Newspaper Page Text
LAI KENS C. LIM S. C., WEDNESDAY, JULY 28, 1886.
big job of Clothing
Uli? (KIM I NAL LAW.
SUMIO TIMRL.Y si'iiCKSl IONS I TON AN'
INTI.? KS! IN? SI M,? BOT.
KMCIM ami Opinions Willoh Coin ut on ?I
'1 IM nr., Kr. lc? St rlllUM <'<> ll Hill <-rut I - > I
W??rU of the Legislature.
(Kcowoo Courier- Kal Hurlai.)
We lnwo read with some interest, but
witli more surprito, tbo view? of sumo of
our le uling lawyers on tho defect? pf tbc
criminal law, and tbo escapo of guilty
criminals thereby, as thc cause for Ibo
frequency and gravity of crimes. They
propose changes in a systt ni which hu*
mut thc approval of an enlightened cen
tury and advocate tl rna as a remedy
against lynch law and the alleged preva
lence of crime. Wc canuot hope, in u
single article, to point out all 11 ir- falla
oles in 'ho studied artioles oi these dis?
tingub d writers, but will briefly al
bulo to tho salient points of error, which,
in our view, they contain.
liefere entering on the subject, we >v:l!
state that our view? of the criminal law
have always been tho rever.se ol' tboB - ex
pressed in thu articles named, ami when
in the Legislature we suggested a eh AD go
in the law, which would givotho defend
mu io criminal prosecutions the rcpl^ in
ftrgumont iu all eiises. Wu thought th. ii,
and still believe, persons charged with
crime are put on trial at a gn at disad
vantage. It is true, that in theory ?vi ry
mau is presumed to bo innocent until bo
is proved guilty, but in practice, tho cor
pus dolioti being established, ev? ry per
son charged with crime is supposed to
be guilt;,. This results from our nature.
All honest men have :i natural antipathy
to crime, an atleeting injuriously, either
directly or indirectly, the security ol
their person;), propurty and reputation,
and from this fact the mere charge of a
crime against an individual lends th?
"iiblic mimi iu the channel of guilt. Asl
consequence every individual ohar,*sd
..ltb crime must meit and defeat this
oatural inclination, cilia r by proof ol
past good oharootor or direct prout of
innocence. This pettit tor ifecdjs no illus
tration of its truth, ?or when w? reao 01
hear Of any cruel or heinous crime, ult ?
ing lifo or property, or even tho repute*
tion of a female, and u puny ia ?ur- fited
for it, we bear thc cry, huns; him, be
ought, tb be strung up without !a?v or
gospcL Nota few instances I tuve oc
curred where thin fi cling hus culminated
in thc summary execution of the alleged
criminal without inquiry ns to, or piool
This characteristic of. oui nat ni r.
doubtless tho father of tiie right ol a do
fondant in capital casca to cb alli ugo j r
emptorily twenty juror?. Ile hus, mid
should have, the right of tlittl by a j try
composed of calm, unwnp.usMoned men',
free from any bini; or prejudice against
liim or his connu 1 or thc mime it* lf,for
there is au innate pri ju lice against Cl inic
whioh it is d llioult tor auy of us lo ub
btraet from tho person ohurgod willi the
crimo. This rigid of challenge ia u< it i r
designed nor do? B it operate aa ai:
select a jury, und wo do not t ink it
should bo abridged, hoing iu itself \?ise
and having Btood 'ho test ol a ct ?.tiny.
Again, in theory tho Slate hus onL tho
right of reply, but iu pract ice this cu ant
tho right to sit with Cloted moutb i ?ail
thc defence bas opened ..ut its whole
case, and tie n in one argument both to j
reply to defendant and pile np tho pointe :
for the State. We l ave heard cases
whore a praotici il solicitor by a pointed j
anecdote or appropriate [ arable hus vii -
tuully dissipated tho argument for tho
defence, and then, with ir.ick cleared, ;
has applied facts and oircuuibtauc .
pointing to guilt, which by a reply could
have been scattered in tum. Tho judge
uot being allowed, and properly, loo, to !
cburgo on the facto, tho handling o? them
by au experienced Bolioitor goes fresh to I
the jury. In this, tho defendant is uta
disadvantage, as no lawyer is ignorant ol !
tho advnnUtge of tho reply, which in
criminal cases, in practice, ia both thc
argument for thc State ami tho reply to
thu deft ? mir 111.
Again, defendants iu criminal casca
are generally poor men, ol| -.n ignorant
also, mid neither know nor uro poonina*
rily abb; to employ oflloieht oonnei I. In
capital caaes young counsel are generally i
.q.pointed to defend tin in, who have ]
muds no preparation and liuvono < tpec
tat!? n of reward. The State, on thee ou
tran , is ruth and powerful, lt not only i
ualuries :?nd employs eminent counsel,
bul awyors, who often have bad years
of ? xpononce in thu prosecution of crim
inals. They have thc criminal law itt
their tonga's und und are m dollly ready
in argument, but Wop posted ou ail duos'
tious of doubtful testimony. In lids,
too, defendants arc at great dinah n t
Again, in theory thu butte ask: th<
conviction of no innocent man, but in
practice, from tho very nature of tue le
gol profession nud from the foot that in
till cases sent up for trial, thu St tte bas n
prima facie case, solicitors, UH a nile,
though not intending it, prosecute for
conviction and present in tho strongest
light every fad pointing to pr bearing on
. ilt. Trae, m olden tunes the d?tend
it in criminal eases was allowed in
ouuscl, lint then thc Queen'B coi.
.resented all the facts, pro and cou., um)
icft tho case to the jnry. Now then art
two sides m every case, criminal SK well
us civil, und tho conteM hi for a totdlol
of guilty on ono side sud not guilty on
tho other, each attorney arraying th?
facts of bis side to the bei i oj lu.-, ability .
This is the practice, mal in UlO ?tri ligtl
Of thoStato and tim ft;enCwco ol it;
counsel, tho d?tendant ia aj ri di ad vant
Again, the law ssya it s better thut
many guilty shdrnd (?sape, thun that oin
innocent man should suffer. TMosci < bli
nunt writers contend, und perhaps truly,
too, that many guilty do t roupe und ns
crib? it to defects in thc law, but tin r? I
DJ statement of innocent parlies suire;;
ing and no positive word of caution 1
jurien against coiKieiioi.. WV read bi
week'ap account ol' a co!.o?d min -H U
?ictedln.Teiiiaftita if grand iarocf.v
On pbbliAlnnr thu mis* ),
arose and aolaianly Alleging his ir.ic
Ml^ik^/^W* 'ht 'r 'ib.''' ^^'S-.T'^l 1
country records natue vous iu^bintciv o
porsons convictod aud executed, in .som?
casos Imprisoned for year?, win n theil
innocence was established. lu such
OMOS cnuvictioi s are generally based on
circumstantial evidence, and tho experi
ence of that euiiuent elimina! judge,
Loni l?ale; lcd bibi tb specially waru
juries against convictions rm purely eu*
cumstatitial ovidcnc?. Tho s uno mle
applies with equ d turco ?ll all oases, foi
tho linen of distinction botweou misad
venture, Bolf-dofonoe, manslaughter and
murder, so shade into otloh other as to
render it very dillioult \u locrtto the
grade of ci imo. In c i.-:cs resting ou cir
cumstantial evidence, the corpus doiioti
hoing proved, tho question is, who did
tho killing and ut.der wl?Ol e.rcum
IstancesV lu ordinary homiuidc, tho
? slayer bein;,' koo,vu, the question is, was
' there just cause for tho act or suftioiont
provocation to rodnco tho killing below
murder and how far. llero lies the di iib
cully. Tho jury, beiug unable to read
i tho heart or interpn t the motives ol the
slayer, lind lt hard to lix the grade of the
crime and hence their vordiot. We arc
I not surprised that few perseus are found
guilty of murder, for it is bettor to err on
tiie sido of mercy than strict justice.
Rather are wo surprised that any man
should havo. within him the elements ol
murder and hence that any are guilty,
though many are. Murder is u Killiu^
with malice ami presupposes a heart dc
void of social duty and ,fatally beor, on
mischief, a heart desperately wicked and
utterly regardless of bun,mi lifo. It is
hard to conceive of a man so abandoned
as to commit it, but such men do liv?
and when they kill with malice they should
sutler tho penally, but they should have
id tho rights of defence consistant witJj
tho preservation of society. Now wesaj
tlmsn nght-!, as they exist, should not bc
ab lid ged, and iu sacing this wo have n<
sympathy with crime or oriniinals, bul
for the reason that persons charged v?ul
orimo are not necessarily crimiuals, am
because, in our judgment, the Stitt
professing protection to ber citizens,
from our nature and practico in trials
lu ? great advantages over defendant!
charged with orin e. AM citizens ar?
personally interest? il in tho proveutioi
and suppression <d crime, but baviiij,
'this natur I fooling we should guan
against hulking the law au in t^innont o:
vongeanoo against orimo without rogart
to tile ci imiunl, ral her striving Lo euforoi
thc law with justice tempered with tho*
merciful prov.- ons, tho law in its termi
itt? rupts to >iir w mound, not criminal?
but persons oharged with erimei
Lot m. now cs inline the assumed fact
on whicli tho arl ides of Judge liudsoi
and othe.s ure i ased, keeping in Bum
t ho maxi mp, bud tho crow, bad tho egg
like product a bk?, a false premiss uece?
H.irib iohds to a 'falso oonolusio?, Titos
writers assn mu as a bud that grav
. .neu s, ? . i.ee.uvlly mu'dora, aro groi.m,
of more fr? qucbi ? courro?oo~in onrS'. d?
I-, tins true/ A i to our county, wo doo.
Ks truth and for verillcatlou appeal t
tradition lind tho records of otir courts
As t.? tho State, rill thing tl considered, W
abo ?leny i!^truth.
Upon such a charge by ii lonfomporar
lo? than two yuatsu?o, no examined ou
s'-stol.s docket aud foiuul len thu
twenty (wc tbluk sixteen ov BCvoiitcet
oases of lur.al.'i cnb red, including Qas<
not air. - lcd and tried, and Oovcrihg til
period sinoo tho war. Several bl thtt
? as, s w?n homioldo by misadventure i
purolj tuchuioul mansbuightor, and ?*
the others tried w. rc cases oi eell deft ni
or lUaUfeidUghtt IroUl sud.leu heat an
passim, except one based, on off cumstat
ted evidence, fu lill the.-e cuses only Of
verdict ?d' murder was lound nod ll
pui ty was ? x ccu leif.
Let us look al these lucia in tue ligl
cf tho past twenty years and pompai
thurn with facta qf twenty years polo]
the war. In I80? ibo ncople'had T.H \-?t
from a long war and found their hons
often pilfered and dostroy d, their st ><
gone, their farms a wast*', their slav
omancipaUd, themselves a oouqnar?
people, pour, reckless and <h moraby,
aud by lu pu nt oontact with blood tr
death' habitually proue to un.l'i.a
human lifo. For such n pcopln is not :i
slim rcoord ?d' homicides iu tho conn
au honor and tho highest encomium <
tiie law-abiding oliavaoter ol our peopl
Hut this ia not ell. During the twoti
years over 4,000 slavcb in tho cunt,
were raised to full citizenship, a po: itu
thoy tvero totally untitled to lill frc
I want Of cdne?tj?n, t raining and ibtegri
I of character, tn ti.i s new-lb dg? i I?IUT
they naturally became arrogant to ta.
j former rasatorsi did n< t regard the law
I mouin am! timm and in the changed re
, tion of whites nod blacks numerous
le red ?ci. and homicide, would natu, a
be e xpected. How slim toe recoid a
how complimentary to tho peaccal
character of tho whites, when it shu
but three nogroei killed by whiten in
years in a popolatioo of uearly 20,1
people. But this 13 not all, l)uring t
Jil years tho nogroj invested with li
frage, sought ami obtainod politi
is?wci, abused it, Oppressed tho peo|
with taxation, wri cked the ondit of 1
I itali, government by thu issue and ?
I of Slate burnie, and with his Kudical
lies inaugurated a systc.u ol' public ]
luge w! ?oh maddened tho white ? lom
ami added demoralization to demorali
tion. In tho face of these abnori
times tho country might exjatot a bc
tomb ol homicide? each year, and yet
spi.nl of law and order prevailed ti
*on?lcrful extent, giving usu hotter
cord than that lor a bk?'period in non
times. Hut this ju nut all. Luring
JO years tho Air i due H.ulroud has h
surveyed, gr.ul d and built uud u g
deal of work bas b'cn done ou tho 1
ltidgo Hoad, drawing together y,conu
laborers of all disses aud colors
tending to affrays and homicides. I
I towns have also sprung np and our i
i illation hiuthtrgi'ti iucrjeastd. < luke
Combine aU'tbjsJ feudi ucl s to bu;
ings aud pe n ?' breaking and the ori
j committed in this eonnt^n?o tho ,
are fcW?r V>nn t ie nirwst Itt'.V abiding t
.'? >. ' h.ivr ' unlfifi^'l Li fact,
Sossions journal '.'T;oKeiis,i AC have
nocc'Bs b) it i wo arc satisliul, will sin
larget number of gravo crimes l mur
included; f ir 20 j?lars Indore the
than in the bast ?U yeats. ! bis W?I
lound true, Wo think, ni Uithstaii;
tho inorc.i.e o. population hy 'mm;
tum ab-1 the ofti/.ensbin of th* nf
whoso vfol?tiotis of la? twVi/e riot
loogni/abl. I., the c Ult pl s??rMons.
. j remember when font whftO men
I ] lyiftfl at thu natue ounit before-di?
r fur 1111 i n ^yjflW y^^liffta^g#
lj|#Vlvo bdioffrs Wire In Jfttl Irora Tn
' I Hilf lor mtudcr. In fact we can c
?| Irom memory moro homicides by whites
' before tho war than have oceurn u in the
lust 'JO yt irs, und our memory will not
oxtoiul baek ?0 years prior to tho war.
This, too, when Our population in 1815
was little over half wi mt if. is now.
Why, then, you ask, is there ? general
impression that.homicides are far more
frequent and increasing constantly than
j they formerly were? Simply because tho
! assertion is so commonly and confidently
I made that it. has been accepted as a fact
i wi'.hout investiga'icm. Au old philoso
pher waa once puz/lod with the question,
why water in u tub witli. a fish in it
would weigh tho same as it did without
: tho tjsJi. VYajs tho fact true'.' ile found
I on investigation il was not. St), we co?
tent!, thofco writers OH the criminal lau
Will tt?d on investigation, certainly in
our county, that the pillar of their arti
cles is false in fact and hence leads to u
Anotli?r reuson why men conclude that
i homicide is on the increase is the ease, ra
pidity and completeness' of tho collection
, of nows through tho operations of the tolo
i graph, the railroads, the press aud tim
I moro completo system of mails. There
i is not au accident or homicide or other
j grave crime committed in tho State or
j tho I nited Stbtca but is Hashed over the
, wires to thc remotest part of tho nation.
! Ina population ot sixty millions of peo
. plo this array of crime in ull its horrors
i preseuts u formidable and fearful record,
and editors, seeing this commingled ro
oord <laiiy, conclude on general princi
ples that neither Ufo nor property will
long be secure, unless the homicidal ten
dency eif the age is cheeked, In this
way, without investigation and without
regard to the urea and population cover
ed by the daily report of crimes iu all
parts of tho country, the impression gets
out and tho cry is raised : "Crime abounds
und is increasing at a fearful rate.'' Thu
samo mistaken idea, proceeding from a
j like cause, exists in othor h tatters, in
tho suiuiiier we hear men say moro per
seus aro killed by lightuing uow than
formerly. This is true and yet false.
True, in tl at moro people aro now killed
than formerly, because population bas in
oreascd, but false, in that no great' r per
eon tuyo is killed, lue same is largely
true of bros, railroad accidents aud such
like, thc didcrcuoe now, if any, lu iug
.td? dinted to negligence. Thb is au ago
of travel and nows, an age when, figura
tively ipeakins, what is sj?ohen in tho
ear is proclaimed from the housetop.
\Y< say. th.m that, so far us our county
is con ocr ned; crone i? not. on thc incrc.ve,
ami so far as the State is concerned, ail
thing; !. ?cg considered, we do not lie
lies, d i M th-.: mt .ease. Ju fuel ?lithe
last torn of court at Hielo, ns He re was
not a good hurd day's work on thc crim
inal docked and tli? ciurt of sessions
adj itiru . 1 early Tuosduy. ti ruroh ii dds
at Wu! hal IA above a day ami a bau*, and
:.' thc summer term tho pelit jury is
often discharged betoro tho granel jury
eau completo its loport, Un i xarniuali in
it v>ill be found also tba*, the billi ol
crime, small lind pravo, is committed bi
I negroes und that even botlntafuj th j.. ,vfe
nave, irlativedy ip akin-?, few cninos,
Charges such as are piada tn the actiolet
rob..id to operate iajurloVlbly on th?
obi/-TIS of the SI de, tending tn imped?
immigration, lower tin: val he o! prbpeitj
and prcvout tho investment ami milos
of capital, ami if not founded on sole:
facts, should be rofutcd,
i \\ u baye beretpiero bri; Uy alluded u
I thc light ol e'.'.-iilc.ige ol jurors iu erna'
inul casos, ami expressed our onpusj
tlon to any chango iu the law givint
.ThdgcS the right tb charge on thc facts
We iltiuk intelligent jurors, who poe ont
j often kposf personally the defend 10?
abd .. itm- ies in SUCH C0.SOS, can la.
understand and weigh tho value ?
b s imony and should bo permitted t<
foi :.. their judgmont on tho facts brough
i i without "aid or influence by th
.judge" liic latter i? generally an entiri
; stranger to tho parties ami could no
I form an correct an opinion ou facts a
' citizens of the county, (iu now lian ai
tho power he should have.
tye ?ball now consider one other id
! leged defect which, wo think, has n
; foundation in fact, viz: Unit juries, b,
. reason of bias from pm so md friondshi
towards tho defendant, or against tb
I I ito from being stood asido by tho Se
! licitor, too oft. o fad to convict when tb
j roof warrants a verdict of guilty. 1
other words, that under tho prosout law
giving defendant a s r esiled right to st
h ot tho jury and shutting oil tue right. <
the judge, "to aid the jury and mlh
euco tho result," conviction ai thc guilt
is the exception and escape the rule, n
veroing the old mle.
Wo have already shown that mon hov
au innate untipathy to crime aud th;
tho mero charge of crime brings odiu
on tho party charged ami li ntis to p
opinion of guilt, which defendant mu
ri move. ,The State, by its ablcjtud exp
ricucod soljoitor, having tho closing n
gument, why should thu judge have <
dcsini the right to argno tho foots
thc jury or "to aid tho jury or influen
the result," or, as the writer nays,
bring them back lo right reason wh
their minds have been led astray I
astute argument? This looks a lib
: bloody, aUttlo vindictive, perhaps a lin
Jeffrey didi, and such pow? r in the ind
is not necessary, either for the poi?
order or p ri diction of soeioly.
But we have digrcwlad. Tho jury 1:
in Borith Carolina has bom greatly i'
proved since the war. 1'orniorly j.in
worn promiscuously drawn iuopcii coi
(rom H bet containing thc names of
votiug taxpayers of the county and t
list was prepared six c. ouths before t
term of icrvieo. laggan. No sp?cial rpu
boutions were required. Under tho pi
ont law the box u tilled by selecting fri
tho taxpayers of t ie county a Inuit
nutnbor of names, possessing nerti
tpiuhtieaii >ns, to wit : Tho names put
tlio box must fi pie. ont ci'?zens ol Inl
ligence, of good mural uliaroftfrnniU
from legal exception. From th.! box
Ulled thc JIU , of each brm ls* ?f. rn wi
'?.nt time K-foi'o coti/t. The Uw ji
vides that the l>ox snail be filled bj
jory commissioner appointed by the fl
i ernor, the chaiimun i t Hie board
l 'ouu ty Com missioners and tho (iou
Amiuyr, all,uicea?tfUy. iuh l?geut, a
and sWOrn t>> do th/ir duly. This i
ohincry should and does give our coi
repn - nt dive en ii on thi! july Mid r
i rates 'is u safe guard t.? ?QUOOVII.-O um
i terror to tito guilty. We would bose
i io believe that snell men could bo bin
r or prejudiced against tho Stute, wi
r truly moana againd. themselves, tl
1 families and their in torc* ts, by tho n
I triflo of bvviog stood aside by tho soll?
M-' - ? ?JJJ'.'
iu tho proco* of onipunucling ?l j'ny for
ii special case. We would bo grieved to
think that any moral, intelligent juror
would wilfully form and nurse u bia? or
prejudice for or nguthst his fellow,
against lon personal interest and sworn
duly. Wo aro proue to judge men hy
our own nature, and ?ocord to all the
meed of honesty and good faith, until
they have forfeited the rigid to it hy
their note Hud conduct. Let evil be to
him that thiukoth ovil. Tho only ami
great danger of bias or prejudice in a
criminal case is against the aeciv ed and
proceeds boin that natural repulsion to
crime whick is lound in tho bearte of all
lun.i t men. From this them its danger
that a juror, though acting honestly and
conscientiously on his judgmont, may
see and hear and jud go darkly on the
evidence. S'livo as lie may lo bear and
dcoido impartially, he may, unconscious
ly to hiinse.h, bo influenced agaipst the
accused, by bia untrod to orime attach
ing to tho parly charged with it. While
this is true we must remember that no
syetom can bu perfect and free from all
objection and that as men must aud will
ditter in opinion, no soborno can be
adapted to the wishes or wants of all
The csseutiul features of tho present
system of trial by jury have .stood the
test of ages, have; protected life and pro
perty to tho general .satisfaction und
have fouud noae?opt?ble substituto. We
say let them stand unimpaired, for if
thore bo any force in tho objection on
tho ground of l ins, by standing aside a
juror and .Mich like, thoro is no remedy
for it suv . in abolishing j try trial
altogether. A panel ul Jfs jurors could
have 00 eiffel, for assuming that jurors
have so little honesty as to bc controlled
by prejudice for being stood aside on
the one hand, or by personal feelings
for or against tho dofeudaut on tho other,
is to put it beyond tho power ol either
party tu got a trim j irv. Weare satisfied
with the prosont system and believe this
hue and cry of grave oriines being on tho
in?rense is a false aim in, founded on j
l?ili ? d rumor without invest igst ion; fur- j
ther, that jarics fail r i - lu ir duties has
no foundation in tile ?vonls of oui";
A tull reply to tho extraordinary arti- '
ilea of these writer.-, or rather a just vin- ;
lieut hm of th? peace g1 d order of om
Si ile, ull things ccnsid rod, would re
iiuiro several ai Units, an I if the ti ?acna
ilon gees im Wc reserve 'bo right to Our
?fty. . Wc hope also in a future abort 'ar
ticle to show thaf lvueli law is in no
<vny attributable to defects in our cri ml- j,
aal Lw or it.-, adiuim.itration, but^ purely
md tololy to tho cruelty, heinousness
uidaggr.i. ti. d uireu m stances attending
tho crime. As there are croakers in!
farming, in meohanios, in morals and in
tlth'Ot pur-ant', nb wb flb'd them ia the
law, aud aa in the former oases, the 1
fault, if any, bes not in Providence, soi j
in tho latter, tho delict, if any, lies notl1
iu tb. law. la.tus thou lay aside com
plaints and using the menus before us, !
111\clive for generations, move on in the 1
road to peace and nrosporty.
UKscI i Nf; iiir" iiKSKU i s.
A rbi W i H Waifs in lu? >liulc tu IIb?
Mtiti UH On- Utan*,
from the N. W York Huies.)
"Tho farmers of Nebraska h ive served !.
notice upon thc "grout American desert"
that it must withdraw from their State. 1
Mid ure now pushing ita er. tarn boanda- ;
ry across the lim; luto Wyoming and
Colorado, tja thu 5th instant Cheyenne
?.aunty's llrst agricultural fair was held
it Sidney, a town on tho meridian of I
IOU degrees. This comity, which is '
ibout thosivtoo( tho Stat ol Conucoti-ji
sut, lied between thu meridians of 102 j
regrets aud lol degree:', fir beyond Ibo 1
line which was dcolared n few years ?go ]
11 bo tho Westi rn limit ol agriculture in J t
the region lying ix tween the Uocky I
Mount uns and the Mississippi. ? i
Sidney is situated on Lodge Polo j
Urcek, a tributary of tho South 1'latte. I
i'hree years ago there nras not a farm 1
house or any sign ol habitat! in in the
region 1s t wei ii thi so streams, whioh ox- '
^.iiils across the aonthom ,"iit of
Oheycune county. "To-day, said
(?i lierai Morrow, "tho landscape is
lotted all over with houses, looking like
the little silver spots on emerald fields."
The soil is surpassingly rioh in tho eic- j i
monts which produce magniQcout crops i
of corn, wheat, oats aud other oeieals."
Alu.o. i the only drawback is "thc Blip? 11
posed hick of moisture in the crop-1
growing months of June, July and Au
gust." ibit this "supposed luck of i
moisture" bas not pruveuted the settle-j
meut of the county by farmers and
bullic.cnt agricultural development
within two br three years to warrant thc
holding of a fair in "the desert." With
legard to changes which have made tho
region attractive, Qenoral Morrow said:
"Has the Climate of Weston) Nebraska
changed within tho last, few years, aud is
it Still undergoing modification? I think
it is safe to any that the eli mute ol' all the
Northwestern State? has undergone,
is still undergo'i ig, a change in .respect
to thc amount of moistore ai.anally de
posited in tho form of ruin Sad View.
From observations running thr ugh ten
years iu Eastern Nebraska it may be
e insidercd s* sn established faot thal
there sn-moro iniuy days in the year
than there wero formerly."
To show that tho climate of a country
ia mod died by c-flnvation and set tb ment
ho referred to his experience at Port
pouglns, in Utah. This post was estab
lished in bstd, and m th^t year the rc?
corded rabifall then; was only ? leveu
indies, fte ii eral ?Morrow was in oom
mand at the peat from li*70 to IH74, aud
ih Hie Ust luimfltlyisir too r.ianjalf, whicll
bod been . "gradually nicrciyung from
year to year," mtoncd twenty.. even ;
Laphcu. Thc greater pari of tim-, nan
foil in ttio spi?ig and pumifiei month.*,'
although it ia reported by tho Mormons I
Uiat D 1M7 and for several years after
rwa?l thur* wa/it?tb?* myallis scarcely
un/ prcoiyitalKui of itfc^tpre.
J, E, PHTSIOO'S Merchant Tailor Ev
labhshuiout, Columbia, ?. C., is in bill
blast. Only a look will convince any
ono. All that ^fJUtt a lir.'it-nlass lilting
smKtry him.- kju\\ line of thc lu -t,
goods on hand.
"Da you know any thing about Kobiu
spn's r?putation for
"lt ought to ctand very high, Ho told
mo his hew dog oosl him $lo. II? pud
' Dumley >;10 for it. A mun who can cou
rin* nimself BO stmngly *o-tho- truth -ns
that-sdiwi lalkiTH? about bi? dog de??*?*!
tho onnftienco of tho ot.inntl
TIMELY TOPICS K?K KA?MK?S.
HOW TO DO I'AVI.Mi WOltK Al' THIS
Suggestions of Interest, from un Author!
t ni I vi? Source.
(W. ti. Jones Iii Southon} Cultivator
Tho old Georgia ralo was to sow in tho
dark nights iu October. Wo uro of the
opinion that the man who tinders' <l
tho rule literally, and .sowed, plowed und ;
harrowed in hi<j crop after darb, was ns i
philosophical os those who iiutist tbat
wheat should he sown during thc last
quarter ot tho muon in October. I bo
.Mark nights" - y-oallod-as often ooour
doting the Urn! week ns during tho ! wt
week. The best rule probably is io ROW
about the usu d time ?>f the ?rsl killing
frost, which generally occurs, in Middle
Georgia, about tho last ot October or
first of November, ouch a rule applies I
equally well throughout Um region iu
which winter-sowing prevail-, und nd
justs itself to tho other operations and
conditions un a farm, Ueno of whioh ure
dependent lipon tho pbu.es of themoou.
As already suggested in la.-1 month's'
"Thoughtf," not every farmer should
attempt to produce his own supply id
wheat. Proper diversification of crops
doe? not imply that a farmer should ab- '
Bolutoly produce everything. Hut there |
are ninny launs in tho hill country of
the East jrn, Oult and South Atlantic '
Suites, on which wheat may be grown ?
with almost as much certainty as ii: the j 1
great wheat States of Hu: Northwest, h
Experience has shown that the bcsl re- i
suits aro obtained when seed of South- i
ern growth are sown, of varieties that h
uro of local, good reputation. Seed <
wheat from thc North and West fail, ns ?
ii rule, when sown iu tho cotton State*'. ;
Sow ou high, web*-drained cotton bind, t
having a clay subsoil oloso dry, manuring f
with cotton seed, or meal mixed with i
acid phosphate, in tho proportion of i
twenty bushels of cotbin seed or two 1
hundred pounds of meal to ono hundred ; j
I ..ninds ol' acid phosphate, which will do ,
t or one aero. If tho green sefcd aro used |
they should be plowed in bofovo sowing i
t\e wheat. li tho meal bu used with <
itoid phosphate ibo uuxturo bo. ov.?. ,
with thc wheat on thc fleshly plowed ;
land and harrowed i.i altogether,
It ' ?i:l io goo l limo to sow outs in
thc s lUiort ?'.uh; of our territory. 1??
ilced, * is ?. . usual timo in Southern'
Georgia md contiguous sections of oth< r ,
States. i< the work wan not done ?a t (
month, oven in regions farther north, it |
is advisable to sow oal > oven now, rather
thau rely on ti roly on a spring crop.
Notwithstanding repeated ivuitci-killiug .
of late years, wo huvj still more con-?
lidoncO-in tho long-run- in foll sown
oats than in spring sown.
I'< ?TA I'Ofc'..
Delated suggest ions for digging.aud .
preserving this crop wi re given lust,'
month, if not already harvested, no <
lime should b< lost iu flpibg this Job. JI
The hills ba&kf sliowd bc inure and
moro deeply covered v. :tli eui h as Um
winter comes oil.
Thc exceedingly favorably weather >
Heit prevailed during thc early hill has '
tunde it an enny matter t>> gather tho
atop in good condition, lt our : lieges- , '
lions looking to tho most expeditious | '
pla i ol saving Ibo crop have been heeded
Ibo lust picking involves tho gloauiug of
ibo eott.ui i\nanning after tho lira! hasty .
grab, lt will now bo reali/.id bow little j |
will have bei n lost it the bulls remain iu> ,
lucy wi ro (ir.st b ft and how muco, has .
been suv .d by following tho suggestions ( ,
in scenting tho bulk ol' tire Crop in good .
...MU: or r.i\ i;' STOCK.
< )wing to our comparatively mild win-.,
U r cl i run to thu Southern farmer is apt
to neglect wholesome precautions agaiubt
Bcvevo weather. VA fact, it ii shameful 11
how littlo thought or care is given
many farms tb the Comfort of tho dumb
and helpless minimi.> who toil for ns the I
yeur round, and aro OOUtout with then
wage?, rations and shelter. Aside from 1
moral and bumaue considerations it i u
question of dollars and cents thut no 1
larmer can afford to ignore. Thor? are ,
many farmers who aro generous to a
fault iu feOding; they lill np tho feed
troughs und b.iy-ruoh . with corn and j
oat? ami foddor three tinto? a day. Hut .
tho ?helter provided is often of thc most ,
primitivo aud inadequate kind, and, 1 i
.hume to say. sometime? no better tbau I
tho lee-aide of a oorn-oi ib or a fenoo
Ci-ruer. lt should bo romombured thut i
tho fooil ingottcd by a horse, cow or , i
other auinitd serves tis o lii.-dinot pur- (
poses in the animal ccouomj ; i. To '
keep up the bent of the bo ly lo tho 1
point below which tho \it.d processes
jiinnot bo carried on and life continuo.
Thw temperature degreesi must be
mainbiined constantly in the very cold
est as well as in mihi weather. The1
natural means of maintaining this uni
mal beat m by burning a portion of thu
food aa it p issi ? through tho liuigs in j
ibo form ol blood. The colder tho ,
weather- -other things being the same
thc greater will be the proportion of tho i
food that is lal. MI into tho st?maob, Unit
must bc used aa fuel, cud ol Course tho
proportion that can bc ut ilized for repair
ing Waste tissues and i tor. d up a?, fat
must be lessened. Hut if resort is bad
to mechanical means to he^poul th? enid
-?ta hoop in thO heat . a v. tjf gr??t tav-1
nig of food i? aocom plinked. Milla at the 1
. utile trroc tho auirdaUt ?re stronger foi
labor . I latter lor Hie butcher. In our
own do mai . : i .oig( meid ? wc obey this
principio wit out niuob attention to thu'
philosophy ol' it. Wo pr?vido thick
walls, tight Window.-, and doors, stopping
tim cracks with caTe, and warm beds to
sleep on -thus saving the consumption
of a much iafgOT amount of fuohaudi
adding greatly to thc personal comfort;
and happiness and preserving tho health
of tho members ol our family. Natl*,
lumber and boards aro much cheaper
conserva,*?!'* of auimol wa*in#U mnbpro
motcrsof thrifty aud fattening than extra
Block comfortable thiin to compel thorn
to stand Shivering iu t''i fence cornera,
ur At bes! in opon Rhoda or poio-made
stables with crucks BO largo that n dog
might i?usU> jump through. li there is,
WO trust that he ta not uuioug tao read
era of The Cultivator.
It will be o rai inbi ri d in this conuco
tiou that we have oftou stressed tho im
portance ot getting tho porkers into u
condition for J,ho knife before the cold
wcathi .? has set iii for thy winter, I ?ogs
should now. bo m ai ly ur quilo ready to
Utii. and advantage should hu takt M of
Hu ?r 1 (johl tho latter part of thia
Uioulli to cornu ? .ice operations. C'irist
mas should lind them all in tho sie iki .
houso and the Cost khlinga on the Btieks.
The best und olieapest bacon i i that m?do
from boga woll Fatten od and butchered
in .Dec mbi t ur earlier.
While not as delinquent in respect tu
provision foi honsehold comfort BS in
tho matter'of protection to dumb ani*
mids, yet it is ol ten a repr neb to tho
otherwise good name and reputation of
many farmers that they give so little ut
I ntii ti to tho various matters tlmt go to
make up the sum total of housohol i
'. i.itoit aid happiness. Jbg cotton
eiops, plenty of provisions, abundant
hom ' -i < iou, t tc., do not of thetm.. i\<
supply ad tho demands of comfort and
contentment, though rdTording Ino
mean? und removing tho shadow ol' ex
cuse Tor failure. T?tere i: no reason .vhy
a fanner sh;.tdd not have as comfc.it tblc
a borne and as convenient appliuuccs
.gas-light sud water-works only except'
ed) aa in the. town or city. Now is tin
time to make these arrangements and
provisions for tho coming winter. Im
portant factors in tho problem ot domes
bio comfort und tinnily contentment am
happiness nt all tiuicu, they aro two lob
inoro important during the live cr sj?
nonths that are to come. Do away wit!
i. eld style ol' dwelling in the cent J ; 0
i big yur !, kit :h< ;t in one coruor ol tin
?ame, well in another, smoke hons : it
till nnothev, and wood pile of green
?oggy and perhaps swamp woodend .in!
ix over the fono?! or ont by the rond
ade. J .Mt the kitchen and a convenient
?tore-rootu, to bo rcploui bed from tiint
ot:.M from n woil-tlllod smoke-house,
io uuder ti e t ame roof with the i. u l.
ng. Provuh au abundant atore ot cul
iud dried tuel. aud kindling. Hy ultei
lion to the* . and a bandied ollie, do
uils ei li rn abhobt oohvenienoes nut
lomforts, time a nt pit:! nee ave '< li
? rv< i, h Mim ana cheerfulness pron; dc*
iud home is made happy.
Ll VA i to <;'ivi-: : .i WK-.
i !i-\ Vre br Hi mi tor * !>..'. ttirlitru !.> bil ny
K nw; lin twit, uccnutpiuicd hy i p ?li
mud Dnh-rk,'.IriVn Curry, \'. Kr > m-i
[??ni A. Ijiuniiutrecli und immy ul hers < il
last nit,IP :ii Ibo resilience ol Cbtlmclli
August 1*. Wagt uer tittil pti;*cutcd Iii
with a l-Ct ' ! I ! timed ns ll titulaCXpte.?lv
[d' their dvcpgratitude lo him for Un ???o,
v ices ito ici.di red 'ri obhihihiir, their r< !brfi
rroth thc insano usyhbii ul Ward's ls ir
According i" Air Wngcnrr's stoiy,
jrqal wren ; i-, hciug upheld liv lim lb?ar
d' Chinitio/* sn 1 < ema ?ne. .il oillciii t . ie:
iii. d v itli tiio WaJd'i h ind A^ylithi Mi
wrigciier says laut.lu y. ..?! .!.?. sjiudov, of
lonbt over 'j'1' .? int j bri ii* 'ire t d .. roi
bled in tliO ltUliui ic?yb^i ot! AVtn PilV i ul
tiht.e ov -r ntiotlitid ci til?', women wi
uv? been deel ox-d in ..ne are ns rad n
e. .nit ol their sex who aie imlay ieee,
li/.t,d h . society being mn.tn ly s .ma
bevel id it lil . . .en up wh > pal I Ile
.espeeb '.> Mr. Wagoner ;.: his hoar lu
light liutl 'ah - ir) tell Ihhl at hist ld i Iii;
?ei ned ca'indy incredible'. Feidh ai
I bilitch, who lind bien ?ihdhU'd for ?v.
. i x I y days in du as\ i titi i i . iii tl vet y i
elllgcnl manner lin story ot inctioutnu
ic hutl,received on NYtud's .1 nd. I! ?>
hat. ah hough ? ....?. u)d ;. : t** ; > m....
null Ikings, h?i . refused u iiu.tihii' i
'otc tlie 'physician ' rii'c ?'n?y|um, nnd co
it tinily kejH at n tMilftl em;! viven!, :
washing clisliea, serai.htuu Hit Hoer a>
waiting on tMh!<\
John Curry, ?ho pr? ited ii pict tn o >
??nod health, Ipfi une ! UK O | OJtOt' lilli . !
Iltul bt'CU c.alibied in ihea^l.na fal.
years and ?..?.t. months', und Ulli I .v..',.' i
pe st triado ' .'>' alni l<) rel. w.il ?
lured hy th -"" In charge, Ali. Curry
i od ny employed bj a leading vVhnlcsti
inn, the monikers "t u hi di vidno lila st
A. Kramer, an iuleliigent Clermun, tn
ho st or j of his three mouths'contlm-m
md said timi he hud hceii.cruelly treal
.y those in charge, w hen ?hey well Kin
lint ho wfts mentally sound null of go
Carl Ai iismnicreoh, an exceed it gi) a
ni..mud <?. tnn ni A mei u ?in, roluted I
. n! experience aa nu inmute"! lae i. MI
ISVjuni al W.aril's Island, an I Odd hi W
aid e l ipid l'?.?ni his living tomb hy >wi
niilg the liasl Uiver in miler in renell I
'alYIHy and friends, from whom he h
n en cruelly separated for months!
August P. Wngener, tho young Irv;
who hud teemed ibo release of ?eine I h ii
tlx ?um pei- u.s from the inland, told bi
it the request ol a poor, hnlfsti.rv
woman whoa) hu-h.uid hid been ill? . i,
ron liped h<- had taken Up lier ?a?C, "? >
ind ?h i' lhere Were many of a dniil i
Alter.Mr. Wngonci had !>cen Mr?Dird
Mr Plereit nppeared In the recoption rot
in I in n few \\ i ll woi dtd i emin Us pren n
I he ii. ROI . lug yoUOg "iw)er willi a ha
.<>i i!;l,\ framed b< i ol tea dillions, tende
hy the Si cinty of Huinanily ?"1 the ?
vii. s retider?fl ia behalf of lite suffer
[niantesof Ward's Islnhd. Oorofier \.<
(ind Mr. Flt ion, who were iiNo there,
lents of llatiflsoolo presents tendered Hy
mme BOplefy, icturnc . their ilunn;- t >
irrueiiais ihn,ot ?jj tn a lew well cbu&en ;
kindly c.\pie-?i.il wolds.
Mr" ntld Mr^ Wain ncr, nt'ier un iv
the coiigrrUulaf'.otis oi their friends, hiv
ail pr?tent fO pnttikeof the repast they
ptepilred for thc occasion. Aftern
lin fry hours t f feasting, dancing and 9
im,', the JftJf<|US gut lita ?ag dispersed.
Jork atar, Nor. 1.
- -Trm T.TTTT.T: pTXwnT.n":" '.*"' "
. I ;,e hoe is like yo i." niid thc father,
And proudly un i tenderly smiled.
. W hy, no. ho's like, you,'' ? rit d the mm
And laughed au she fondled her dill
' Iii- hair is like yours und the sunshii
.'Nought et?: i's - . bright," he repli.
"Ills eyes Jin ve yent vc) y expres'sfon.
Thc Color'bf ytinrs, trt:.,'* sin ciU'iV
'Hi* inotiih', dear; yoa ??raiot ?leny li
Ivieh ilbnple. (-.n h eurvrv. lsyntir OWl
' His linn riffle chin mid his forehead
Ate due to his ful|,< r :\\t)i\r- "
"Ah. .veli, din, herald, UK hr? kte?Wl
"Wed! h.vc him tho helter, the elf.
ff hat eaOhln his fftV* srjcfl th<
' Ami each t ils lo rcc-.gnly.c self!"
Noturlou? Hen Kin?",.i Now lor ? i-'ew
Noterions Women of Color?
(From tim Mull anil Express )
Mr, T. Thomas Fortuuu ia ono of the
ablcs! ami best known colored men in
tho country. Ho is a man of 85 or there
I abouts, with a keen, intellectual fuco and
it quick interest iu everything that con
cerns the future of the colored people of
1 America. "Tell me something," Mr.
I Fortuno was asked a few days since,
"about tho women of your ruce who have
J done the most for it and lor themselves."
"Colored women h.ive hardly had op
' portunity to ?lo much that is sensation
al, " be replied. "They haven't bael
time. Bul still there nie several who
are prominent among their own peoplo
and who have earned a solid reputation.
Take Washington, for iustauce. Colored
women of the best class there don't biko
much to marrying. They get along
better than the men, and usually devote
themselves to their work and succeed
well in it. Tim most prominent colored
women in Washington, in tho best senso
i ?I the word, are thc teachers-such
women as ?Miss M. ll. I h iggs, professor
" Eugligh in Howard I uiversity, a most
Udentod woman; or Josephine J. Turpin,
of tho same school, who is a frequent
contributor to newspapers; or Lucy
.Moulton, who is the eiiloieut principal
of ? big training school; or Mary Nullo
or Marion Shield -all highly cultured
women, respected and esteemed by
those who know them.
"In Philadelphia there is the skilful
woman physician, Dr. Caroline V. An
derson, ribo is tbe daughter of William
Still, a wealthy colored merchant and
om; of the direotorsof the 'Underground
Railroad,' of which he has written tho
history. His daughter is a regular
graduate ol' the medical departmout of
Howard University and enjoys a big
practice. Philadelphia is the homo of
other wonnai of character and ability.
There is Mis. Fanny .Jackson Coppin,
the lecturer, who devotes most of her
time to th? institution tor colored youth
there, and ?Mrs. Gertrude Moselle, who
used to conduct the woman's depart
ment on tim Ne v York Freeman, and
who has written for the New York Times
and tho Philadelphia Press us well as
for papers published in thu interest of
the negro race. Mra. Moselle is a mem
ber of tilt! Woman's National Press As
sociation, the only member of her raco.
Mrs. Frances K. Harper, tho teniper
uncc lecturer mid writer, has lived much
in Philadelphia also.
"fn Hosten one ot tho host known
colored wonieu is u modiste, whoso oyo
for effects in fabric, form and oolor hus
cn lc her rich. Other eolorod women
who have ? wider reputation t han any of
those are Marie Selika, tho prima donna
soprano, who ivas bom in . atehez und
whose voi c is of such otucrs, purity
and com puss that mr/?.al critics have
called, her second ouly to Patti. Mme.
Solika has tskcu Gcrstor's place in tho
concert iu Boat in, and oas sung before
tho crowned beads of Europe.
"Madamo Nellie Brown Mitchell is
another musician with a mechanical turn
of mind. She hus invented and patented
two or threo appliances now iu common
use by musical instructors. Equally
well-known in another brunch of the fine
uri:, is Edmonin Lev -. tho pculptor.
She is an Afro-Indian, sad was born in
New York Kode, but DOW baa lier studio
in JUonn , where sia has plenty of com
missiona and baa done some line work.
. Thc Old Arrowniftkor and bia Daughter'
is one of her bi. t known productins sud
is ow iu d in England.
..ida Ii. W?lls- 'lola' whose suit for
damages under Mississippi laws for be
ing forcibly Ihm&t out ol a passenger cur
iu Memphis by three ov tour white men
brought her before tho public, a few
yours ago, ia probably the best known of
colored women journalists, und Miss M.
. Lanibeit is a pootoHs of genius. The
wife oi tho K v. Frank Grimkc, of
Jacksonville, Fla., formerly a Miss
Forton, of Philadelphia, isa young wo
man, but already widely known."
1 asked Mr. (ortuueif he kuew any
colored wollun who were reputed
wealthy, but hu did not seem especially
interested iu that branch of thu subject,
and 1 respected Ilia reticenoo, It would
not be difficult, however, t<> pick out a
dozen colored wouieu in Me country
whoso property in the aggregate might
bo expressed "on inform?t.on and be
lief," by sovcu ligures. In snob a list
would come tho Gloucosters, thu rieh
boavvting-liouso keepers ol Brooklyn;
Miss Amanda Kubanks, of Home, Qa.,
whose Ahite father loft her $40,000; Mrs.
Mary A Wilson, a wealthy Florida wo
man; Mrs. Mary PloasantS, of San
Prauoisco, who hold., something moro
tuan $35,000 in Government bonds,
owns a ranch and luis some city real
estate; Mrs. .Jumes Th? oas, of St.
Hiuiis, who is worth i nothing liko
$300,000, and whose barber shop, tho
"Lindell", is the most luxurious in tho
country, and Mrs. Catherine Blake, who
owns the Kcnmoro Hotel al Albany,
which is reputed worth $150,000. Mis?
Drake, a young colored woman of Nash,
N. C., has taken the prize for the beat
prod notion of cotton nt all tho State
burs, and other Ai io-American women
n.e. doing solid industrial work.
There arc two colored women in tho
ranks of the law, Miss Florence Ihiy, of
Brooklyn, and Mrs. M. S. Cary, of
Washington. There is at least ouo col
ored ministar, the Kev. Mrs. Freeman,
of Providence. Thoro has been ono
woman at the hoad of u newspaper pub
is died in tho interest of Afro-Americans,
Miss Carrie Bragg, who for Home time
edited thu Lancet, nt Petersburg, Va,
quite m Komanoe.
Mr. J. B. Blaikie's mnrrmgo to Mis?
Ellen Botts, of Savannah, wus recently
announced. This marriage has an nii
, usual halo of romance about it. Miss
! Botts was a niece ol president Arthur,
and alter her ougagemeut a fever and
? he exeitumunt of thu earthquake brought
al M mt a losa of vision which tho ocouhsts
pronounced permanent. Hbo immedi
ately sent her Hanne, who was in Scot
land, a release, which he rofnsod to
aecept, ami took the noxt steamer to
America to declaro bis fidelity and urge
an immediate marriage. This unexpect
ed happiness produced a greet chango
for the better in Mini Botts, which ended
by her recovering her evosight. Tho
young . pooplo go to Hoot land next
month.- Haiti more Bun.
Why ha profaastonaltl <>nifort*
able? Because he takes i