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The Laurens advertiser. (Laurens, S.C.) 1885-1973, September 15, 1886, Image 1

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EMPSON MILUS.
?Htcr Hipp
Lo
YOL. ?.
LAI KENS C. LIM S. C., WEDNESDAY, JULY 28, 1886.
big job of Clothing
_Baltimore Fir?.
TUE QUlYKKliXCJ KAU 1 11.
IN IM l.ltl.HI l\<; CIIAI'Tlill OA K \ li l li
Ol YM.s.
A Scientific Paper from Major iinrry limit
mond-Some Parla timi Will Insiriici il?
Newspaper Homler Hartliqiinltra of Frwjuml
Oecurence In lue Unttrd Kialoa.
BBBOII ISI,AM?, S. C., Aug. 8, 1880.
Hon. P. Willah, Augusta, Ott.:-Dear
Sir: I fool midi compunction at Bi ohig
tho BpOOG of your valuable journal < cou
pled with my random talk ol tho other
day, that I beg, ns commutation, lo on
cloao nome paxogniphs on earthquakes to
you.
I linvo Bolootcd and very greatly con
densed them iron such mention ns 1
lind in my soiontiilo periodical;! of the
lost few year?. I havo not tried to ar
range them in any order, nnd you can
select and omit any us you may think
proper. Ordinarily, 1 suppose, uo one
Would rend them, hut just now perhaps
thoso soiontiilo observations may bo of
interest. The importance of earthquakes
consist md in the property they destroy
or tho persons thoy kill, but in tho im
pressions they prodltCO on 11 io mental
and moral character of Largo bodies of
people Comparing small thing; with
great, the fractures and dislocations they
produce among tho loose clement s ot
human souls exceeds tho ni tendions thoy
work in thc face of physical nature. 1
haV? UO doubt tho demoralization con
sequent on them has determined tho fate
of mitions and the course of civilization.
A scientific consideration of them might
allay or dispel such evil Lntlucncc, and i
hope these notes will bo of service to
you. Very truly,
ll Ainu HAMMOND.
NOTES ON BAMTUQUAKU3.
Professor Fruolis records 121) earth
quake shocks for tho year 1881, of which
57 occured in win tor, 21 in spring, lil in
summer and 21 in autumn. There was
little volcanic activity throughout the
year.
Twentieth January, 1880. Tho Hussion
burk Precioso, latitude, 17 Ol' ?. loll gi
tudu (ill degrees 07' NV., wind fr sh ci.
E., water smooth, speed le Knots, en
countered ii heavy shock, throwing thc
vessel to ono sido and causing it to ship
n heavy sea. lt lasted only a few BOO
omis, mid the wind shilled directly lo
thc S. E., and died away, leaving it calm
for Hu! next three day ;.
Of 72 shocks in China, 48 occurred in
tho first und second quarters of tho
moon, 21 in tho third and foll rib. Tho
(?th ilny of thc; moon shows thc largest
number. 12? none occurred on tho Jd,
nth, 18th, Mth. It has bein thought
timi storms on th?; Atlantic slope were
most frequent on thc young moon.
Jn Switzerland there wore in? shocks
in 1880 ?ind 1881: -10 in 1882; IO in 1883.
Tho schooner Uosauo reports J uno 23,
188?, in lat. '2!> (l?greos 1 f N.. loo;;. 183
degrees 85* \V., two Iicnvj shock of sub
marino earthquakes about ono minute
apart, causing tho vessel to tremble
violently. The sky wns overcast nnd tho
sen smooth,
Fourteenth July, 1885, severe earth
quake experienced in ?oilgnl, lasting,
nearly n minuto und killiiijj sovcilty per
sons.
The centre of thc Andalusian earth
quake of December 25, 1881, was do
termiucd as lying bctwoen (?ranada and
Malaga, nnd earth tremors extended ns
faros Borne and Brussels. Sovoutcon
thousand buildings were injured, of
whioh 4,000 wore totally destroyed, 745
persons were killed and 1,485 wounded.
Tito causo of this onrlhqunko is thought
to have been thc percolation of water
into tliodeon lying rooky strata in tho
valley of Zufiirruyn, where tho heat con
verted it into vapor of high tension and
gencniteil tho tremendous forces which
exploded ulong lines radiating from
Zafarrayn ns focus. Thcso radiations
an.' very nearly in tho same directions ns
the Bunnoo streams of tho region, whoso
courses turo believed to uccoru with sub
terranean crevices, through which tho
water reaches tho interior heat.
It hos boon suggested that thc Const
Survey should sink deep vortical shafts
at intervals to determine by observations
made on them from time to tinto wheth
er there was any movomont or shifting
pf tho superficial or deeper strata, re
sulting iu changes of latitude and longi
tude.
In nu earthquake ob. erved in Tokio,
Japan, 15th October, 1881, tho most
Violent niotionS were over in U n sec
onds, but thc oscillations continued willi
muoh force for some inmutes nt 'forwards.
Tho greatest velocity W08 0.8 centimetres
ncr second mid the greatest acceleration
21. If tho nmplituilo had occurred in
oonjuuetion with the moro usual period
of three-fourths of n second, the de
struction would LOTO been ninia n e. It
was felt over an uren of twenty thousand
aqua re miles.
Of 887 earthquakes observed by Prof,
Milne in Japan, butwooii October, 1881,
and October, 1883, 105 occurred from
January to March; 70 from April to
Juuo; 39 from July to Soptombi r; 8:5
from October to December, They were
most violent along the lino of the river
Toiiegnwa, in a Out alluvial plain, only
a small number being felt Lo the moun
tains or in tlio vicinity of recent or active
volcanoes. They wero most froquont OU
tho sido which Blopoa down steeply un
der n dcop ocean, ami not on tho oppo
pite ?idu where tho slope In moro gradual
and UiQ ocean shallow. The i nine rela
tionship kohls ia South America. Knrth
qiuikos uro also most frequent in Japan,
Whero tlioro is ov id?neo of recent and
rapid elevation of tho lund, and whore
UiinmrotiH rivorn aro pouring out henvy
q.ia.ddi. of sediment on the occiin bot
tom, perhaps lt ls thin inoiv.nwd weight,
depressing thu stpita BCaword. \ hioh
tilts thom up on tho land side and cuises
Urn earth shakos.
Tile lost oarthquako on tho Jslnud of
Isolda ww reckoned ns 00ming from a
depth o! 8,000 to 5,200 feet ?t most.
In Switzerland, in lHHO, there wi ro 00
tremors or shoots in 21 earthquakes;
.nd in 1881 tho number was 168 shocks
for 87 earthquakes. In tho Uoss4*'errol
?colo thoy are arranged in bm grades,
Booording to degree ol violence from
vory faint, op.ly obsorvfi.blo by an in
stmmont-tlio Seismomoter-to those
overturning rock?, forming fissures and
mountain slides.
Thor* Mr* two methods of determining
thu depth nt which earthquakes origi
nate. 1st. By estimates bused on pto?
eise, doliouto observations, determining
ii series ol' points in which tho oscilla
tions ure felt nt tho Hinno moment. Such
observations uro very dil) ic ni I to obbiin.
2d. Mullet's plan by examination of tho
emoh in the lund nftcr nn earthquake
and determining their points of con
vergence, which is also the points of
01 ?gin.
(foptain Dolaunay, of tho French
.Merim; Artillery, maintains thut the
Krakatoa out-burst resulted from tho
conjunction of Jupiter and tho August
swann of meteors. Ile predicted violent
earthquakes iu 1880 from the malevolent
111 tl nt nee of Sat urn. (Bosh.)
"Science," vol. V., No. 100, contains
the map of an earthquake occurring '2d
Jauuary, 188.>, und felt in Virginia and
.Maryland.
Karthquakes seem to show a prefer
ence for the night hours. Maximum 2
to J a. m.; minimum 12 to 2 p. m.
?Between 1873 and 1883, there aro re
corded as occurring in tho United States
and (ainada, not including Alaska, 8(M
earthquakes. Of these IOU occurred ou
tho Pocilio slope, (Ki in thc great valley
of thc Mississippi, 117 on the Atlantic
slope, making an average of ono in
twelve days for tho whole region, and
about one a mouth for tho Atlantic
slope. Doubtless many lighter tremors
for each of these might have been noted
by any one possessed of a scisnioscope,
ail instrument devised for that purpose.
Prof. Ewing, of Tokio, Japan, says of
earthquakes there: 1st. "Thc motion of
tho ground begins very gradually. 2d.
An earthquake consists ot' many succes
sive movements, and there is almost al
ways no single largo ono which stands
out prominently from tho rest. 3d. Tho
disturbance ends even moro gradually
than it begins. 4th, The range, tho
period and tho direction of movement
arc exceedingly and irregularly variable
during any ono earthquake. 5th. Tho
duration of tho disturbance of thc ground
is rarely less than one minute, and is
often several minutes. 0th. Evou in
somewhat destructive earthquakes tho
greatest displacement of a point on tho
surface of the soil is only some hun
dredths of an inch. 7th. The vertical
motion is generally much less than tho
horizontal. 8th. An earthquake exert
ing a horizontal force against a mass
equal to one thirty-third of its weight, if
regularly repeated, is sufllciont to crack
brick walls and sometimes throw down
chimneys.
The minds Of tho inhabitants of earth
quake regions lose their calm equipoise;
they become nervous, and tin; first shock
.sends them to tho street or Cathedral for
lb ty, so that the earthquake records
itself in niall's spiritual nature.
Tho Messrs. Darwin having under
take n some lunar observations nt Cam
bridge with very sensitive instruments
could not proceed with thom on account
of tho "continual movements of tho
earth." it was never really still, it
quivered and throbbed and bent under
tho pendulum night and day. A situa
tion at tho bottom of n doe]) mino was
then tried, but with no better success.
lt was probably never before imagined
that win n tho barometer rises un inch
-vi r a land area like that of Australia,
tho increased load of air sinks the entire
continent two or three inches. Over a
like sea an a tho water surface may bc
depressed a foot or moro, Tho tide ex
orcises similar power, depressing tho
shore at tho Hood, and allowing it to rise
at Hu! ebb.
Tho (dight earthquake shock along thc
Atlantic slope Kith August, 1884, was
fahd to several porsoua through nervous
excitement.
Countries where the rocky strum have
preserved their original horizontal posi
tion as in tho north of France, part ol
Belgium and most of Russia, aro nearly
oxompt from earthquakes. While vio
lent commotions aro experienced in re
gions of highly inclined strata, especial
ly where mich inclination has been re
cently 0 fleo ted, OS is tho Alps, Italy and
Sicily.
On tho 3d of April, 1881, Ul tho island
of Scio, in tho Egoan sea, about uooii,
and in less than ono hour, moro than
thirty villages wrecked by an earthquake,
killing 0,000 people; there had been pre
monitory tremors during 187'.) and 1*80,
The earthquake of Rio Rumba, in
l7'.)7, caine fcuontly but destroyed 30,
000 people with great suddenness,
throwing sonic of them up u clilV om
hundred feet high.
Tho wavo caused by tho Krakatoi
eruption traveled 11.MI0 miles in twenty
hours and fifty minutes, in 1808 tin
wave that destroyed Arequipa and Alica
and ingulfed 30,000 people, crossed tin
Pacific ocean from Honolulu in twelve
hours, at tho rate of four luuulr.'d am
fifty miles an hour.
1 Tho Smithsonian Report?, 188-1, con
tains a complete account of all knowi
concerning earthquakes, by Professoi
Rockwood.
M. M. D. Montcssus writes in th<
Revue Scientifique, fruin Central Amor
?cn: "During my residence of four year
in San Salvador I havo been able U
write thc detailed history of 2,332 earth
I quakes, 137 volcanic eruptions, 27 ruin
of important towns, ami tho formatioi
I of 3 now volcanoes."
Professor Milno, of Tokio, Japan
recommends as an carthquuko proo
house, a ouo-storied, strongly-franiei
timber house, with a light, ilattish roo
of shingles or shoot iron, tho whole rest
ing on n quantity of small cast-iroi
tails, carried on lint plates, bedded ii
tho foundations. Tho ohimnoys migh
bo made of sheet-iron, carried throng!
holes free of tho roof.
Earthquakes aro vibrations or oscilla
tioiiH ol the ground bockwards and for
wards, due to thc ?assngo nf waves sind
lar to tlioso produced in a body of wate
by throwing a rock or stick into it
Those waves spread ont from tho pond
or lino of origin, ?ii concenti ir. cildles o
H ??.gular hhrtpo qUO to tho character o
tho successive impulsos at tho foons: t
the natura of tho strata through wide
they aro transmitted; and \Q \\\O iutoi
fcrcnoo of vibration^ moving vortical!
and horizontally and returning. Th
particles of matter movo forwards an
book but a short dlshuioo. usually only
few hundredths of an inch, though Ma
iel believes tho displacement may soim
iqies bo as much ns a foot. Tho wa,\
usc.If is propagated over extensivo arc*
as from Spain to America in tl o Lislio
earthquake.
It is tho motion of tho wavo partiel*
and not tho trnnait of tho wave froi
placo to place that does Bio damage.
Was estimated that svkero the wai
traveled at tho rato of a thousand foot a
second, or nix hundred and eighty-two
miles an hour, tho movement of tho par
ticles of matter was oidy twelve feet per
second, or eight miles an hour.
Scientists attribute thc origin of earth
quakes to tinco causes.
1st. To tho action of tho sun and
moon on tin; moiton mass in tho interior
of tho earth, causing tides in it which
produce tho shocks. This theory is now
abandoned, or this causo is thought to
be no longer active.
2d. To volcanic action. Tho pr?sure
of gas and steam producing explosions
ami eruptions and consequent convul
sions of the surrounding earth. This is
a real and eflloicnt causo in volcanic re
gions, but does not account for earth
quakes where there is no evidence of
volcanic activity, except in snob cases as
tho recent earthquake in Andalusia,
above referred to.
3d. To tho action of what aro known
OS organic forces-that is, tho forces
which determino tho direction and di
monsions of mountain chains and coast
lines. While e'evations und depressions
of mountains and coasls havo recurred
at intervals throughout tho world's his
tory, it is now thought that their general
outlines have boen permanent, amt tho
form id' continents is due to tho adapta
tion of tho cooled and hardened surface
to tho still cooling and contracting in
terior, along tho original wrinkles or
lines of elevation and depression. All
rocky strata being deposited from water,
were at first horizontal; but as ibo in
terior of the earth cooled and cont meted
thev followed it, becoming folded and
inclined like tho wrinkles on tho skin of
a drying lemon. Imagiuo such an in
clined s?rntum several thousand foot in
thickness, one end resting on tho Blue
Bulgo Mountains at Crosar's Head or
King's Mountains, from which, ns may
now bo seen there, it broke oil' and
slipped down untold ages ago; tho
other end shelving out into the sen over
the ( Juif Stream, whore there has boen
another f met ure, slip or fault, thc stratum
suddenly sinking several thousand feet
into the depths of Hie sea.
Now the seaward end of this inclined
stratum might be undermined by ocean
currents, causing it to set th; down anew
and thus produce shooks of earthquake.
Or tho rains and tho rivers continually
washing away mountain, hill and plain,
and transporting from thom enormous
weight of Bcdimont, would deposit it on
tho seaward end of this inclined stratum,
overload and crush it down, and thus
produce earth shocks. Or a downward
movement or Kittling of tho seaward end
from either of these or sonic other cause
might tilt tho stratum on tho laud
through a portion >r its whole extent
and produce earth disturbances.
CLI.VtilllA LKT OUT Ol' JAIL.
V Horm- Thief (Menin Un- Sheriff'* ftng mid
Clothe?.
James J. Russell, tho most desperate
and successful horse thief in Now dorsey,
who was captured in Philadelphia about
six weeks ago and brought to Salon i, N.
J., on a charge of stealing a valuable
team of race horses from Harold Smith,
of Kilner, a little village about a mile
north of hero, escaped from tho county
jail on tho night of September 1. A
confederate, supposed to bo William
Boden, another noted horse thief, broke
into tho sherill's house! and stole tho
shorilTs clothes. Those ho put ?ni,
hitched up tho sherill's horse and wagon
and drove around to tho jail door, ile
then aroused tho jailor and said he
wanted to take Bussell to the Cumber
land county jail at Bndgoton, about fif
teen miles distant, as he had discovered
that an attempt was to bo made to lynch
thc prisoner, and ho must bo gotten out
of tho way.
Tho night was dark, and when Heden
handed through the bars tho sheriffs
keys, which he had found in ono of the
pockets of thc trousers ho had stolen,
tin' jailer supposed everything was all
right, especially os Beden called after
him to bo sure and double handcuff tho
prisoner. A few moments afterward,
Bussell was lcd out and delivered to tho ;
supposed sheriff, w ho handed a piece of
paper to tho jailor with tho remark that
it was a receipt for Bussell. Bcdon then
put Bussell in the bottom of thc wagon
and drove rapidly away. Jailer 1 lurri
son visited all the other cells to seo that
everything was in good shape if a crowd
intent on lynching should appear, and
returned to his room on the second door
of tho jail. Before ho went to bcd
again, ho looked at tho paper that bc
liad received. On it was written:
The carly bird catches tho worm. I t's
a cold day, though, when you catch Jim
Russell, and this is the lirst of Septem
ber, a bad timo of thc year for cold days.
Yours affectionately,
Bm, BBPBN.
Harrison jumped into his olothos in a
manner that would make a New York
fireman turu green with envy and ran
around to tho sheriff's hongo, in his
eagerness to seo that worthy bc broke
open tho front door before it was un
looked. Tho shcrift was in bod sound
asleep. He was awukened and bcaid
tho story. Tho lirst thing bc did was
to reach for his clothes, which ho had
loft on tho chair at tho head of his bed.
Thoy wore gone. Fifteen minutes' timo
was lost looking for them. Then tho
sheriff sworo and put on bis Sunday
clothes. Next ho went to his atablo to
get his horso, That was gone. Ho theil
teppointcd tho jailor a committee of ono
to go and burrowa horso. By tho timo
oil this was done tho thieves had two
hours' start. Not very 'pug, maybe, but
just long ynongh t< moko good tboir
oscaiHi. To-day ti I dio farmers for ten
miles around aro out looking for tho
fugitives with shotguns,
WW I - ? J
What Oeorge W. Childi ?? Haid lo Hprn.I.
Tako our good friond Ocorgo W.
Childs, o? tho Philadelphia Ledger, for
instance. Ho not only lives in gorgeous
stylo in Philadelphia and has a mcgniii
cent estate at Wootton, but maintains a
(?.banning vesidonco at Long Branch, and
now contemplates, I SOO, tho orcction of
a monumental1'/ superb mansion in
Newport. TliOTv aro very fow noblo
II.en who spend tho money annually that
Mr. Childs spends. Thoy can't afford it.
Already a very, vory rich man, with an
income from rds i?apor of over $1,000 a
doy, Mr. Childs linds it a very onay mat
ter to spend in tho courso of tho summer
fc?O.OXK), and yet bo keeps no yacht.
Howard In Boston Globe,
THOUGHTS I. OR TUE MONTH.
MW H KKAMIVUII.I: StUUKSTIOXH l-UOM
HIUII Al TIIOUITV.
Wlmi Work the Uood Farinera Should l)<> ???
Ute Mimili ?>! September?? In liilereHtlng Ani
de Prom an im?merill Writer.
(\V Li, Jones In Hie September "Cultivicor.")
Wc; have discussed, iu former niun
bors, preparation for ailerons. Tho lime
bus come for planting thom. September
is the natural ami best .seeding time for
gras.es, clover, lucern, oats, ryo ami
barley. We say natural seeding time,
because the seeds of thc various plants
enumerated ure matured in the summer
when it is hot and dry, and even if thc
heads are. shattered and the seed scatter
ed on the ground, the latter do not lind
proper conditions for germinating lill
the later rains set in and cool nights
and heavy dews prevail. The earlier in
the mouth these conditions arc present
the bettor it is, because ample time is
furnished tho young planto to establish
themselves well and (Irmly in the soil
before the freezes ol'winter, lu a wild
or uncultivated state these plants begin
their growth nt timo indicated; thia is
nature's appointment, therefore, and is
best suited to tho wants of the plants.
In northern latitudes, where hardest
freezes prevail, snow protects tho young
plants during winter; in thc South long
er and stronger autumn growth must
take the place of tho snow covering.
As winter grasses abound more in
northern than in southern latitudes, the
conclusion seemed natural that tho heat
of southern climates was prejudicial to
these plants; and one step further in the ,
samo direction seemed reasonable, to
wit, that they needed shade in thc ,
South. Hence tho practice of seeding ?
grass and clover with small grains to get ;
the benefit of their shade. Doubtless
Some shade is desirable during periods
of intense heat and drought, bul can it ?
be procured in the manner spoken of,
without incurring olla r injury greater ?
than thc good received when grass is ?
sown with grainV Our observation is
that more is lost than gained. In the
first placo tho protecting sliado is taken ,
away just when most needed; grain is
harvested in Juin: and .Inly when the ?
greatest heat and severest droughts pre
vail. Plants accustomed to partial shade
ure then suddenly exposed to illtcnscst
heat. Hut this is not all. in the case ol
grasses proper, the grain crops make de
mand upon the soil for exactly the same
food the grasses need. Boing larger and
more vigorous at thc start, the former
over-master the grass at the beginning
and get Un-lion's share of the food. At
harvest, therefore, thc grass is suddenly
exposed to the fiercest rays of the sun
when it is comparatively starved ?ind
weak from the unequal struggle On
exceedingly rich soils where there is
ample food for both, this objection dois
not hold .so strongly, but such soils aro
not generally found. This difficulty may
in part be obviated by top-dr< ssings in ,
the spring. Bill w here land is so abund
ant, amply enough for every crop a ,
farmer could wish to cultivate, as a rule, 1
it is better to Sow the grasses by them
selves and not in conjunction with grain i
crops. This gives them an opportunity
of getting' strong during tin- early stages |
of growth, when they ?ire naturally weak, .
and juits them on vantage ground when
the struggle with heat and drought be- |
gins. Those remarks apply with greater
loree to thc annual winter grasses and .
clovers Milich complete their growth in
early spring. These of necessity must |
be sown by themselves, or with some |
crop which follows after them, but (loci ?
not grow simultaneously with them. i
We cannot urge too frequently upon ?
beginners the importance of heavy seed- ,
ing; bo sure to sow enough for thc |
plants to occupy all of the land-leave j
no place for intruders. Sow enough to -
allow for defective seed-for adulterated ?
seed, and for the dying out of weak j
plants. After one nus taken all the
trouble of thorough preparation and
heavy manuring-such us grass requires ?
- it is folly to fail from insullieicut seed- 1
ing.
Very light covering of the seed is of
the first importance; deep covering will
certainly bring failure. But when light
ly covered, seeds will not germinate well :
if the weather is dry, unless tiny are
firmly pressed into the soil. Hence thc
importance of the roller. It is almost i
indispensib] ; in grass culture; it smooths
and levels tho ground for thc mower,
presses small rocks below the surface,
hastens tho germination of seeds, and
imparts vigor to thc young plants.
Heavy, impacting rains may do some of
tho work of the roller, but in their ab
Hence tho surface soil is too lo'-seand too
easily dried Off for tho little plant to es
tablish itself in it. Romomuor, that at
first it? root* start at or very near the
surface. It is not in the situation of a
plant springing from a seed buried two
or three inches below tho surface.
Thc oat crop has been so oft??*l winter
killed of late thut many arc discouraged
and disposed to abandon tho practice of
fall-sowing. Wo confess that recent ex
perience \\fla. neon very discouraging,
Bili in view of tho groat value of the
crop, when'it does succeed wo aro lath
to abandon it. Wo hav. faith in the
possibility of dovoloplng by proper SO
leotiull aild cultivation a w inter oat capa
ble of resisting extremo cold. What is
known in Middle Ocorgia -?ti '"winter
gm/.ing oat" docs certainly resist cold
better than othor varieties. In this
locality, tho past winter, the mercury
descended to zero and tho col/.1, v.as long
continued, and yet A good deal of this
oat survived, and by its abundant tiller
ing made from one-fourth to ono-thiru
of a crop. In most Holds of i-ust-proof
oats sown in p,;\tumn scattering stools
eonM uUo lie found, and that too in
positions not specially sheltered. Now
if, without selection and (rom indlRcrimi
nato sowings of ?;cod, individual plant?
soring np with powor to Withstand in
tense cold, why, with proper care, could
not a hardy variety bo proiiagatetl and
established from thoso cold-resisting
plant?? Wo have faith that it cnn be
done, and onr faith ia based on facts like
these, related by Darwin in hi? work on
Animals and Plants under domestication:
"Wheat quickly assumes new habits of
lifo. Tho summer and winter kinds
wore olasacd by Linnaeus os distinct
species; but M. Mounior lias proved tlud
thc diflbronco between ti ?eui lu oidy
tom pora ry. [io SOWCd willtor wheat ?ll
spring, and out of om- hundred plant:,
four alone produced ripe seed; these
were sown and resown, and in throe
years plaids wcro reared which ripened
nil their seed, Conversely, nearh all the
plaids raised from summer wheat, which
was sown in autumn, perished from
f ost; but a few weic saved and produced
seed, and iu till CO years this summer
variety was converted into a willh r
variety." Our habit hus beeil to sow in
discriminately, ns chanco or convenience
might decide, spriug grown oats in tho
fall and fall grown oalu in tho spring,
ls it any wonder lhat wo have no llxcd
varieties adapted to either s< ti onV
timo ago we urged thc onr< fui avili ol
ali rust-proof oats thal survived the pasl
winter. We hope it has been done and
that they will bo : own this month, and
the same thing repeated fer at least three
years.
Tho presold crop covers all of our ex
perience with the wilde!' glitzing Ottt. lt
was not ready to cut. until the loth of
July, though sown on th? 30th of Octo
ber last. Possibly ?ls having bein
thinned out by the cold, and tho lilli r
ing consequent thereon, mny bav . re
tarded its ripening. Bul nllhoiij h June
was a very wot month and bunches of
rye distributed through these oats were
badly rusted, tho oats bad no rust what
ever. Wc shall sow it again and watch
results.
Neither barley m r rye were killed by
tho extremo cold of tho past winter. To
some extent, therefore, tlu.so can bo
made to take the place ?d' fall oats bar
ley on the richer and rye on tho poorer
?ands. With these cover tho bare cotton
Holds during the winter and save them
from washing and leaching. Simply
harrow in tho seed don't br. ak up the
land and increase tho facilitiez, fol' wash
ing. When green, these crops can bo
cut and fed to horses and cows; wllOll
matured they can be hai'v< ted, threshed
and ground and make most excellent
stock foi d. live straw commands ready
sale for Idling m horsi collars ami other
purposes, but tho stalls and stock yards
may well dispose of it all. Olli' soils cry
Aloud for humus let us lake every op
portunity to Supply it. Some 0110 Ire,
suggested that oats ami rye might bo
SOWn together-if tin: oat . should bo|c
killed tho rye would md and the landIe
would :4ill bo occupied w itll a de- ?mblo
cn?]?. Wo seo no objection except tho
unequal ripening of the two n p , 1 I
ns rye will romain standing without
waste for somo time after it ripens ?I
could wait on tho oats. Upon tho whole
the suggestion strikes us ns a good Olio,
worthy of being tested by trial.
A friend has recently called our atten
tion to thc successful culture, in this
vicinity, of a grass variously called
"Schr?ders grass," "Australian oat ,"
Rese?o grass, etc., Bromus unit loides or
Schraden being its technical name. Ho
spoke very highly of ii as a winb i* ' laz
ing grass, growing very rapidly i:i carly
spring mid produoiug a largo quantity
of broad, nutritious leaves. Though
sometimes called "rosene" and resem
bling grass generally known by that
name, it is said to be much large;- and
more luxuriant in its growth and de
cidedly more valuable. Our seedsmen
here inform us that lhere is considerable
[lcm&nd for tho seed in Louisiana and
Texas, where it is very highly esteemed,
It is said by 601110 authorities to be
perennial; by others to be an annual.
Wo learn that it was partially killed hero
by thc- extraordinary cold of tho past
winter, but usual cold docs not hurt ii.
lt would probably thrive below the thir
ty-fourth degree of latitude.
'J liis is the proper moid h in w hich to
sow burr clover and crimson clover.
Doth of those aro annuals; beginning
Qjrowth in autumn Ihoy maturo and die
hy the 1st ol' the following Juno. Tiny
ire valuable plants, especially in locali
ties where ordinary red clover will not
thrive. Our friends below tho hoad of
navigation in our rivers could have as
line clover pastures in tho spring, from
these two plants, as could bo seen any
where. Moko thc ground rich, sow a
plenty of .seed in September and C0V01'
thom lightly; that is tho whole scent.
Towards the last of the month - e.
vines and crab-grass will ho ready foi
mowing and curing. Fnrmors seem to
1)0 pretty generally ol tho opinion that
pen-vines should not be cut until young
pens form on thom; that the ieavt ? aro
less apt to drop oil' thou and the vines
moro crtsilv dived than at an earlier
stage. Ii left too late the stems b, eoine
very woo ly ami hard, and aro worthless
ns forage. Roth extremes theil aro to bo
avoided. It is a diflloult forngo b> euro
mid opinions vary as to tho best D thod
of doing il. If ono has abundant home
room, or thc moans of providing cheap,
temporary shelters, it is uiiqucstioiil bly
best to put tho vinos under COVOrassooil
iis they arc fairly wilted, hanging them
on poles, or arranging in somo way BO as
to allow a free circulation of an, A loft
with a slatted or upon floor is an excel
lent placo to cure this or any kind ??
forage In tho absence ol l\& ahovo ap
pliances tho vines no av no put in small
eocks-unrvCAV but high-and ii tin
^Cather is dry several ot these may be
thrown together imo a largjbr cock on
tho third or fourth day. Constant re
gard should bo had to avoid 0X1)0 lng
much surface to sun or dew. ilene,
high and narro?'cocks are recommend
ed. lt ls diflloult to hav< them properly
made by ordinary hands; this is ono ol'
tho things a farmer should personally
iiiperviso.
Crabgrass makes very good hay if cut
?it tho proper timo, which ia just as tho
seeds arc forming and boforo they un
ripe. Tho soedn drop oil' readily when
nintlUTO, and whatever of tho substance
;>f the plant passes into tho seeds is tiltia
lost, (hit and euro, ihcrefoiv, beton
tho sinai will drop olT and before the
?.I'dki* becomo woody. They arc too
in ?all to bo stiff, but w hen old they bo?
[anno woody nevertheless and loso their
ligcstibility, just as over-ri po straw docs.
A 1'opiilnr VuUnry.
"An oyster is alive up to tho moment
that thc knife ls thrust through his heart.
I? he not?" asked the reporter ef ?he opera
tor as thc latter opened a shell and loosened
a succulent Norfork.
"Thc oyster ls alive until thc shell in
broken," was thc answer, "hut thc F|>ot
you refer to ns the heart Ix the eye. Thc
heart is hi the Opposite end of thc oyster at
Ibo pointed part. Thc monlh ls near thc
eye, and it ls at that cud-the broad ond
fj mt "ic oyster lake)? his food."
viw?aw?i Hf. - p.i-w-a--?pM
'.HIT IN TIIK KKBK."
KtlltOI lame- Wal HUH Wolli? Olid Colonel Tho?.
I-. Marnhull, mid Their Hiller Quarrel ami
Pitchi l-'orly-lonr Yearn Y ?o.
..Political diftbroncos ure Bottled easier
nowadays than they wore r half century
ago," said nu old, uniy-lui i UH I statesman
ton Philadelphia Times writer. "I re
nn m ber distinctly," bo continued, "wlien
Janies Watson Weld), ono of the great
editors "! Hie olden time, lay wounded
lit tho United ?States Hotel on Chestnut
(ni t. near F?urth. ile was shot in a
lui I within twouty-llvc miles of Hie city
in a kentucky statesman, Colonel Thos.
F. Marshall, son of Chiof Justice Mul
l?a!!. That was forty-four years ago
Iiis summer. The duel took place carly
in the morning, in ii lonely ftold skirting
tho Delaware State line, below Marcus
I look. Josiah Randall, ex-?Spenker
Randall's father, was one ol' the partici
pants. All ill-feeling had arisen from
i Congressional dobnto on tho repeal of
tho bankruptcy bill of 1841. About the
arno tune Monroe Edwards was cob
riotcd in Now York of forging drafts to
he tune ol SOO,OOO 0U bankers und oth
?11 thal metropolis. Among those
,v In? defended Edwards in court was
?olonel Tom Marshall. An editorial
laragraph from tho pen of Colonel
\V< bb, published in tho New York Cou
ior ami Eiirp?ror during tho famous
rial, road as follows: "We learn that
lion. J. F. Marshall, after wauch ring
tbout tin: country for some thirty days,
ccturing on temperance and giving bis
ixpeiicncoas a devotee of the bottle,
l is ret urn, d to defend tho notorious
Monroe Edwards. For bis forty days'
ncc le' will draw from the Treasury
WI I for making u mouutc-bank of liim
olf and devoting his time in advocating
ho claims of a notorious scoundrel."
Ll addressing tho jury Mar.-indi adverted
0 this attack, ami spoin; in a meaning
ray of charges made against him and
olfow members in receiving, by way of
nilH iy, British coin to tho music of
?100,000 ?pice. Thedefeatof his client
ud other grievances were, too much for
ioutlu m blood, and tho satisfaction thon
1 ?nally exacted among gentlemen was
lemand.
After sume .skirmishing a meeting was
icld in Wilmington, and preliminaries
I. Tho arrival of tho parties bo
oming noised abroad, by a clear re
ma uto ilratngcm thoyout-manoouvorcd
gal vigilance. Dr. Carr and Dr. Gib?
u ol Frofessor Gibson of this city,
railed on thc ?ix-foot-two Kentuckian,
.bile Major Morri ll, proprietor of the
"ourier, and Dr. Tuokor, a Virginian,
Len residing here, did the honors for
tn ! Wi bb, Josiah Bundall was
>resenI asa friend of the editor. Ho
ats then, like Colonel Webb, a staunch
Y big. By daybreak ten paces were
iciisurcil olV, and a stone plaeed at thc
xtremitics of the linc. Major Morrell
lissi d ii coin for choice of position. The
il ver tailing in tho grass caused some
ontrovcrsy, but Marshall settled it by
inpatiently calling out to his second:
'(live it to them, doctor. I came here
o have ?i shot ut him, and 1 do not
m an to be bullied by trilles." "We ask
?on to give nothing," proudly answered
he Major. "Wo ask but what is rigid,
igain the coin spun upward and fortune
ras again with tho New Yorker. Thc
uolists and Hu ir friends were searched,
coordina to stipulation. "Gentlemen,
ie you ready?" sang out tho Major, as
lie sun was struggling into light,
rn," aid tho Colonel. "I am not," put
il Marshall, now the object of general
bservalioii. With a searching, earnest
ink at Colonel Wohl), ho Hung oil* Iiis
oat and slowly lifted his hat and tossed
aside. ".Now, sir, 1 am ready." Tin
lajor distinctly commando*,1?! "Fire
ne, two, three." Tho ?imulti'.Vuous re
ort made some boUove at first that only
nu had tired. Both were wide of the
unk.
"Another shot!" shouted Marshall,
Hising bis pistol, Again came the sig
al and Colonel Webb was observed
lightly staggering. He was prevented
rom falling by one of the seconds.
pi .i tin,-surgeon reporting to Marshall
lint Colonel W ebb w$V3 W muled below
lie kmc. be ihimdorod out: "Hit in Ure
nee! lt is tho damndest lowest act ot
iy life. We must exchange another
hot; that Dian bas injured me more
linn any beim; on eavtii. If be can
land 1 v.;peet and demand that we shall
>:ohango lire again." The bystanders
uterposing, tho matter was lei* to tho
urgoon's decision, who made it under
lood that it was impossible, owing to
lie Colonel's condition, to continue the
mtier at present, The Southerner
hereupon shrugged bis shoulders and
bsorvod: "We luwo no further business
ere und may as well return ty the
uta."
Colono! Webb, on learning of tho do?
land made for n third shot remarked:
?I bavo entertain ed no unkind fcolingf
award Mr. Marshall at any time, nor do
now fool unkindly toward bim. 1 do
iot know why he should bear ?neb lin?
oinpr?uiising malice toward me." When
J.H. hall rotumcd io the hotel ho cower
d down Komowlint and made inquiry of
Iv. Randall as to tho e xtent of Colonel
Vebb's injuries. Hu: subsequent curecr
Dst much o? ib; brilliancy by a too free
ise of .- !'.;.odants. The wouuded Colo
tol was laid up for sumo timo in tho
luted States Hotel. He took it good
iiitnredly and, upon one occasion, be
ucotiously remarked: "1 um confined to
nil uinh r Marshall law." Under tho
tilt i it i ol tin-Stale of New York ho was
ried and convicted, but Executive clem
ney hoing evoked, interposed in his be
mit. Colonel Webb was appointed
iliui b r to IJv.n-.il by President Eincolu,
nd while in that position ho is credited
ii th obtaining a settlement of tho claims
if the United States against that .oun
ry, and of being instrumental, througl
ii ? intimacy with Napoleon 111., of
n.ving tho Fi lich troops withdrawn
rom Mexico.
A Phenomenon in Cuba.
Severa1 springs have recently appeared
loaf tho village of Cerhadeliigua, near Ha
ana, I he wilier from which hud formed
ako, threatening tho village with inunda
lon. Several plantations nun factories arc
.heady submerged, and the water ls slowly
nvndhig tho village. A large uumbcr <
he inhabitants have left thc town. Thc
?vii Governor Of I brynna rind thc munt
.Ipal architect have gone to the sceno.
"How shall a cabbage worm l?c treated "f
Utkl an exchange. That U difllcult to
inswer. Wc should like to know what
.he worm would Uko to have before we
uiswcr.
A 1M?A.MT VBNOBK'8 TALK.
Tb? Philosophy of Hating rr?mii?-!lo? to
Properly Prepare Them.
.'There is n big difference* in peanuts,"
said a corner vender recently. "Sonio
nut? are large and look very fino, but
thoy are tasteless. No matter how care
fully they are prepared and how nicely
tiley are roasted tiley are still kicking in
all the essentials of a good nut. They
aro grown on soil that is deficient in
some important respect.
"A Rood roaster, like a good cook or
good poet, must be born with u ccrtoiu
qualification that cannot bc acquired by
?ducation.
"Some dealers roast their nuts too
much, others roast them too little. If
they are roasted too much thc oil is de
stroyed, and a nut has a good deal of oil
in it. If they are not roasted enough,
or if they are roasted over a slow lire tho
oil is not properly brought out aud they
ire not good; inflict, they have a dis
igrceable taste.
"Home dealers steam them, but that
process spoils thc good Haver of a nut.
Most of the nuts now sold como from
Virginia. The Eastern Shore nota aro
he best. Patrons of tho peanut often
.oniplain that they find tho kernels of
he nut soft and flexible instead of being
?rittle; that is because they have boen
oo long roasted,
"If you want to get a nut at its best
.on should cat it half au hour after it
ins been roasted. They aro good for
mo day and then they become stale.
Some people like them not, but they aro
md for the teeth, besides, they havo not
?et acquired their proper taste. People
vho are inclined to be dyspeptic should
mt cat many; it would be better if they
lidn't eat them at all. Properly roosted
leauuts are healthy for healthy people.
Vu ordinary peanut eater eats ono a
ninute, winch is too fust.
"Yes, 1 sell a good ninny to ladies; they
lon't eat them on the street like men do.
in fact, a really relined person don't cat
hem ns he walks ulong tho street*
Newsboys and bootblacks and roughs do
hat. If a mun has been drinking liquor
md don't wish to have the odor of it on
lis breath ho cannot do better than cat
leanuts afterward. lt is better than
Atong mint candy or cloves. Thoso
h?lgs give him away. When you smell
loves or mint on a man's breuth you at
'uco suspect him."
THE LAURENS BAIL
OlIN 0. HASKELL, N. B. DIAL,
Columbia, S. C. Laurens, S. C.
HASKELL & DIAL,
A T T O lt N E Y S AT L A \V,
LAURKNS C. II.i S. C.
. T. JOHNSON. W. K. 1UCI1KT.
JOHNSON A RICHEY,
ATTORNEYS AT LA AV,
)vvicti- Fleming's (Joi ner, Northwest
side of Public Square
LAUBENS C. IL, S. C.
J. C. G Alt LEN OTON, ~~
A T T O ll N E Y A T L A Wt
LAURKNS C. IL, S. 0,
Ofilco over W. IL ?arrot.V'8 Store.
ir. c. a KN KT, v. p. M'OOWAN.
Abbeville. Laurens.
BENET & McGOAVAN,
ATTORNEYS AT LAW,
LAURKNS 0. n., S. 0.
. W. FERGUSON. UKO, V, YOUNO.
?FERGUSON & YOUNG,
ATTORNEYS AT LAW,
LAURKNS 0. IL, S. c.
:. P. TODD. AV. II. MARTIN.
TODO & MARTIN,
A T T O R N E Y S A T L A W,
LAURKNS C. IL, S. C.
I. J. H0LMK8. rj. V. SIMPSON?
HOLMES & SIMPSON,
A T T O R N E Y S A T L A W,
LAURKNS C. IL, s. C.
Ns S. HARRIS,
LTTORNEY AT LAW, LAURENS,
C. H., S. C.
*-xT Oflioo over store of W. L. BOYD.
Dr. W. EL BALI?,
DENTIST.
)FFiCE OVER WILKES' BOOK
AMD DRUG STORK.
)illoo days-.Mondays and Tuesdays.
LAURENS C. H., S. C.
SAVE
YOUR MONEY
ly buying your Drugs and Medicines,
"'inc Colognes, Paper and Envelopes,
dcmoranduin Rooks, Face Powders,
tooth Powders, Hair Brushes, Shav*
ng Ri lubes, Whisk Brushes, Blacking
b ushes, Blacking, Toilet ami Lu un
ify Soaps, Tea, Spice, Pepper, G inger,
Lianna am'. Lanterns, Cigars, Tuba oo
iud Snuff, Diamond Dyes, and ott.or
U'tiolos too Humorous to mention, ul
he NEW DRUG STORK.
Also, Pure Wincsjuid Liquors, tor
nodical purposes.
No troutile to showjgoods.
Respectfully,
B. F. POSEY & BRO.,
Laurens C. IL, S. CJ|
August 0, 18??. 1 lyj
"CINCINNATI
TYPE?FOUNDRY
- AND -
PRINTIRQ MACHINE WORKS,
201 Vine Street, CINCINNATI, 0.
Tbs type ?sad on thia paper was eas? by Um
shara fetsadry.-??.

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