Newspaper Page Text
LAI KENS C. LIM S. C., WEDNESDAY, JULY 28, 1886.
big job of Clothing
THE STATU AND TM. I VHMK1.&
WHAT nu: in i'A i::TM UN i ol IGltl
< i i.T I KI: IS HOI Nt..
An Interview willi G'oiiu>tlst?lo|iei" nullor
Wluil lloKuyH ; IMHO the Iteeenl Altl??Tn
Upun iii-? In-pari melita
(From I'M' Nowa and Couru v.)
COIJUMIUA, January 18. -Colonel A. 1'.
lintier has boon tho commissioner ol
Agriculture of South Curolinn < vcr si net
lii.s department began ?ts work, BOVCU
youlB ago? Ile in thoroughly dovotod to
it uiul, of couran, know? ?ll its detail*
?ml ninnes all itu aspirations, lit view
of the confusion which exists in Iii? pub
lio mind as to tho linties, acts ?ml re
sources of tho department, ?nil tin
criticisms which huvo boen made upen
its management, tho Nowa ni ul Cou rici
linn un hos Recured un interview with
Commissioner Butler, enabling him lo
summarize tho situai ion from ins shu I
point. The fever o? tho "Tillman move
ment" has abated, ?ml thc pcoplo of tin
Btato should bo altlo to consider cairn!)
atad justly tho valuablo work ol tho do
partim nt, and o ive it thc ored i t ? . which
it is entitled. Nearly ? \ i ar w :ll > lupsi
boforo tho Legislature eau meet Again,
?ml in the meantime tlioro i.-- plenty of
time for discussion and no exousu for
"snap judgments" on any department of
thc .State Government.
To tho question, "How Ima tho De
partment of Agriculture I?. <...".tlt\ cte 1 l>?
the attacks upon it?" Colonel IJutler re
"In my opinion thc dopartmcul i>
stronger to-day than at any timo since
ita establishment in IS71). lt wnsovidcut
to tho board and niysclt some tinto be
fore tho llrst articles tiguir st Iii dept I
inont appeared in thc newspapers thal .ts
work was not tully understood by thc
pcoplo, but wo wore nt ? loss lo know
what more than hud been done could ; ,
donn properly to show the important
duties ot'the department and how (he\
luid been discharged. Wo lind subi titted
annual reports ol our work to tho Legis
lutine ut every si ssion, and published
monthly reports during they., beside*
conducting nu oxtonsivi correspondence;
hnt wo realized that somotiiing more was
necessary to enlist tho enthusiastic sup
port* of ?ll tlic farmers iu lins v -i l;.
Well, while WO wi ie COllsitlt tin;; thc
mattel' un article appeared win h bitter
ly assailed tho management of tho do
partmont, and in BUCU n mann, i thal ii
?t once attracted tho altcuti >i <>f om
pcoplo and turned their oyes upon us.
lou will sec that this was*. mt it ly wimi
WO wanted, lt was the opp. rt unity that
wc desired, ?ml you will rena tuber that
I handed you ? reply to the critic:: ...
within four hon after th Nows and
('on ?cr containii. tho critic! m reached
Columbia. Vom- reader? M fumiliai
With the controversy thal followed. On
tay part 1 can say t?.;.t it was nd ?ch J
without the least personal hit lot ness,
because in tho llrst pine, it wu . evict Iv
what i wa ted, ?nd, in IbosceOlid piuco,
1 felt that tho result would be a vindica
tion of tho department niul mali-- ii
stronger with Ibo pt opie, nt il ' nsdoi e."
"Why do you think tlint this has been
"Wwii you ?di i'uUH'iiihci thal tho
first criticism nppearcd durbin, tho sos
sion in November and December, 188.3,
?nd while the controversy >?.is at its
hoiglit and bitterness tlio members o? the
hoard were unanimously reelected ttud I
was ro-electcd commission! r. t hc cou
trovorsy, therefore, did not lessen Hit
oonfidonco of Hie Legislature in Hie
management of tho department. Al the
sume Rossiou tho economic caucus, as it
WAS called, appointed ? conni iltoo to in
vestigato tin- department. I h? connu i I
tee .submitted ? report which completely
refuted all the charges of ext rnvngnuco,
mismanagement, AC., Hint hud hoon
made. Tho light vin continued alone,
in the spring, ?mi among other charges
made was that in i- gard to the inaugura
tion and condui t ol the phosphate liliga
lion, 't he l/armer. Convention met mid
appointed a committee to nive tigato thc
matter, and tho result Ma. a thorough
vindication ol the department by this
body of farmers. ?Some people, how
ever, wi re not satisfied, and they con
tinued the agitation, greatly lethe beuo
fit of tho department. J he moro tho)
said, the more the pcoplo bccnmo hitor
estcd in the work, ami 08 tiley I-cann
familial with it, the mon- AUXloils tlu-\
were that it should he sustained, Von
will remember also that when the agita*
lion bogan in 1885 ? (Senator introduced
a hill to abolish the department, lu ton
tho tossion was over tho bill WAS killed
on the motion of the Si ii.dor who intro
duced it, and he has recently declared in
thc publie print? I hat li- Would strenu
ously oppose any reorganization of the
department, 'l here is nov., BO far ii? I
um aware, no mun in tin/ .Slate who
would ad voca to tho abolition of th? de
partment. Tho publie aro familiar with
tho efforts made at tho recent session te
reorganize the dopnrtmi ni and thc fail
ure of the hill. I may ho m.. taken AS to
tho cause, hut I think it - failure wa -be
to tho foot that tho Honalo was satisfied
with the managomi at of tin- department
and bcU?Vcd that thc pa-ta;".- Ol thc lull
would bo Considered an oudorsomenl ol
the charges of lui fficioucy that had bi ? ii
made ilffiillr-l the ffTOSOUt board ?nd Ho
refused to 008? it."
"How do yon explain tho largo voty
that this bili received in tho House?"
"Kindly enough. With n few ex
ceptions, ?ll of the old mombofs of the
House who liad bien returned were law
yers. Thoy naturally objeotedto lc.ui
ing th? light against the lull nial none ot
tho new morabors among tho fannor*
were familiar with otra work, and, of
course, could not oxplain lt-, l or this
reason no objections woro mado te the
measure in tin- House ?nd tin- hill wi ni
through, I might say, by delimit."
"is there nuy reid objection to in
creasing the momborahip of tin- board ol
"Under ordinary circumstances i
Would say that there wai not, but 1 con
fuss that lluro Appears to bo very lit tl*
to be gained by tho change, lt migut
inn. .i - tho popularity of tho depart
meut, and thut ia, of com M-, di -?ruble,
hut on to real work I ?nt tillable to see
why five men, with the interests of tim
Htnto at heart, could not m.inago this
department just as well as ten. How
>vor, Hits ia a matter for tho Legislature
to consider, and 1 do not eave to say
anything that would appear to bo said
for tho purpose of inlluenoing tho moin
lu rs of that body."
"In some sections tho Legislaturo hus
hoon oritioiscd for not having 'turned
this department over to tho farmers.'
What have you to say about thatV"
"Utilosa I tim very much mistaken it
is now managed by the farmers. Gov
ernor Richardson, Colonel Duncan and
Colonel Lipscomb have boon farmers all
tic i? lives, I holiovo. Ohancollor .John
son is one ol' the most extensive and suc
cessful farmers in the rich 1*00 Doo seo
liuU of tho State, although ho is abo an
nble lawyer, and Mr. Perry i.. a mer
chant, but I think is also a large land
owner. So that you see tho farmers are
m it largo majority on the board. I am
tin executive officer of tho department,
though not a momber of tho board, ami
fanning is tho only occupation 1 have
ever followed. Taken altogether, then,
the department is pretty well under tho
control of farmers. There is another
mattor that should not be overlooked in
this connect iou. Colonel Duncan repre
sents the State Agricultural Society and
Colonel Lipscomb tho State (?rang?!
tho two largest agricultural organizations
in tho State and if the fannel are not
satisllcd with their management at any
tima thoy Cttn easily remove them from
"What is tho present condition ofNtho
"I think it is ono of tho best equipped
depurtmonts in tho United stub s, and
capable of doing a great w ork for our
people. Our fertilizer iuspci tors will
-tart out in a few days to coll, cl samples
of all tho fertilizers olVored for sale in
tho State, and tho laboratory will soon
be iii full bl..st.tin ning out thc analyses.
The laboratory is under the chargo of a
thoroughly competent chemist, and he
i ! prepared to do the official work of the
department, and lu make analyses of
fcrtilizi rs, minerals, ores, marls, waters,
.vc., for our people, freo of chargo. Wo
havi invited the farmers to sen I us sam
ples of tho fertilizers thoy buy, and we
will l?e glad "to h ive every farm r iii the
Stale remember tba', we want thc invita
..hr. ll. NV. Uavonol, the botanist of
tho department, is ono of tho most emi
nent scientists Ul tho South. Ile will
make his department of great benefit to
the farmers during the year.
"Dr. Benjamin .Mcinnes, dr., the
veterinary surgeon of the department, is
il. ling a great deal of good by tlc- exami
nation of diseased stock in various parts
of the State, and prescribing remedies
for the prevention and abatement of
i- a1. anion.'; stock. The increased
interest in stock raising and thc large
ninount invested in blooded stock in
South ('andina make it of the highest
imp irtunco that every precaution should
be taken against the spread of contagi
ous diseases, and Dr. Mcinnes will usc
avery olt'ort to Um accomplishment of
"Mr. Graham, who has boon detailed
by toe United States signal M ryico to
organize and take charge of tho Stat?
weather service, under thc d opart mont,
has i nb n d upon his work with enthusi
asm, ami. aa you hu ve already published,
lui i tablishod about forty stations that
now receive the daily weatlu i' indica
tions, and in a short while be will have
ntutions of observation at ? very county
ital in South Carolina, lt is not neces
sary for in'-to spi ak of thc many ad
vantages winch thc wotlthor service will
(ive to all classes ol our people. Its
bouollts aro recognized and appreciated
"Air. I'.. 11. Rocho, thc special assist
ing continues in charge of tho phosphate
lopurtmcnt, am', the splendid services he
lias air. ady rendered the State in getting
tccuruto return .? of rook mined and sc
.uring prompt payment of royalty due
the Stato is ample guarantee that this
important interest Will Hot be neglected.
"We are now making arrangements t?>
lUlargQ the monthly report, and during
da' year it will contain, besides thc usual
natter relating to tho work ol tho de
partment, regular contributions from
lu-chemist, the botanist, tho veterina
rian, the signal service observer, blalisli
tal statements and other matters of in
terest to tIn- farmers. Wo aro daily dis
tributing hand-books and othor publica
lions to uti parts of the country and
ling everything that wo think will hot
ter advortiso our resources and advant
i,'i M. We now have on lile in thc office
ugh ty-six applications for carp, ami it
.viii require 1,700 tish t?> supply tho ap
plicants. These will be furnished from
?ur ponds ii the number there is
Ulllicicnt, and if not we will obtain them
from tho Government ponds at Wash
"Tho department will make an exhibit
ii tho Grange encampment at Spartan
Ding next summer, and in every way
possible encourage tho formation of
igricultiual clubs and organizations. As
M mn as practicable after the time pre
scribed by law has expired tho board
(Viii establish thc two cxpeiinii ntal sta
tions provided for by thc Legislature,
iud WO expect to have them in active
. pi-ration tis far as poSSiblo din ing th?
he year, under tho churge of u compe
tent director and employees. The board
.viii also faithfully carry out the pro?
. isions of tho law in regard to tho oolloo
ion of information regarding agricul
tural Colleges, so as t<> bc prepared to
tubmil thc report regarding them at the
next sesi?n of tho Legislatur?'. Our
I? siro is to make the department of the
greatest benefit to tho fanners, ami we
ire endeavoring to keep them informed
uni interested m its work, in order to
ecuro their cordial co-operation."
\ Iforribll) 'I rn^i-.ly.
Prom a gentleman who lives In thc
H. , him:he?)?! ? r Cootorborough, wo loam
>f a most torr!bio tragedy which occurred
n that section of otu county on .Mond i\
ist. li seems that Mr. .ii.?iah Q?nndcr,
A bib- returning from thc r?sidence ufa
iclghbor, was waylaid by Mr. (leo. ii
Pocks, and literally butchorcd alive. Thc
loartrendcrlng cries of Mr. G. wore heard
.?.nie e.ilond men who were on their
.vav home fruin church and hastened to lils
iUutanCC, when tho murderer Ih-d, leaving
Iiis bleeding victim writhing lu thc- agonies
if ?halli. There has b06Q a long-?tanding
fend between thc parties, bul it w u? never
thought Hint it would culminate In such ti
! f>...!.. manner. As the parties lie-long to
ut old family, wc forliear to nmUo com
ment, leaving timi to thc proper author!
lies. Al l-isl u' counts, the murderer hail
not been caught,- liUho^itHU JCr.torj>ri$e.
on?- Wi-Koi- \". !i<? Tit tu Us timi Tin-re's ?I
< .omi Tl mu Comillie for tho Sunlit.
(Ptain tho Bout lt rn Cultivator.)
ll is woll known to thc Cultivator
rendons tlmt tho farmers howl and com
plain ol' cotton being only worth iront
Heven and n hall to eight mid seven
eighth cents; they consider themselves
broke ami lui ned al those prices, whoa
it is n blessing to them and to the coun
try that it is no higher priced. Fifty
odd years gives OHO sonic experience
about farming und tho vicissitudes that
attend it. in my long experience I
never saw tho time when cotton sold j
higher tor a serie:, of years, but it ended
badly for tin; farmers, as it. eneoitruged i
them to iuereose thu ana of cotton
planting and curtail the area of their
provision crops and lead them into
speculations und all manner of extrava
gances and waste, ami when OYor-pro
unction glutted tho market and cotton
fell in pri?e, it found tho fanners in
debt, which had to bo paid by low priced
cotton, On tho contrary, when cotton
sold low lora Ber ios ot yours, Die farm
ers regulated their allai rs to taut circum
stances; it forced them to In come more
self-sustaining, hence tiny increased
their provision crops, lived more al
hollie, raised their own meat and bread,
Kept out of spi oubliions, eoouomi/.cd in
every depart nient, hence they saved
more money at low-priced cotton than
they did with high-priced colton. ! have
always noticed that debts and account:,
were more promptly paid with low
priced cotton why ? because when cot
ton was high, speculation and extrava
gance increased their indebtedness, and
win n lo\ -priced were economical ami
saving, and every dollar they got till y
applied to their debts. This may seem
n strange theory, that low-priced cotton
bein lits tho fumiers more than high
priccd cotton, hut experience lias shown
it to be tho case, ami tho reasons are ap
parent; when Speculation sets in value
becomes llctitious, and iuilatiou goes on
until tho hubbit explodes and reaction
throws all in chaos and dima\ and a
panie is thc result, which brings about
general loss and ruin, and riches based
on such llctitious and fraudulent values
molt into poverty, Lot us go back ll fly
years, when everything was milch dean r
than it is now "cotice 2 pounds to the |
dollar, sugar five and six pounds t<> tho
dollar, iron ton cents a pound, axes two
dollars and a half each, four-quarter
sheeting thirty-seven and a half cents,
ami calicoes, American, thirty seven and i
a half cents, English Hf ty cents pi r yard,
and cotton s liing at eight and lon cent -.
Qoing back only to 1870 our factories
sold plaids ut nineteen ci nts pi r yard.
Last sear, 1880, tlioy sold the same plaid
for six and one-fourth couts, it nd Hie
present boom, six and tlivcc-foiil'th
cents," and with cotton at present prices
the advantages an: all m laver of tho
consumers. Hut lot the price of cotton ?
advance to twelve and lilli - -i Colds,
everything else would run up higher in
price to lin1 proportion to tho price of
cotton, and provision crops curtailed in
planting ami cotton planting increased
at the expectation of ll ft con cents u
pound, would placo tho farmers iii a
worn- c-minion than they are to-duy.
Low values uro iii favor of the fanners,
provided they farmed as they should, by
raising their own food supplie-, in
abundance fm- man ami beast, and cot
ton nt six Cents would pay tb lil well.
O'.*." whole sy? I? >-? farming is wrong,
hence there is such dopri Bsiou ami bani
tilms with tho fanners, ami the error is
in planting two much cotton ami two
little provisions with most of tho farmers
to-day; their cotton crops aro merely ex
changed for tin ir food supplie, and lin
tier such a system where can any prolit
come in for the farmer.' Why nolie, for
all ho makes is consumed in provisions
to support life; all made above farm
consumption should bo a elia" profit,
and if we farmed in that way, the low
price of cotton would not alice! us, and
if high-priced, tho greater thc prolll .
keep an eye to your crib-, and b n us and
smoke-houses, that they are lilied from
your own fields; also keep an t yo to
your little truck patches, ami to your
gurdon and poultrv house, ami also to
your dairy, and when that is done, you
will never hear of bani times Oil tl farm
thus managed; tho hurd ti tues and gin
houses go together; all cotton ami 110
bread and meat is Hit; trouble; clothing
of all kinds is cheap, but wllOQ .voil
strikt: the grocers and provision dealers,
there tho ruinous expens s come in
which make farming unprofitable.
.Ko. II. |)i;sr.
Cave Spring, ( ?a.
tunics ol' KXKCI I'l Nil ('III M I NA LS.
I lorim-, mut l.liwyt-rs DlnCIIH* 111?' Meiil-. ?ll
ll,,- Kopo nuil thc ?. o 11 lol io..
The Society of Medical .Jurisprudence
mid State Medicine held its monthly
meeting last week, with Amos (i. Hull
ns presiding olllcor. There was an uiii
mated discussion on tho question? "How
Shull the Death Penalty be Indicted/"
Tho presiding olllcor said that ho was
not so much opposed to the present sys
tem of capital punishment as he was to
fillowing roprcsoutativos of the press to
be present and publish the details of tho
executions In tho columns of tho ?laiIv
press? lb-was followed by Dr. Brill,
who rend a reply to tho cotntnlttco ap
pointed by tho 1 legislature to report upon
n new system of capital punishment? lb:
Considered hanging tho most barbarous
and inhuman method of punishment
now in existence, Tho guillotine, ho
thought, tho best instrument for inflict
ing the dentil ponai ty. His opinion wits
cononrrcd in by Dis. Quitnbyand J. 0?
Peters, who wi ro both opposed h> hang
The t>thor sido of the question was
then discussed by E. H. Doun and NV?
ll, Kusscll, representing the legal pro
fession, and Dr. Woutis, formerly a sur
geon in tho army, representing tho
medical profession. They boliovcd that
when a person deliberately takes the lifo
of another no form of punishment is too
severe, and that tho present system
should not ho changed. Thc proceedings
were closed by Dr. Peters suggesting
Hint the opinion of each member of tho
society be obtained ?nd sent to tho Leg
islaturo. Tiiis was favorably considered.
Thoy have a toboggan ?lido at Bis
mark, Dakota, whero it is said tint steel
sho t toboggans acquire a velocity of
throe miles a minuto, lint thoy are used
to blizzards out that way and r.-n shuni
a stiff current of air.
WIIKKK IT IS CO??KST.
Tim sour or n KATH nit rm v II A vic
I.li ul. ililli Selieut'/.o Tolls lli>\\ I'votilo
lix lui Where thu Tliurinoiimlui* IK I: I vt*? * >
OvKrCUM liol??? /.n o--Sibel hui IC \ 11 ?H.
Lieutenant W. JI. Sohoutzo of tho
navy, who was sent to tin- Lona Doha in
Northwestern Siberia b> dolivor to tho
nut ives gifts from tho government of tho
United States tu repay them for tho nul
they rendered him wi his search for tito
utilising meuibors of tim J can nullo ?'arty,
says in Iiis report that thu towu <>f
Voroynusk, Siberia, is the coldest hi?
habited .?iud in tho world. Tl io ther
mometer stood st Stl below /a ro when ho
was there, and ht; says it seldom gOCS
above 5u below. 1 asked liim tho other
day what thc people d'd who lived nt j
this blissful ?pot, what tlioy had to eat
and how they liked it.
"Wliy," ho replied, ..tiley think it is
a plett.v good sort of climate. 'Hollie, ;
Sweet li onie,'is the song all the world
over, and if tho Voroyanskors si iou ld
come here they would wonder what peo
ple did where ?t is so infernally hot.
they ivoilld smother in this cliiniuo and,
niue fora still'nor th wi sicily Arctic gale. !
ll is wonderful the amount Of cold:
hunum (tosh can endure. Tho natives of |
Tierra del Fuego go stark naked tho
year round, and in their country it I
free/.ei every night, lt is much colder
in tho Lena Pi ita, yet tl io people man-1 '
ago to keep comfortable, und inore dio
of smallpox and scurvy than from tho
effects of tho intenso cold, l'on seldom j
hear of iiny one freezing to death, and
then it is those only win? expose them
selves imprudently who die in that way. !
More people aro frozen to death in the
United Stale.-, than in Siberia.''
..lint how do tltey manage to keep
"Well, in tlie luvt place tho Yakuts
are an enduring race, and uro burn in
that climate, i'lieu they dress ?u furs,
and have learned from their ancestors or '
from their own experience how lo keep <
warm, L'lteir houses are built of logs,!]
smeared over on tho outside and inside I
with manure and mud. In each cabin <
is a largo lircptaco, which is used for ?
both heating and conking. 'liiere is I
seldom more than one ronni in thoso
cabins, and usually the owner's cattle, if .
he has auV, occupy one end of tho room i
in which he lives, being tied, or pro- ? <
vented from trampling on the babies by i ?
a har. The houses uro commonly very I
comfortable, but are awfully dirty, and M
smell there is un word tu describe, it. > c
Often, until I got used t.? it, I would '
l ather lie dow n ill the - HOW outs', le, with ? j
tho thermometer f>U below /.cm, than j i
sleep iu ono of these huts. Hut you've M
no idea win.i il mun can stand when lie ? 1
..Have lliey windows in their houses'.'" ,
.'Yes; icc windows. They use ice ash
WO use glass. A dear pitee is si lectod, ? 1
about live or six inches thick, mortised , '
?lithe window opening in blocks Uro M
feet, and somctinit H as large as four feet I
,s< nuire, and with water is in lido solid. I I
The water is as good us putty. When j >
tho window becomes dirty they scrape it I
od'will ii knife, and when .t has boen 11
scrapi d Hun, they Btlbsl tute a new | 1
.'Doesn't tho window ever melt?" .
"Jileas you, no; it is freezing cold that j
far fruin the Uro. If tho room ever got,
warm enough to molt tho ice tho Yakut ? <
couldn't live in it, and would have to gu j j
uni linois to Cool ulf. At nigh, tho lirc;t
is allowed tu gu out, us they havo to I
economizo in fuel. AU thc.\ have is, ?
driftwood, gathered on tho banks of tho 1
Li na lover in the summer time.'' | i
.How do they sleep'.'' Do tilO^ IIUdrCBS I 1
when they go to l td?" f
..Always. They .-tri)? tu their shirts, I '
whicli uro mildo ol'a thick sort of Uns-I'
shill chilli as heavy as OUT canvas. l in
men ami women wear thu sume kind of 1
garments, and never have inure than ono j '
at a time. I look up a lot of thick lian- <
nel for thom, enough to lust tho rest of I
their lives, and it will be ii great deal j j
mon: comfortable than the native stillT,
although they don't Uko it at tint. When 11
they undress thoy get into I. tinks built M
m Hu; side of thc house sometimes a
mau, bis wife and all hts children ill the
.-ame bunk. They hast: reindeer skins
under and ovor them, ami curtains nf
thu .?ame hanging before tho bunks. Tho
lust mun or woman tn lindross hangs all
tlio clothing of the rest outdoors over a
polo that is kt pt for tho purpost."
..What is that for?"
..To freeze tho lice. Thoy couldn't
live if they didn't do it, and it luis be
eline u national custom. Tho hco got
into tho fur, and that is the only way to
get them out. Hy hanging their clothes
over tho (Kilo every night they cnn keep
reasonably free from them, but tho fur
tills up again the noxt day."
"Do they ever bathe?"
.'Never in their lives; they haven't
any word for bathing in their Lil)guage,
anti the impossibility nf keeping clean is
uno of tho greatest hardships of Arctic
"What do tiny oat?"
"Reindeer meat, beef - they have
cows, ipiecrdunking animals, about half
us largo as ours, with a hummock un
their backs Uko ii camel dish, bread
made nf block rye Houri ten, and an im
ported food made nf ohopped bool tolled
into balla about the size of a marble,
and covered with a iluugli. These they
pound up and make into Soup. Then
them is a wood that is very nutritious
when it is ground up ami boiled, Mixed
with reindeer meat it makes a gund
soup. Thoy often tat their tish raw.
i )| cutirse they freeze snlitl 08 soon nfl
they arc taken out of tho water, and tho
native, particularly if ho is un the road,
cuts thom oil' in Shavings, us Hun as our
(diipped beef, and cats thom raw. They
are palatable, ami I have lived for days
at a limo un them, with a cup of tea
made over an alcohol lump by way ?if
variety. Tho greatest luxury they have
is buttor, and they will cat it by the
found as our people eat confectionery.
\ poor snrt of butter is mndo from the
milk of tho nativo cow, thut looks and
tastes moro liko cheese, anti they prize
it OIKIVO nil other classes of food.
"The amount of butter a nativo will
eat when he can get it," continued
Lieutenant Soheut/.o, is astonishing. A
friond of mine in Siberia told mo of a
ni' -amii- ?- in 11 "wASUb^Uii
ruail wlio ato thirty-six pounds in one
day, uud tuon didn't got ul! lu- wanted.
They havo a way of pounding np H ml
berry and mixing it witli butter, which
giv-v> it ?i beautiful pink tint ?md im
proves tho davor. Their drink is tho
Liussian Vodka, almost pure alcohol,
?uni they will trude their shirts for it.
Tho liquor io source and expensive, so
tiny arc necessarily n temperate people"
"How do tho political exiles live, ?md
how many ure in tho country?"
" ' great ninny sevi ral in every set
tlement. Win n ?ni exiie is sont into tho
country tlio Governor ?kt? rmines where
lie shall resido, ?uni rc(]uires him to re
port his whereabouts ?it frequent inter
vals. They I i vu us the natives do, re
ceive so much a year from the govern
mont for their support, ?md work nt
their trades if the\ nave them, ?md if
thoy haven't get such joba ns they can.
In other provinces tho i xiles work in
tho mines. At Voroyunsk I saw ?rn exile,
who hud bun u lawyer and judge in
lluvia, (loin ear pen ter work, and all
the tool he hud was ?in ax. ! look up
SOUK: presents lor BOVOrul exiles, who
had boon of service to tho Jeaunotto
parly, hut had lo obtuin the pormissiqri
of tho Cloveruor before I could deliver
them. In every scttlenn nt uro local
officials, who look ?liter those un fort u-1
"How eau a man endure the intense
Cold when the wind blows?"
"lt is, of course, necessary to keep
the body protected and as much of tin
faee as possible with furs, and even theil
it is common to freezo the extremities;
hut if a man knows how to take cart) of
himself he will not sutler. My lace ?md
hands woro froz< II a number ol times,
tf ] had ?(one to the lilt- to warm tho
skin would have cracked open and given
ino much trouble; hui by rubbing tho
frozen placo with snow, and getting it
thawed out hy friction ?iud gradual boat,
I never hud any trouble."
i'lim v Dut'llMONO.
A I ".ot I r VTHNTS.
How Hu- onii .. u ,Miuiii?<-il mu? WIMIIM-K
III VI Ml Ililli ( Ililli'.
(K,,.M ;?". S.v Voik ilnrnM.j
In tho matter of iugeuuity th" Arn i :
jun people h ail the world. M< re appli
cations for patents aro received and moro
patents granted ut tho Patent Ollloo in
this city than in any other two <.? c.ntri? s
if Kurope. Grout Britain comos next
m the hs!, Franco third ?md Germany
fourth, lt was not until IStffl thal the
L'utont ( Ifllco Wa? organized a a separate
JU renn with a commissioner and sui tal ?le
assistants for tin prop rdisebm fool
loties, lt is rathol ?1 ? ingulur fact that
luring that year utily bud application
for a putout was Hied. Tho next year
bo number increased to Kui. i ! in
irenso hos steadily grown until i:i I Still
il,707 application v i n Hied. Tim .whole
nimber of patents granted since ?-.*.!'. ,
in round numbers, iliii>,U00. l in- appli
cations for patent? aro regarded as a
good index of the geueiid bu un -s pros
perity of the country. Win ll timi s an
lui! invontors realizo that capital is slow
lo risk the success of tia ir ex pi rimcnts.
1 >n the oilier hand when molloy is plenti
ful it i.- n poor inv< utor \\ 1.0 c linn it lind
.onie one who is willing, at least, to pay
tllO legal expenses ni Cessa I'.V to l!:,
taking out of his patent, lt may bc
-aid, i * i passant, il" tlii- theory ol thc
patent omeo ofllciaLs bolds good, that
tho country was never in ?1 moro pros 1
nerolis condition, inasmuch ?is tho mun
?or of applications for 18815 1 xce< dod by
lovoral thousand those of any preceding
Moro patents baVO been granted lo Ibo
citizens of Now York than to those of
my other State. This ?sowing probal?ly
0 her larger population, Upon this
lypothesis Pennsylvania takes tho seo
uni placa, oud according to tho sane
'cnsoniug Illinois or Ohio should como
u-xt. but tho truth is that Massehusi tis
mids the third place, with Illinois fourth
Uld Ohio llflll. Tuc ch.nai ler of the
inplication usually denotes the locality
.om which it proceeds. l or example,
.pplicutions showing tho inventor to be
1 man of high scientific education m lin
y come from Now York, Massachusetts
>r Connecticut, tmprovonii nts in cot- ;
on and Migar machinery are the work
dmott entirely of Southern inventors.
The dovolopmont of inventive genius in
lie South bas been remarkable dilling
hi' past decade. This is ? specially so ;
II Georgia ami Texas, the two most
progressive Stati s .south of Mason and
Dixon's linc. Tho applications from tho
South, os recently as 1872, wer. only a;
'1 act a iii * >f tho-e Hied from the North.
\bout 1875 a change was noted, and the j
nerease since then has been relatively 1
is great as that of thc Northern Siati .-.
i lie l int i.r .1 Dcnptunilo.
Craig TolUvar, tho Worst desperado in
Kentucky, was found dead in ? held in
Rowan county Wednesday. Ile WAS tho
eiuler of tho Tollbar faction, which has
tept up a continual warfare with the
Martin tact ion 111 the vicinity ol Moro
lead for the last two years. The trouble
?egan when John Marlin murdered
[''loyd Tollivor at Morehead. C raig I ol
ivar heard of t he murder nt bia b mo,
md rode twcnty-SOVCll miles in two
lours, hoping to avenge the crime.
Martin was taken to Winchester foi ale
(coping, A h w weeks later two men
illuming tO bo gtiardfl presented to the
jailor a forged order purporting to come
rom a Kowan county magi; trate. Mar
ail was turned over to them. On the
vny buck to Morehead the train was
loarded by four masked nu n, ?md Mar
in wostakou from tho guards and riddled
tvitli bullets. Tollivar was arrested, but
die crime could not bc fastened on him.
This started the Tollivar Martin war, and
t has continued ever since. A doZOll
nen baVO been shot down in cold biol (1
>n either side. Tho State troops bau
.ecu camped about Morehead for WOi 1.
The Governor and Adjutant Gonoral
lavo attempted in vain to resti re peace
I'lie killing of Tollivar will probably end
die trouble. He was killed by some ol
The bolled buzzard that lins been
uxiken of in the South for years was
mot the other day by .). C. ( lol rington,
Tunis county, Texas. Tho bell was well
toned, of biyuMk and about two und a half
?nobes across the base. It was hung to
tho hird by a copper wire, twisted around
Ibo neek. Thew v ic no chaffing, the
ukin being protected boin an abundance
r>f down. Tho figures 1870 wore scratched
un tho narrow Hat top of thu boll.
?fwy* .mw- - i -n--n
NO I i.s ni' soi i ii i.us i'KIM;ur.ss.
Lowis S. Jones contemplates starting
chain works at Wheeling, Wi st Virginia.
Thora i talk o? a wiro factory being
started at Chattanooga, Tenn.
lt is stabil timi u smoking tobacco
factory will bo started ut Chase City,
A company is la ing formed at Calera,
Alabama, it is said, to manufacturo
w mjilen wa re.
A stove foundry IS re [io rt ed tu be built
at Decatur, Alabama, soon.
At Cul poper, Va., a carriage factory
is to bo erected.
A rieli gold mine hus been discovered
near the Notices Canyon, Uvoldo county,
A St. Louis brm arc making arrange
ments for II pipe foundry nt Chattanoo
A canning factory is about lo bo estab
lish? d at Amito, La.
A wagon factory is being erected ut
I lona laud, Fla., hy J. P. Cr HUI.
A stock company will soon bo organ
ized at Jacksonville, Fla., t<> manufac
Near Calera, Ala., slate has been dis
COVi ri 'I and will soon be developed.
A slock com pan j is to bo organized at
Birmingham, Ala., to start a tannery,
At Lutcha Springs, Ark., a /.ii. milU
has boon developed.
A saw and planing mill, also a box
factory, have been erected at Van Ihircn,
Negotiations aro about being entered
into for oreetiug water works at Pine
lt is probable that a stock company
will bo organized at lloauoko, Va., soon
to est; blish ll ba ie steel plant.
Tho Thompson Brick Company, capi
tal stock $20,000, has been organized at
Tho Luray Cavo and Hotel Company,
I.may, V.\. contemplate spending about
$50,000 in . nlargiug their hotol.
A $100,000 Block company is being
organized nt Birmingham, Ala., to eatab
le li a largo carriage and wagon factory.
Tho Biloxi Artesian foo Manufacturing
Company, capital stock $1-1,000, 1ms
been organized at Biloxi, Miss. ,
The Alabama Marble Company, oapi- i
lal stock $100,000, has been organized j
at rion m--', Ma., with NV. J. Kcrcaehiiu I
as president. i
A $100,01)0 stock ci inpauy 1ms been '
organized ut Shelbyvillo, Tenn., to im- !
provo lund nt St. Andrew's J:ay, l ia.
A company iii Ix lng formed ni Fort
Worth, Texas, to manufacture ir. n und t
wooden bridges, with $100,000 capital '
Tin re is soon to be constructed in the '
Soft COal legions of southwestern Vir- '
gini.i several new coke ovens and now
furnaces are to 1)0 built. ,
At Pilot Point, 'lexus, n stock com
pany is about lo bo formed to erect u (
seveiity-llvo barrel roller llour mill.
At < !.iins\ill., Fla., n sito for a furni
ture and wagon factory has been pur- ]
clmsi d ami building's arc soon to bo I
'! ho largest manufactory of yellow '
pim- i umber is in Lincoln, Miss., und
the lumber business in that locality is
oil the boom, 1
Last month there wen? 8,000,000 feot !
ol lumber shipped from Jacksonville, j
Florida, .More than half of it went
The foundry at Celera, Ala., i t sup- ]
plying the castings for the alcohol char
coal plants being erected at Decatur, ,
Ala., and ( looi'icll, Tenn. <
Al Camden, Ala., s. 1). Block pro- 1
poses to oreel a factory for tim manu- I
lacs tl re of cotton ropo ami woolen yarn. I
At Birmingham, Ala., tho Ldison
Licet ric Illuminating Company has been '
incorporated with a capital stock of
Capital stock to tho amount of $100,- j
000 hus been subscribed to establish un ?
axe and tool company nt Birmingham,
Tho Fly ton Land Company of Birm
ingham., Alu., has declared di vidends of i
185 por cent, of its capital during Dc- ?
ce m ber, and I m per cent, during 1880, i
am. Hinting to $080,000. I
An extensive porcelain factory is now 1
in operation in Now Orleans, La., under '
the supervision of skilled workmen from 1
Hie largo fad.?rie .il France. The work '
is ns linc us any done ab roath
A company has tain formed by a
number of capitalists of New Orleans,
with a capital of $50,000, to establish a
laetory for canning beef. Tho factory
will bo located in tho parish of St.
At Birmingham, Ala., a company was
incorporated, with a capital stock of
$'250,000, to manufacturo bridges, bolts,
ruts, etc., Works aro soon to be built
hieb will givo omplbymout to ono hun*
died and fifty hands.
The American Fibre Company will
Boon be organ i zed in New Orleans, will)
a capital stook of $250,000. lt is con
templated by this company to establish
ll rooe factor , and paper mill in connec
tion with tho decorticating machinery.
During thc past month arrangements
were concluded by capitalists from tho
North, with local manufacturers, to creel
nt Chattanooga n large drop forging
plant, the largest ever erected in tho
South, tho cost of whioh will bo $150 000.
At Sheffield, Ala., the Sheffield Pipe
and Nail Company has been organized,
to . roOt large works for the purposo of
milking cast ami wrought iron piping,
holts und other articles of iron and steel.
I in- capital is $100,000.
The North Alabama Beni Lstntc,
Manufacturing and [mpro\ ing Company
will bc incorporated in a short time ut
Athens, Ala., with a capital of $1,000,000,
V stock company will also be organized
to establish a cotton mill, with a Capitol
Of $100,000, 08 well as n bank with a
capital of from $00,000 to $100,000.
The Ol iris tm 08 edition of tho Hcppimr
( ( )rcgon ) ( iuzetto was lust year printed in
two colors black nnd wliito-and tho
occasional lampblack t pots wore skillfully
Been rod by Mic devil getting on too much
ink and hiding to sufliciciitly agitate his
A TALK ABOUT INDIANS.
AN INTKHVIEW WITH COL. AHTIIl'H
G lt A not'SKI.
Tho linlintiB :iiui their l-'uture-Interesting
i acts Coiiecruiiig their Education mut
Colono] Arthur Qrabouski was in Au
gusta yesterday und, tho Ohroniole re
porter failing to catch him on tho wing,
drove out to tho stately mansion of Mrs.
James Card mer. The reporter was
ushered into th<- parlors at thc hospitable
mansion, but was not allowed to remain
there but u few seconds before ho was
ushered into the sitting room, whero
Colonol Grabouski was .scated before a
The Colonel has a distinguished as
well OS a classical appearance, aud tho
cordial greeting extended the Chrouielo
representative, when he informed tho
Colonel of his mission, immediately
stamped him ns a mun ot* excellent judg
ment, ile was willing to give the peoplo
any information that he might possess
that would bo of interest to them. Tho
reporter thereupon said:
"Colonel, knowing thai you had some
troulile in Kansas ami that charges were
made against you, will you kindly toll
ino about it and also something about
the I ndians?"
..Tho diflloulty J had was simply tho
objection of the people of Kansas to au
outsider taking charge of what they con
sider n home institution. Ju addition
thereto there is considerable feeling still
existing there in regard to tho war.
These charges against mo were so con
tinual that three- or four times the de
rtment sent investigation committees
.di of whom were perfectly (satisfied that
there was no cruelty, and that everything
was managed satisfactorily."
"Has the feeling' died out?"
"lt was only amongst a tow and has
on Uroly died out. As an evidence of
wi)ich there was tendered on my leaving
a joint banquet with ox-Governor Charles
Robinson, given hy at least one hundred
und fifty of thc lending citizens, at which
banquet 1 received a handsome souvenir.
Whilst greatly interested in tho work of
educating tho Indians tho duties wero
exceedingly onerous, aud having an ap
pointment offered in thc Department of
tho bureau of Labor* tho distributing
if products which would make my held
if labor in Georgia, Alabama, Missis
sippi and Louisiana I accepted it."
l ill. WORK AMOSCI THE INDIAN'S,
' The people would like tokuowsoine
lliing of your work anion:;' Hie Indians;
?ill you kindly enlighten them?"
..Haskell Institute isouoof the United
States Indian industrial schools, having
liming my administration three hundred
pupils, one-third of whom were females,
ranging in age from 12 to '"0 years, re
biding at the institution provided with
everything by tho government. Thc
object of tho institution is to lot indus
trial training go hand in hand with tho
Knglish language and the fundamental
principles of au education. Among tho
trades taught are blacksmithing, carpen
tering, shoemaking, farming, tailoring,
"How do they lake to educationV"
"They aro intelligent wheu aroused,
md they make remarkable progress in
the English language They make them
selves understood and their shop work
is of value in a short timo."
"After hoing in tho institution any
length of timo do they retain their
" Their nature is suspicious, not treach
erous. After they give confidence and
obedience for once it is for good. I do
liol recollect a single instance iu which
man or woman went back OU u promise
given Hie superintendent."
"Wind do you consider the main lever
in tiie education of thc Indians?"
" Undoubtedly tho ollbot of Christiani
ty upon thc morals aud lives of there
people. This opinion is shared in both
try thc President and tho Secvtary of
"What becomes of these Indians after
hushing their education?"
"Soin'- of them return to their peoplo
md become instructors in what are called
igonoy schools, others bocomo govern
nont employes at agencies. Tho majori
y, however, form what is known as tho
a \> Indian 'lenient, t luv are the freight
is and small farmers of the agencies,
uni are tho om s who are now asking a
listributiou of Indian lands in severalty."
"Have you ever visited tho Indian
"I have visited a number of them, mot
he chief nu n iu council and went in a
nimber of their camps from tent to
"Having boon among them, what is
pour opinion upon tho solution of this
roublcsomo problem? '
"Tho middle aged Indian, mau or
vornan, will have to pass to their gravo
?nt little imprOVOd, as thoy seem unsus
.optiblo of improving. The hope of tho
I tnliaii race Hos in thoso under twenty
ive years ol age. Instances ure not un
iomnion whero older Indians take steps
oward civilization in breaking grounds
or farms, but these arc exceptions.
Ilocognizing this tho Government aire?te
ts attention to tho young men and
vernon of tin- different tribes, and will
indoubtodly solve tho question by tho
gradual extinction of the old Indian and
Im budding citizenship of the young
A St. Paul young mau was surprised
md shocked tho other day. Ho waa
walking behind ii well known lady of
hat city \\h< II a ragged little boy asked
'or five cents to buy a loaf of bred with,
-?lie gave it to him, Then ho ran away,
nit around the block, and soon mot hor
igain and told the sume tah?. Then tho
voling mao heard her say, "I gave you
tho other nickel to bay ft loaf of broad,
I now give you live cents in admiration
if your gigantic gall." Tho lady moves
in "the highest circles of Ht. J'aul sooio
ty," and that's tho reason hor remarks
surprised tho liwtenor.
Sonic unknown incendiary attempted to
lire Hie house of Mr. Curry, of Laurens
ville, on Sunday night. Happily tho effort
i ali il, or a birge part of thc town would
lin ve hcen destroyed, ns Mr. Curry's hou?e
in of woo I. ami pining it and in the Irame
lilt.- nclgid>orho<Kl are many of the same