next morning for the
same reason, and a mile in the rear of
it another was built. When this had
to be abandoned only ten men were
When flanked out of their fourth
defense there were only five men. One
of these were sent to the valley for
help, but it was headed off by the In
dians. Of the other four, of whom the
boy officer was one, they died at the
fifth breastwork-died with carbines
in their hands after firing their last
cartridges, and died with cheers of de
fiance on their lips. Of the war party
sixty-two were killed or wounded and
it was turned back. One day a "
trooper was seen coming on foot across
the rands. He lurched and staggered
as he walked. Soldiers ran to meet
him and assist him into the fort. HE
had been without food or water for
t wo days. The colonel looked at him
for a long time 'without speaking.
Then, with pale face and trembling
lips, he asked:
"Lanigan, where is your officer
And Lanigan straightened up, salu
ted, and in a voice as hoarse an
raven's cry. he replied:
"I have to report, sir, that B trooi
has been wiped out to a man, and,
God forgive me, but I'm that man!
They are dead in the Gap-all dead
all dead!"-Boston Transcript.
At "My Uncle's" or "My Aunt's."
The singular name of "my uncle's'
and "my aunt's" by which pawnbrok
ers' stores have been called, originat
ed, according to a French writer, it
the following way:
In his youth the son of Louis Phil
lipe, the Prince of Joinville, was al
lowed a most meagre supply of pockel
money. His father noticed one day
that the yogng man was not wearing
handsome gold watch chain that his
mother had given him. In truth, the
youth had pawned it, but being un
willing to own to the fact, when the
King inquired where the chain was,
he replied. "At my aunt's."
When the Princess Adelaide, bein2
questioned, denied any knowledge oi
the ornament, the Prince acknowl
edged that it was safe in the pawn.
broker's shop. Thus the French
fashion of saying "at my aunt's" was
In Britain "nle's" is the proper
word, and the French writer claims
that it was adopted in the spirit of
contrariness which the English dis
play toward all things French.
Witness, that the French soldier
wears red trousers,.the English are
coat; the French eat oysters from the
hollow half of the shell, the English
from the flat half; the French tarn to
theh walkingan driving, the
English to the left. No other reason
for the difference is given than the ap
parent desire to be contrary.-Newi
- First Shot of the Civil War.
The first shot of the Civil War was
fired on January 9, 1 hen the
steamer Star of the We ~th sup
BACKBONE OF THE ARMY
DUTIES AND POSITION OF THE NON
'Hig Blest Chance to to Shoot 1is Way
Into lie Corridor# of Oblivion--Glory
Neidonti tomed td tie *1No.Com"-=
The do-Betweezi for Offcers and Mexi.
The backbonie of the army is the non
tonimi?sioned man:-.Rudyard Kip
Lowest down is the lance corporal;
highest up are the regimental quarter
master sergeants, sergeant majors,
ordinance sergeants, and most pictur
esque is the first sergeant. The "back
bone" referred to by Mr. Kipling con
sists of the compafy Tnoi-doms," be
ginning with the corpoifal And ftding
in the first sergeant.-. They are the
ungloritied sinews of war, the brawn
and muscle; the officer is the much
heralded brainy director.
The recruit to the. army no sooner
swears that he "will obey the com
mands of All officers placedabov him"
than he falls into the hands of a cor
poral. This soldier, with the two
clean white chevrons on his sleeves,
looks him over, guides him to a bath
ing place, and begins to lick him into
shape. He begins by teaching him
how to stand, how to turn around,
where to keep his 6yes, and all tne
small details of the soldior business.
He impresses on hiln the' necessity of
quick doing, and 'Cations that the
officers are there to think. Then the
recruit is shuffled on to a sergeant,
who places him in a set of fours and
teaches him how to- find his place, and
what to do when -he finds it. He
finally falls into thol-nds 'of the first
sergeant in company 'dritL. He may
i get an occasional sight of, his captain.
liut he learns to knioi and emulate his
The "non-com.'' Ihe teacher. His
unlimited ability towork and his un
dying patience straighten up round
shoulders, liven uphe shuffling steps
and make a sturdy soldier of the raw
recruit. He works itways and for
ever, and executesAhea.r.-ders of his
superiors quickly ita accurately. He
serves as a model to be copied after
by the piivate-he is the backbone of
Glory seldom con e-the "non
com." A long time go a certain Ser
geant Jasper won a ermanent place
in history, and mor ecently Sergeant
Hamilton Fish die bravely at the
front. Taz, ton- n'.-." works un
noticed, like the .1i epirek in the
football team, bee - Jcesn't ran
-witli~eball but-h ' 'backbone
,h A olds the ribs g i. When
the battle is hot- t mingles
with blood on the S field, when
bullets whizz-and sx tream, when
comrades sink to-thL. und and turn
on their faces, the cer lifts his
sword on high and zs a forward into
glory. The "non 7." speaks the
quiet "Steady, boys!" and walks into
the jaws of, death shooting his way
into the corridors of oblivion. The
captain knows he will be'famous if he
survives-famous if he 'dies. The
sergeant or the corporal knows
his wife and children will weep over
their loss, his comrades that survive
him will bury him in a soldier's grave
wrapped in his blanket. He is too
numerous for the historian to mention ;
he was simply doing his duty. Yet if
the victory is won it is because he is
Ln his place and doing this same duty.
Under the new tactics in use by the
United States a-my, companies no
longer fight with men shoulder to
shoulder under the direct command
of the captain. Much stress is laid
on the skirmish drill, in which sets of
fours under corporals and squads
under sergeants fight in open order,
firing at will after the captain has
ordered "commence firing." The
corporal is responsib~le for his set of
fours and the sergeant for his squad.
The first sergeant is in a manner re
sponsible for the entire company and
is ready to assume command when his
officers are shot doivn. The new
arrangement gives opportunity to the
"non-corn." to show himself. It
remains to be seen whether or not he
will break into fame.
It is not in battle, however, that the
non-commissioned officer earns the
title of "backbone," for in the fight
the sweating private is a necessary
person. In the camp the white-cher
roned soldier makes his presence
known ad felt. The first sergeant,.
gruff, stern, severe, kind, man of all
work and all intelligence, father of his
company and mother, too, in camp, is
in charge of his men. He looks after
the company quarters, tents, bedding,
clothing, knows all about the kitchen
and sees to the equipments. He calls
the roll, details the guard, knows the
ability and willingness of every soldier
of his command and is the disciplina
rian and mouthpiece of his company.
He is the go-between for privates and
officers, adjusts quarrels and dissemin
ates advice. The company books,
though not intricate, are tedious, and
are kept by him, and he reports the
dead to his captain. He seems to be
in every place at the same time. He
~s the model soldier.
The literature of the present war is
yet unwritten. Glorious 'victories
have been won and admirals and gen
erals have been launched into ever
lastin~g fame. Itis to be hoped, when
the war: correspondents get back to
the quiet of their desks, they will not
have been blinded by the glare of up.
lifted swords and glittering shoulder
straps to the bravery and courage of
the "non-commissioned man." There
is room in history for the -"backbone
of the army."
Age of Jurors in south ICarolina.
The constitution of South Carolina
provides that jurors muste'bo between
the ages of 21 and 65, alid alnew trial
was recently grante n a
case because one jf
A FAMOUS DENTIST.
The Late G. Q. Colton Firsit IUsed "Lau-h
ing Gas" in Practiee.
Dr. Gardner Quincy Colton, late ol
New York city, to whom belongs in
part the credit of Anosthesia by !augh
ing gas, died recently in Rotte dan a
the age of 84; Besides being - den
.ist; Dr:Colton was a physicia.i, a lec
tnrer;i c:itid;ad electrician and at onl
time a gold prospector~liaving gone to
California with the argonants of '49,
both to search for gold and to practin
medicine among his fellow adventar
ers. There is good groid for the be
lief that he invented the first electric
motor ever run, but it never got be
yond the model state,though the littic
machine which he built worked per
Born in Vermait; the twelfth chihl
6f poor parents;. lie fas able to gel
only a common school education before
being set to the trade of chairmakiug.
All his spare moments were given tc
reading and study and with sut
good tesults that when he came to this
city at the age df 11; in 183->;h6 added
considerably to his meaus by writing
for the newspapers,until he had saved
enough money to achieve the first great
ambition of his life, a course in the
College of Physicians and Surgeons.
After graduation he studied in the ef
fice of Dr. William Parker and two
years later set out upon a lecture
tour, speaking on philosophical and
chemical subjects. His favorite lec
ture *as one dealing with electrical
phenomena and the peculiar effects
upoi the brain of nitrous oxide gas,
which he called laughing gas because
of ridiculous performances of persons
under its influence. These lectures
he supplemented by experiments. In
1844 he lectnred in Hartford, and
among those on the stage was Dr.
Horace Wells. A young man having
inhaled nitrous oxide gas barked his
shins upda a chair; but felt no pain
until the effects of the gas wore of.
This struck'Dr. Wells r o forcibly that
he determined to have a tooth out
I while under the influence of the gas,
and the experiment was so -success'ful
that he published the result of it.
For a long time other dentists scoffed
at it, but when its efficacy was proved
I beyond doubt two other physicians,
Morton and Jackson, put forth claims
to the discovery which was to render
painless the most distressing I )rm of
dentistry. The controversy which
followed was bitter in its progress and
tragic in its end, for it drove 3Drs.
Wells and Morton to suicide '.and;Dr.
-Jackson o in insane asylum.LEere
after the use of nitrous ' kide fell
away butDrl Coltourevive it.some
years later, giving full credit for the
disoovery to Dr. Wells.
In 1848, to illustrate the prietica
bility of electricity as a motive power,
Dr. Colton built a small electrical lo
comotive, which drew a train of toy
cars around a circular track. This
was put away when the inventor went
West in 1819 and never resurretc.1
until years afterward. In an impor
I tant patent suit the doctor was called
as a witness and fished it out of an ohl
trunk where it hal been for abont 4(
I years. With a little tinkering it rar
as well as ever. Dr. Colton's test~i
mony had -a vital effect upon the case
on trial, and photogpaphs of the mnodel
were taken and are now in the Smith,
sonian institution in Washington. A.
a gold digger Dr. Colton was a moder
ate success only,bhut as one of the ver'
few physicians among the argonants
he made a good thing out of his ven
ture. In 1850 Governar Riley :y
pointed him the first justice of th4
peace in California. Returning eai
shortly after hie resumedlhis~ lec ure
tours, and early in the Civil \var he~
got out the Colton war maips. In18 M
he established the Colton Dental as
sociation, and it is sairl that lie and
his assistants have pulled from lhb
painful mouths of sufferers more that
a million undesirable teeth. Dr. Col
ton published many pamphlets upor
literary, philosophical and theologiea
subjects, the best known of which is
hiq monograph on "Shakespeare and
the Bible." He loft a targe fortune.
A Very Ancient Letter.
Probably the oldest letter in the
world is the letter of Paubesa, wi itter
fifteen centuries before Christ, to his
friend Amenemapt, a scribe.
The manuscript is of perishablh
papyrus, and it is amazing that i
should have survived for moretha
thirty centuries and s'i I be legible.
It is preserved ini the collection oa
the British Museum. It has beer
several times translat.d du tring th<
present century. ]t prset an in
teresting picture of life in Egypt ii
the time of Rameses II. It is more
in the nature of a literary prodnc
tion, a poem composed in celebratiot
of the visit of Pharaoh to the city of
Pa-Rlameses, than an ordinary lettei
Panbesa "greets his lord, the scribe
Amenemiapt, to whom be life, healt]
and strength," and then goes on t<
describe the verdant fields, the thrash
ing floors, the vineyards, the grov~e.
of olives, the orchards of figs, the
great daily markets, with their fisi:
and water fowl and swarms of pur
The citizens had their "sweet win'
of Khemi, pomegranate wine and wint
from the vineyards," and to these the'
added "beer of Kati."
There was music in plenty furnishei
by the singers of the school o
On the whole Pa-Rameses seems t<
have been a pleasant place to live in.
"The lesser folk are there equal wit]
the great folk," and Panbesa writes
that its maidens were "in holiday at
tire every day" with locks "redolen
of perfumed oil."--Washington Star.
Japan's Sporting Paper.
The latest journalistic venture ii
Tapan is a paperA 4 ted .toesjva
FO1R FARM AND GARDEN
Th - of Ifo:1 er Shred Sers.
red-lcr shredders have been found
eqnal to cutters in preparing ensilage
for ihe silo. According to the ex
perience of those whohaveuised shred
dtor. for the purpose mentioned the
ensilage is finer -snd a largar quantity
can be packed in the sii: It also
keeps well and is more highly relished
I.ate fi Pie
The only pig that will afiin size
eno:igh to :.afe!y p~ass the winter .s
one that is born sic or seven months
be'ore cold weather is expected. We
have raided pigs in the fall and that too
whri we harl th alvantage of a base
mont barn to prode warm quarters
for the n. Yet the growth during the
winter, notwithstanding good feed,
was never satisfactory. There is too
little sunlight du--ing the winter
months, aiit if the pig is kept warm
without sunlight it is usually at the
exl-e'ise of poor ventilation. Without
good air no Animal can maintain good
digestion or remain healthy,
What Chaff Is Good For.
All kinds of grain have chaff sur
rounding the kernels, In its wild
state this chaff serves a very impor
tant tise, as it absorbs the moisture
that would otLerWise swell the grain
aad cause its premattre generation,
After long cultivation this use seems
less necessary snd there is less pro
fusion of chaff aud husk. It is quite
po::sib!e that all cur Indian corii arig
inally cane from that curious wild
variety iii which each grain on the
ear had its separate htisk. Wherever
there are severe droughts during the
time the grain is forming there will
be less development of chaff and husk.
With our self-binding grati harvest
ers, grain is now often put into stack
or mow before it has dried out as it
should do. The husk in such case
serves an important use, as the straw
will often rot under the band where it.
is tightly compressed, while the head
with still damper grain is preserved
from injury by the loose chaff with
which it is surrounded, and which
very rapidly dries not only itself but
the grain in contact with it. Barley,
which is most apt to be injured by
rains, has a better supply of chaff and
awns to keep its headopen to air than
G has any other.grain.'4
Sewage as Affectiar Food.
Investigations, it is'declared, show
that animals fed on sewage farms are,
under certain conditions, liable to
have their flesh and secretions changed
by the herbs and grasses, produced by
the sewage, upon which they feed.
Thus, if the sewage on a given farm
be so managed that no more of it be
put iito the soil than any given crop
can adequately deal with,it is asserted
that the crop will, under these con
I ditions. be sweet and natural, and that
the cattle or other animals fed on it
will also be of that character. On the
other hand, if the soil be gorged to
repletion wvith sewage, then the crops
will be surcharged with sewage ele
ments, and unfit for food-the meat
-and milk of animals derived from such
crops will also be like the crops, alike
unpleasant to the taste and dangerous
to the health. These hospital state
ments are proved by well-known facts;
that is, if a cow is fed on turnips, her
milk will within twenty-four hours
taste like them, the intensity of the
flavor being according to the quantity
of turnips taken; in the case of hens
and their eggs, a like result follows,
for, if fed on decaying matter. which
they always eat greedily, both their
eggs and flesh will be disagreeable
and unwholesome eating. Ducks, too,
are still more objectionable in . these
respects.--New York Tribune.
Not only in winter is the lighting
board of great importance, but in sum-.
mer as well.
Every convenience about the en
trances of hives should be afforded the
bees, and this is of equal importance
the year round. The entrance to the
hive of itself should necessarily be
small in winter and for this reason the
surroundings should be more favor
. ,A good broad board, well cleated at
each end to keep it straight, should
rest on the ground at one end, and
slope to the entrance to the hive at
This does not apply to well kept
aiaries, as other conveniences used
ai-e better, but as farm bees are us ually
The up-to-date apiarist makes a
nice little mound odf earth to set the
hive onl and places the bottom board
directly on the same, and banks up in
front with sand, gravel or sawdust on
. level with the entrance or bottom
board, and neither a spear of grass
nor a weed is allowved to grow near
the hives. It is much better to have
hives set directly on the ground, but
if the ground is allowed to grow up
with grass ag 'goeds until the bees
are totally shirt out of the hive, then
the old rule of benches two or three
feet high would probably be better.
Farm, Field and Fireside.
;rasses for .Permanent Pastures.
In order to obtain the greatest
amount of profit from grasses, selec
tions of seed- should be made that ~on
ordinary soils will giv e..the heaviest
crops of hay,.the thickedt and most
nourishing pasture, %nd laste for the
longest time withodt-ienewing:.:. The
tendency of the average farnmer+%to
pin his'faith too closely to timothy
and cloier, or to timothy alone, or
Sisrther one grass, ad as a
a vield of.~
re. The best results are usually
obtaincd front a mixture of several
peq s a1 put in proper proportions
by reliable seedmen.
One of tie fnuest mixtures for a
fpirly productive soil eonsists of or
char'd grass, English rye grass, mes*
ow foxtail, Italian rye giasgi swee -
scented ve: na!, I hode Island bentand
red top. Tbis mixture is sown in the
fall at the rate of three bushels per
acie, more on poor land, and in the
srting a mixture of clover is sown
over the field broadcast at- the rate of
ten pounds to the acre.
The hay crops from this sowing
frequently amount to more than three
times that from timothy and clover or
other two-grass mixtures,teaving after
enttian a pasture of value until late
in the fall. Another point .in favor
of a mixture of several grasses is the
long life of the meadow. If cared for
by occasional fertili-Jng such a mead
o-w will scarcely need Irenswing under
Len or a dozen years.
Drying wheat for Seed.
After every damp harvegt as the
present has been in most 'localities,
the grain goes into the barn with its
traw not so thoroughly dry as it
should be. There is also considerable
dampness in the grain itself, and this
will probably cause heating of the
grain in the mow. With spring gra -
this does not matter much- for . the
grain will be pretty sure to dry out
when freezing cold weather comes.
But whenever winter grain is . grown
the seed for next harvest -his to be
selected from the present year's crop,
and this often means the premature
threshing of the winter grain and usi
ing it while still damp as seed.
To this fact is probably to- be at
tributed the common belief among
armers that old wheat and rye are
better for seed than new. . In the oli
grain the freezing of winter and the
;ubsequent thawing has made the
eed nearly wholly free of moisture.
Yet all these experiences are not' ab
solutely necessary. If the graifn is
thoroughly dried in the fall-that it is
grown, it is not only as fit buti more
lit for seed than it is after being dried
Dut by winter freezing wherein its
erminating powers are more apt tQ
be-injured than they are by being
bhoroughly dried out the prei"ons
We have heretofore advised.th
greatest care in drying seed grain for
all sowing. But (sdar bUbtel .
believe to tboroughlydry the ed>-.
3ven by artifidal -mean :
ver and over-again dried. .
in fruit evaporators such.. are
ori drying apl-Je and A11WS*
the best results in a lr g
grown of the seed that was sown. -
believe that it is best- to dry all 'grain
ased as seed by the heat -of fire. - It,
nay be by braiding the sed corn and
ianging it beside the chimney, ws .4&
vo secure the heat of the kitchen fire.
But however it is dried. the seed that
as fire heat to dry it is sure to pro-'
:luce the most vigorous growth and
he largest crop of grain.-Americau
In Bulletin 94 of the New York
state agricultural experiment station
ttention is called to the dangers of a
:ontinued free use of farmyard man
ares. Referring especially.. to cereal
rops, the bulletin shows .that such
canures are deficient in potash and
phosphoric acid, and that when used
:ontinously for a oonsiderable period
they will hasten soil exhaustion.
It is undoubtedly true that all soils
receive more or less accessions of am
nonia from the atmosphpre, through
rainfall and the action of leguminous
plants of various kinds, but potash
nd phosphoric acid cannot- possibly
be obtained by such means. Conse
guently, while the supply of ammonia
may be obtained within' reasonable
imits the mineral fertilizes suffer a
rapid depletion and crops begin to
Farmyard manure tends to exhaust
the phosphoric acid and potash of the
soil, simply because it contains fes
mineral fertilizer than- ammonia in
proportion to the needs of the. crop."
The effect on the soil is a 'kind of
stimulation, for the supplies of phos
phoric acid and potash naturally ex
isting in the soil are drawn upon to
make up the balance. While. the
zmount for any one year may not be
large, after years of cropping the loss
Even in those cases where no man-r
ures were used at all the same :result
is reached. A very considerable.
gjuantity of ammonia reaches the soil
every year through the aid of legumes,
while every pound of minerali fertil
izers taken off in crops is just so much
dead loss to the soil. This is shown
very clearly by the fact that the sim
pe application of phosphoric acid and
potash will very frequently give heavy -~
rops. The large fertilizer mangfac
turers of the east make up their mix
tures from actual farm tests, and it is
a striking fact that the ammonfa in
such goods is very low as .compared
with the phosphoric acid and. potash.
If farmyard manure is used, or if no
maure at all is used, dress the fields
with phosphoric acid and potash.
When these fail it is time to look-after
afar~ther ammonia sup)ply. It is not
wise to run the soil down to the verge:
of-exhaustion by using the most ex
~ensive ingredient of fertilizers. For
potash, potash salts are all that can
be desii-ed, and ordinary-~ bone pro
ductstill supply the needful phos- '
phoric acid.' Cereal farmei-s will find -j
that A normal fertility of their soils'k
may be maintained for many. yearsy
yet-, by the -simple application of the- .