Newspaper Page Text
ION WINNSBORO, S.C., OCTOBER 21,1899.
4 Comic Fate of a Backwoods Bluebeard. 1
Sam Tugins was preparing to tak
un o himiself a wife. He bad takei
to greasing his boots and wearin
white shirts vn Sundays. What rea
t:ou was there for douot after that?
Sa-n Tiaggins had been ma:-rie-1 bs
fore to some extent. He had, to pu
it mi!dlyv, eunoye 1 a large and promis
crious asso.tmeut of wives during hi
Sam had leen married six iimes, ti
be exact about ii, and he was not
strictly speaking, an old man yet. Ai
he fre:quentlv jecuarly remarked, bh
%vas good to ontlive a half dozen mor,
wives if be coutinues to have ordinar
So, -beirg a widower for the sixti
time, he wai prepa !ing to take unt<
himself the seventh wire. It was no
knowu vet who would have the boiuo
of l:ecomin!g Mrs. Ta-ggina 'VII. Tug
-ins, even, ras not decide.1 on tha
One day he rode over to Beckett'!
mill, and he au 1 Beckett in a litth
friendly conve:satior fell to discuss
ing this matter.
"'m gcing to maarry." Taggim
said. "That much is settled, and I'n
goinz to marry right away, to ). I'r
got to have a wife, for I need her, au
iieed her bad. It's been three month
since my last one died, and as a con
seluentce :f having nobody to !oA
after matters, everything about tht
is going to w-iste and rulu.'
,fut find anybody that suits you?'
"Yes; I have had two wonen in
miind," Tgins r-eplied. F~ithe
would a very well, but the qsti,
is, which would anu:L me I e.t"
"ou caa't decide, eh?"
"No,I can't. If I could I wouldn'i
be fooling away all this time *ithoul
"I can believe that, Taggins. But
do you minI telling me what twc
women yoa have in mind?"
"Of course not. One of them is
-the widow Smuart, an 1 the other it
Miss Wo.To d. They are both likely
womnen, Beckett, and I calkilate ethex
of 'ent would make me a good wife."
"Miss Woirord is h youngest and
best looking, of the two," Becket
in her favor," Taggins sai i, "out ]
don't go a cent on looks. My opinio,
is that beauty don't count for any'
thing in a wife's f'avor. The beauti
fulest woman ging ain't likely to de
anv rmore work or b: ig in one mxore
dollar than the lhon e lest old plug yot
can scare up. What I want is a wom
-an who wdl be he'pful-one that car
- turn her hand to all kinds of work,
and who ain't afraid to do it."
"Then you rather lean toward thi
"No, I can't say as I do. They'r
both got their strong p' ints. Mis!
Wofrd's strong p'int -is he:- age.
Bein' young,she's likely to lis e longe:
than the other. Thbat's a heap in he;
favor, for I tell you this burying and
marrying wives is expensive when i
comes on a man so often. But on th<
other hand the widow offeis advan
tages. She's at good worker, she'
economical, and she's tengh. For:
woman of her age she's strong an<
healthy, and after all she may rossibl;
outlive the other."
"Mavbe the womien t'hemse1ire
would ~help you out," Beckett sug
"How?" Tuggins inquired.
"You haven't asked either ef then
a whether she would marry y'ou
"Then maybe one of themi won't'.
Tuggins looked at Beckett in blan
astonishment, t~s though he did nc
know whether the man was crazy o~
- only joking. At last he said:
"Have you got an idea, Beckett
that either of them two womnen is
natural born fool?"
"No, I reckon not," Beckett re
"- Then where did you get hold .
the idea that one of them might de
cdine to marry me?"
"Oh, I just thought one of the r
- might. You know some women at
rather queer about such things a
"It don't matter how gueer the
a-e, I reckon if they ain't fools the
won't throw away the chance of thei
lives. Don't you be uneasy, Beeket
about either of them women r'efasi:
to marry me, for they'll not refus<
iderin' all I've got to offer 'em.'
~tt smiled, for he wvell kne
OOd 'Tuggins' wives ha~
hepast Mrs. Tuni
elled to do tl
d about tl
d to do almost a man's work i1
raising of the crops. He remem
-ed, too, that one calico dress ever;
r, a pair of cheap, misfit shoes, an
xpensi'e bcunet was about al
d they got as -he result of thei
s sat for some time deepl:
in thought; then he aros,
tt, guess I'll L, arry the younu
course of time he reache<
ord's home, and when h
llooed" a time or two 8h,
s Wofford," he said, "I com<1
11 von that I have decide. t<
-on. When will it suit you fo;
t-.h the squire over to Inarr
Woyord looked at Tuggius ii
ishment. For a moment I
t'o surprised to speak. Finally
ever, she said:
'What do yo'i mean, sir, by comins
re to i :suit me?'
"Insult vou' Why, I'm in earnest
I'm sure going to marry you. Jus
name the day, will you?"
"Yes, I will. I'll name a day i
thousand years after the end of thb
wo:ld. Nowyou get out of this, yo!
baldheaded o'd ape, before I sic thi
3 dogs on you."
Tuggins turned and rode away. He
was greatly puzzled at the way Miss
Wofford bad received his announce
"I thought she was a sensib'e wom
an," he musel, "6ut she showed
veakuesq somewhere when she th:ow:
away a chance like that."
He went direct to the widow Smart's,
and to her made the same announce
ment that he had made zo Miss Wof
ford. She received it graciously, and
with a smile and a smirk, blushingly
named the day for the wedding. She
was very shy and dexure and her
manner was all honey and suiga-.
In time, the wedding day arrived,
and Tuggius t5ok Squire Beeson with
him over to the residence of the widow
Smart, where in short orde:- the wed
ding ceremouy was perfo:-med.
It was a month la'er when, one day,
Tuggin i rode over to Peekett's mill.
He and Eeckelt. as was their wont,
fell into a neighborly conversation.
At last Beckett made hold to speak of
that which had been in his mind from
the moment Tuggins bad ridden tip.
"Tuggins someth ing has gone wrong
"How do you know?" Tuggins
"i can see it. in your looks and a.
lis".-YowL.:snot theann you have
-een, Tuggins, not near the man.
You have at sa de'ected appearance,
and you imprwa.sme with the idea
that you have been having lots of
"Beckett, you 'are right I have
been having troabt ,2 .:..>f it,too.
I am over my ear s' troubll'now.
"Wha' is matter?" Becke
"Everything is the matter," Tag.
gins answered. "But the chief thing
that is the matter is that I am a fool,
athat I have played the foolilittle
tebiggest of anybody in thik part of
"But wvhat have von done?';
"I have gone and made thejmistake
of marrying one wife too magy."
"Hasn't the widow tun out to be
as good a wife as you ey . ed?"
Harry," 'Tuggins snapped, "and I'm
n:> longe: boss in my own house. In
fact. I don't da-'e call anything my
own. not even my soul."
"Can't you break her to your will?"
"Break'no hin.;! I've tried that
once, arnd I ain't going to be fool
enough to try it again. Do you see
these knots on my head? Well, they
co~ne of trying to break her to my
will. She wore a chair out on me.
She wont work,and she spends money
Ilike wvater. Oh, I've got that old
critter onm my hands for life, and l'Il
never see another minute of peace."
Beckett offered a little consoling
language, but he did not mean a word
of i. Hewa :' the opinion thai
Tuggins had at last gct just what he
deserved, and was getting his account
squared in his own coin.--Boston
F. Hookinson Smith lectured out in
1Keokuk the other day, and nowth
people of t be favored city, and of th~
whole state of Iowa, for' that matter,
are wonyinig over the question whbeth
er Mr. Smith has or has not a "dress
suit." rhey know that o 1 the even
ing of the lecture he wore a gray tray
eling suit that bagged at the knees,
but he explainel ti: s by saying tha
his trunk had gone astray, and ther
he told a charming story about g~uu
once to see Hamret Beecher Stone
discovering on his return thait he hai
tworn no neekt'e, and then sendling
her by mail the scarf he should have
worn if he had not forgotten it.
The explanation and the story wouk
have been zeceived wi:hont questiol
by the Keokukians had it not been foi
thie fact that in Mr'. Smith's audienci
was a young lady with a memory
fThis inconvenient person declare
that she heard Mi'. Smith in Chicag
a year ago, and she avers that he the'
aappearedI in the same traveling si
eand told precisely the samne story ~
sprecisely the same words. Henc
Iowa doubts. Elmnira knows thae
-Sith has or at least has had,
d cress snit. "--Elmira Ga:ette.
No Engi4'h i'ape: in lni.
What p~ubli opm'Jion amoruts toi
Russia may be gathered from the me
cent census of that empire. whid
ashows that in a pop~ulatioJ of 129.0',
d000 themre at e only 743 newspapers. o
one to every 170,000 people. Cf thes
-589 are in Russian. G.9 in Polish, 41i
IGerman, nine in French, live in At
me menian and two in Hebrew. No Fg
lh paper antpears in the list.
ELECTRICITY ON FARMS.
FUTURE PLOWING AND HARVESTING
WILL BE DONE BY IT.
Great and Iadical Ar- the Chang-!s in
.-thod ; Cominm for !he Tiller of the
Soil-Electrocuition Applied to Weedi.
An Electrwc Tree Destroyer lite Latest.
The model farm of tomorrow and
of the future must avail itself of the
most economical systems of plant
propagation. and the ge.;maguetifere
muntst play an-i important part in its
workings. Beneath the rich soil in
gardens where the delicate vegetables
aregrowin. networks of invisible wires
are laid-, collecting and distributing
the atmospheric c!eet: icity to all the
m In the forcing-h- uses si-iilar ar
raugements are -nade for stiniulatiug
the winter vegetables and flowers for
the iarket, while overhead 1:owerful
are ligits make the night as brilliant
as day and help to mature the plant
growths in half the regular time je
quired by nature. In the fields of
wheat ant oin the inore powerful
cirreuts from a storage house work
i out simi'ar remlts, lessening the sea
son of growth and dcubling the yield
per acre. Excessive droaght and the
danger from late and early frosts a e
thus partly avoided on the electric
farm, while, if necessary, two crops
can be raised in one season where
formerly only one could be grown.
The electric power that the fartrer
has at hi; command enables him to
regulate the growth of h's plan's to
suit the season or the markets. One
portion of the garde i can be forced,
wh'Ie the other half is kept back sev
e al weeks.
The-e is no bmit to the use of the
new in is.l)!e -ower which he gathers
from the at nosplhe -e around him or
gene-Rates fro n the wasted forces of
the neighbori g stream o! water.
This ieads t:, the examination of the
source of the 'new power that propels
the machinerv on the farm.
A small stream of water that for
ue-l flowed aeross the farm in an
irregular conr:e, fertilizing the lower
meadows and irrigaci-mg the upland
districts, has been wi.lened and deep
ened near its source, forming a la-ge
storage reservoi-. This arlificialgad
has been dammed at its lonrez end,
and as the water itnbles over the
open wate:- gates it turns several tur.
These wh!els do not move the ma
ehinery of a flour mill but constantly..
manufacture electr icity for : e on the.
farm. By means of the huge storage
reservoir the wo. k of making electri
city can go on tbrongi the dryest
season, for the water power never
gives out and the electric power is
always ready to do its work. From
this storage house the motive power
is conk uc
The forcing houses for winter plants
are connected wit'h the power houses
by overbiald- ires similar to those
which disfigure the city streets for
trolley line-. The great barn and
living house are lighted by elee
tr~c lights that get their source of
energy in the same place. Movable
ables radiate from the samne storage
houses to every p'ari of the fields and
to those ele~tric motors are attached for
p'erforminug the various labors assigned
to themn by the inventive genius of
The electria machinery wo:ked by!
the motors i< full of interest. Here~
are huge ploiws that turn over six fur
rows of fresh seil at on e, hayrac-ks
and reapers which perform their dui
ties autoumatically, electrie weed kil
lers and fertilizers. corn huskers and
shellers. bay choppers and gigantic
threshing and fanning mills. Elee
vehicles rish aicss -thte extensive
fields with loads of grain, hay or* vege
tables, moving their broad tires with
*ont didiculty ove: the r ough and unl
even surface, and behind the plows
and arrows the anitonatic seede s fol
low in close succession, dr opping the
corn, wheat or other seed at regala':
intervals in the freshly-turned fur
rows. Eve:ything is per-or.ned by
machinery, gni led by disciplined
bands and propelled by the new mo
tive power that has caused all the
There a: e t wo general types of these
ete:t: ic plowvs which will serve to
i lustrate the gene:-al priueiple of
1-eerat ion in each class. The first
tcye is propelled. by a tixed motor.
The field se~ected for plowing is d
vided into sections of exactly the sa ne
-width of the cable use ifor pu.lling the
plows. A heav-y, powerini eleeiric
moto: on wheels is stationied on each
sidle of the field, and a -strong cable
conuneets ther. This cable winds andl
and unwinds upon a spool as the ma
chinery is set in motion. To this
cable the plow, which is capable of
turning from thi ec to six furrows o
soil at once, is firmly attached. W~he i
the electric mo-tor on the sidle of the
field is sat in motion it winds up the
cable and dr-ags the pl!ow toward it,
and wheni it reaches that side of the
field it turns around and the reverse
action of the othe: motor repeats the
The second type of electric plow is
run by a movable motor attached to
the plow itself. The cable is fixed to
tan anchor on the opposite side of the
field and the eleettie motor follows
Ithis cable, d. agging the heavy plow
twith it. Even the weeding i4 acco~n
a plished by electiiecity. The force that
stimalates plant growth and gives mo
tive power to all the mxachine:-y (-an
also kill and destroy. Llectrorution
a is ap~plied to the weeds just as siu -
- cessfuilly as t) pri.soners inl on: jails.
I The delicate current of electricity may
- give life a:zd vigor to 1:lant lit e. but
r a T owverful curr ent de:cos c .em y
e ger-m of life, ani nal or vegetable. In
D the s -ring of the year the new weed
destroyec goes over the field and an
nihilates weeds. insects and larvi.
a the Tiile mores al ng ar-eries o:
many wire brushes dr-agi oW ie earth
and kills everything th'a',cOmes in
contact with i'. A ield &ergrown
with rank weeds can thu be co-a
raratively cleared in-, a 'it arkabli
short time of ever.y-N i 01 th..
Death is just as sure wd s~dden as
if each plant received, a lghtniing
stroke from the summei clou.s. The
weeder goes over the field after a
storm, so that the wet :dk: will act
as more perfect conductors There
comes from Buda-Pesth ie frat elec
tric tree destroyer. .Thefai er who
bAs extensive woodlands to clkar finds
science ready to help- him% In this re
spect. The tree destr'oy chines
were invented to fell- nt trees
in the fores:s of ; cz r9.
com ratively simple ,. their con
struction, but veritable giants in their.
op erations. A sm.all tofr carried on
a moraist'e'ruck is di-awn np-to the
wloe product of the foret andle
cuTed to it by chains a. eei- ps.
The automatic saw chiets next pt
in yosition, and i hen gthie -electjg;
current is turned on it- ats it. .'V
rapidly into the -huge trumtnd 4 ead
severs it in two: 'Wildtle maeii
is being ad'usted to ntl rretie
first one is easily pulledo6er by ror-es
and sawed up by a hu- P operatef
To comptete the pic ntathemodel
farm the ownershould 'a fromn
part of the extensive es ate to anothef
in his automatic victoria, or upon, a
motor bicycle. , Where electricity cin
be obtained- so cheaply thousands bf
the newest iurentions can be intio
duced without difEcult In his spa:
c.ous living -.Alt ers his:ife nO
longer stews over obstfia'e wooI or
cool fires;-she. Fimply turns on th0
electric cu-rent wh viceded withouy
fuss or worry.. elecriL fans turnei
by the power that c ier dinners
and lights-her home , e the atmn
phere of the' mids do det
lightful and ief
longer any tri
one s te:nper
converts th e
latest an a.
Even the ed
up from electricity
and su Nrefreshing
strea as New Eng
BRITISH -CAMPAJ PLANS.
How an EngUsh Rag.n os When it
.- Starts far
The khaki and dCue ors were
uukncwn-, f hand- - - thee
Uni ed. .ttef er~ --.ith
pparent thei that t -s
will probably be ret iSer s
e i tro0pics.
long as trcops are se e he Tnited
In adopting this materk the ex
States goveinment futh advan
wnple of England, V1 uniforms
ages of the khaki an% daof ue
rLe ee will be
fn csse of war .
obilized under Genera. Sr Freder
ick V illiam Edward Fo, stier-Walker
will all be clad in kha The reg
ents are seat forwar the reytlar
astenger steamers an ot c. tran-i
ortA. This is done in ,ee gin with
he p -o-.sions in1 the c-hi ter-s ca
arious transy or a'.ion companies,
~hich, in view of a government sab
idy, must be ready at any time to
ove.t the passenger steaners into
rmy transports. The regiments leave
heir home quarters gay with colors,
for the English irniforms a e b:-ig'it,
ome of themn even gaudy, and if the
estination is a plae where cloth may
le woln with co.ni~rt the he'ne uni
form is reta'ned, but if they go to a
armer regioni the scarlet uniforms
re soon exchanged for khaki and t'ie
:igh boots or leggi:'gs for puttees.
flags and stand irds, which were
nce looked arron as essantial features
n a militavy~ expedition, are takeni
long, but are carefully put away be
fore the~ t:oops go into action, and an
English regiment which bad been seen
n its scarlet unifo:m with blue or
white facings would not b~e recognized
in khaki. The men carry the Lee
afetford iifle, and tbe complete b ;r
.en. consisting of haversack, knap
sack. rolled blanket and water bottle,
reighs about fifty-six rounds.
The cavalr-y awd artille~ y are armed
with earl-ines, and some of the troo-ps
still carry the old Ma:-tini riaes, but
the men who are sent into active se
vce are all anmeli with~ the Lee-3et-;
The khaki uniforms wipe out a?l
dif'erences as to stireriority or gaudli
nss in dress, and the grades of the
rim~nents can be see.1 on:y by the
facngs. The royal regimen's hasve
heir uniforms fazed with blue, the
1 ish with grecen and the &cot-h with
yellow, while the regiments which do
not c-o.ne under those heads wear the
(Give Young Men a Chanec.
Farely is the merchant or mianufa:
turer in this country heard to say: "I
have made enongh tor my wa ts; I rm
satsfied with wha: I bave; I wi I
retire fr-om business"-so r-arely. in
dee.l. that when a man does say it.
more especially a man in the prime oi
life, the greatest surprise is expressed.
The busmness mend< today r-exin:l
one of Lincoln's remark about olice
oders, that "iewee and none re
sign." As a ife, they keep on work
ing up to the last gasp, in very many
cases falling victi~ns to their love of
work, of money or of hal it, and drop
ping ont years earlier than would have
been the cnise had they devoted their
old age to the le.s ire they had earned
but did not care to enjoy.
This tendeucy toward the p~rolon
gation of a business career beyond
needed limits is a distinct disadvan
tagi to the c-ountry and the commu
niy. it pirents the younger e' e
ment from having the chance it de
seves, lessening~ the nlnberofv
eies f0.- new blool and multi
,list of subordinates and e
nry Goofi Ecnomst.
4FOR FARM AND GARDEN
Cows Eating straw.
Wheiever grain is grown largely
an-1 its grain is stacked in the I an
yard after threshing. cows b'a-e a
great liking for rubbing themselves
against the stack to rid themselves of
the flies that torment them. .A fence
should be built around the stcc'e to
protect it from being pulled to pieces.
Cows will eat considerable straw,
picking at it, and they will uften eat
enough of the chaff to lessen their
fow of milk. This chaff ikes good
winter feed if moistened and grain
meal or bran is niiserl with it. Thus
fed even the straw will not help dry
T f , as it will if fed dry.
Wint raln After 0ati.
~ The oat crip ira very dificult oue
to get a grkf seeding with. The roots
of oats splead munlr more wide'y than
those of barley. and as the oat leaves
are 'ow the plant takes much
more the grain from the soil. Oats
ae-tle latest of the small grains to
.p.nd tiis e-tra time while their
rot . are drawing moisture from the
sol is veryhard on the seeding. If
te land is plowed as scon as the oat
,rop is off, and is worked well on the
Surface, a good seeding may be got if
0whiat or rye is sown in the fall.
Tn -thy se'e-1 should be sown after
t;e grain seeding, as the washing of
7oose soil over the seel wil be all the
coering it will ieluire. Next spring
di quarts of clover seed per acre will
make a seeling that is much be t 3r
han can be got on any land that is
plowed for a spring cop.
seei for Plantina.
*d much depends upon the quality
ofth3 seed that it pays to make ex
triordinary eforts to secure the best
of planting In thean the best IS
the.eheapest; but the most -epensive
is not always the best. Very often it
is more a matter of getting the right
seed for -the uight s >il an-1 p'aze. 'We
must be rea-ly to adapt ourselves c
new cniditious, and to do this it is
often necessary to try plants that have
heretofore been unknown to us. I
that .aseihe best see I -mrst' core
fromn new varieties of corn, wheat or
'The cost of the seed i; a matter that
deies-inany a farmer from getting the
.b"St.: He reasons that his old, wo:
A5 t tira .utlay for naeded seed
would probab'y make a difference of
manrdallars in the fall. It does not
pay to plaut year after year tha -see-1
of run-out plants, which will continue
to degenerate until they are little bet
ter than weeds. , The trae princip!e is
to bring new seed of some kind to the
farm eve:y year, anl then the vitality
of the crops will not degenera'e, and
there will -e no greatiemand for au-',
outlay of seeds any one year. It i:,
just as important t-> keep up the qual
ity of the seeds and plants throngh
careful seleetlon and bieeding as it i;
.roduce new blood in the lire
eeder of stock won'd p .
herd to run down w ithout trying _to
sten the degeneracy by crossing tue
nimals with new blooded animals. -
rure Wtater andl Plen'.v af Tt.
The plan hero desc~ibe~l has given
e more satisfaction a-nd reaml benett
than the same amunt of money ex
pended in any other line. So:ne 100
feet from my house on top of a high
hill I drille.I a well thropgh boulder.
and clay, and put in what is caleda
drive well pump. 1 was fortunate mi
striking a good streanr:of wate'. Over
the well I erected a low .tow er anu t
up a windmill. I then went abiut 30
feet down the incline of the hill and
made a large excavation 18 feet in
diameter and 1-2 feet deep. This I
lined with a rough stone -wall 2 feet
thick, laying the part next the ea:th
in mortar and that rortion toward the
cent e in ce:uent. The b-jtto~n was
paved with cobblestones atud cement,
and the sides we-e carefully cemente-l.
The excavation was covere 1 with oak
sleepers and three inch boards. The
whole was c~ve:-ed with two feet of
earth,with the exceptio-1 of a manhole
in the cenir 2 feet square.
The water is e:-nducted undergroundm
from the pump to the resertoir, i.2 a
1 -t inch ilire. I then ii a 1 1-4
ich pipe fromn my b:ii dnup . to the
bottomn of this re:-e -voi . keening it a'
all points 4 feet uu.l.er thie s:trface o~
the gronna. Atthe lower endl of th~s
main pipe 1 have three braineb pipes,
each three-fourths of. an inch in
diame:er. One goes to the cellar
une:- the h-j ise; thea u' throngh the
floor into a siak. One goes into the
ho:se barn and the other to my pack
in house. I also have a 60-foot hove
and nozzle which can be attached at a
moents notice, and as the reserroir
is 60 feet above the hytdra it the prep
sure is ve:-y good. The hose ca be
Usel for washing carriagos, carpet's,
rugs, windows, pnrches, horse3, etc.,
and spraying lawns, flowers or sh ub
bery, and in case of fire water could
be thrown into any room in the bo::se
or on the oof of any of the far
buildings. I have an Qverflow
from the rese:-voir, so . that the
can run continuously, and ast
ervoir holds a'cft 500
water is always pure.
fresh as when it cam
Te hydirant '
turn on a small stream and let it ru
night and day for the -enefit of th
.tock in lots -or pastures, or for irrigs
tion. I would most earnestly recom
mend this system cf water works o
dry and roling faris. a-id there a
thousands of the:n that can be s
plied by' this wonderfully La'a.
system at a c:st of not to exceed $2
oi- $250.--A. H. Barnes in Neiw En
Pear and Apple rl'git
The very nature of the pear an
apple blight renders its treatme'
very difficalt. The germs ate
s'I that they may l:e carried by i
sects, by wind, and very easily b
contact from the diseased ti ees to th
tips and blossoms of others in , '
same orchard. It should be- stat
here that the germ usually finds fre
entrance through the growing tips an
blossoms. Occasionally one wil! see .
patch of (lead Lark surrounding a lit
tle tuft of leaves on the main b anche
( r stem of the apple tree. It wa
through these ieaves, probably b
means of a drop of water, that th
bacterium was able to effect an en
trance into the c'rculatiou of the tre?.
The disease ihanifestajtqa 4-ious
wAy,. - nti ifier form is some
times called "boly bliiht." It is ,a
rather more severe type t han th
which affects the twigs and young
In conside-ing iemedies t'ea first
thing is to prevent its spread by les
sening the amount of germ prod"uzing
affected branches, nd twigs as soon
as discovered should be c-t out and
des'royed by burning. It is neco3sary
in order to eradicate the diseas.- en
tirely b cut twelve or fiFteen inches
below he point at which the bark
shows discolo:-ation. Care should. be
taken in making this citting that the
germs from the diseased yortion are
not carried down by the knie and
transplanted into the healthy woo:1
beLow. Another general rra tice
which may Lave a-i imp rtant bearing
ution the presence ( r absence of peir
bigit is the character of the cultiva
tion gi,n the orchard.
If the trees are growing very vig
-ously and are much affected by
bight, it may be wise to see I down
the orcha-d wYith clover and timothy
in o- der to check the snueral-undant
growth and enion-age the ri-;e ling of
the wood. Briely, then, all affected
branches should be c it out and
burned. In the autunn it is wise -to
get over the trees agaiii an 1 C It o'it
tubs or branches which showtlat the
bark has been iunre'd- ' -
be covered with some miniml * paiat.
Spraying with fungicides isi mpracti
cable, he-ause it is inpossibe to kill
the. rapi-ly- developing foliig con
stautty c,,vered. -Jo Craig in Wal
Pr -p iration of so-1 for Wheat.
The better the soil is prepared for
wLeat the better will be the c:-op. A
great deal of wheat is sown upo, soil
tha' is not half prepared, and it is a
gregt mistake. It is arg.-ed by same
that it would pay to cu-tivate whett,
but that is not done i1 this country to
any great xtent and but iLnperfectly,
and probab'y n iver will be. -All that
is done for the crop, as a rule, must
in a r e theseel is put into the
round; and thr-doie much
ork put on the soil, in its pam
tion, as is expended in the ce.itivation
The first step toward prepar-ation is
lrainage, iil the laud is not naturally
rained. Wheat w-1l not grow on
e land. Yone of the standard crops
will. It is a settledi fart that drain
age will greatly inc:-eas e the yield of
rops. If it would increase the yield
unly:D3 per cent, it would pay to tIle.
But it often increases it 50 re: cent.
ad has sometimes increased the value
' the land many f old. In wet land
the micro-organlisms cann zt wo:-k upon
the humus, a-id heuce the nitrogen is
locked up and unavailable. It has
fr- inentiv been said, but will bear re
peatinug, that whenever land will not
take in every drop of wvater just wh-ere
it falls, there is a necessity of drain
age. The highest land on the farm
may need drainage much mo: e than
thelowest land. It may be so com
pact that most of the wvater that fa'ls
upon 't will run off, carrying with it
the fertiity that is upo-1 the surface.
If the soil is too wet it will heave in
winter, and winter wheat will be
inured. It is in such preparat:on of
the soil that w a may ho;:e to increase
the average yield of wheat from -t-he
p-esnt ridiculously small quantity.
In the prara ion of the seed bad
the mist thioro igh work is rezui ed,
After- plowing, the harrow, o:- what
ever implement the cha'a -ter of the
soil may require, should be freely
used and the work of pulverization
continue-1 until the soil is file and
b ose. Then put on the roller, and
soldi rain c~me, before dr lling or
Isowing a-id crust the surface,h
and roll again. somne wbe
1:low the lan-1 and I 1
or even months,w
a~lv with ha