Newspaper Page Text
It out. Prom Its appearance It looked
to nie us if some one hud used some
kind of bar to prize It loose. The work
i.ad tho appearance of being well done.
1 remain, Yours, very truly,
Columbia Plumbing and Cornice
H. B. Chapman, Manager.
Columbia, S. C, Feb. 18.1004.
.V C. Dover. Ovula, Fla.
Did the state house roof show (lash
ings were torn out when you examined
(Signed) Frank P. Mllburn.
Ocala, Fla., Feb. 18,1904.
Frank P. Mllburn, Architect.
Yes, some hair dozen places absolute
ly pulled away from wall.
(Signed) A. C. Dover, i
Columbia, S. C, Feb. 15. luoi.
.Mr. Frank P, Milhurn.
Dear Sir: I am a native of Qoorgla,
but now a resident of Charlotte, N. C.
I urn a practical cornice and metal und
Sheet worker, with 22 years actual ex
i did a great deal of work on the
State capltOI at Columbia; had charge
>r the sheet metal work of the Innui
dome and the outer dome, and ;.ls(,
the guttering, and the same was put tu |
according to the plans and details for
the same, by experienced workmen. In
II gooii. workmanlike manner. I have
read the published testimony of Mr.
Hunt relating to my work, and the
Sa'me Is in tin; main not true.
I have this day been on the roof and
examined the dome and gutters. The
door of the lantern or the dome has I
been badly abused since the work was .
? ompleted and accepted. There have
been holes made in the copper, which j
?cause leaks in the inner dome. There
is now a piece of timber there with
nails in it. which might cause some ol
the holes noted.
As to the guttering, the statement of
Mr. Hunt is generally not true. They
ue made of Merchant's ol! method IX
tin, which is the standard of America,
nnd proper material for that particular!
work. It rests on a granite foundation
and has all the- protection necessary.
After three years use it is in perfect
I have had large experience with
roofs, and have been familiar with this j
???oof, oft' and on. since it was put on. i
In this matter, again the testimony of
Air. Hunt Is largely untrue. It is us
?phalt and gravel, and not tar and
gravel. None of the stone used in Its ]
construction were one ami a half or
iwo Inches, and the little slipping noted ]
is Only some slight excess of material,
us is common to such roofs.
The cost of metal ceilings In 1901 and
X902 was very much less than it was
;m 1889, because of progressive Ideas I
and methods in this kind of business!
and prices of material. Al hough I had
no interest In the celling of the main
lobby or elsewhere, my work was neat
it. and 1 had conversation with Mr.
Unkefer shout same, and I know that
the new ceiling cost nine than it would
have - est to repair the old one. but to
tlx the old one would require the im
portation of special expert metal work
ers, and a great deal of time, which
would have resulted in Inconvenlenci
to the legislature.
(Signed) Q. a. Ray.
To Whom it May Concern:
(lenth nu n: I have read with sur- '
price Capt. Hunt's testimony In re
gard to the roofing applied to the state
house, and have the following to sub
The roofing on this building is what
is known as "Warren's Anchor Brand,
Natural Asphalt Hooting." and was ap
plied by the '?Charlotte Roof and Pav
ing company" of Charlotte, N. C, ac
cording to the plans and specifications
adopted by the Warren Chemical and
Manufacturing company of New York
city. This roof is what is known as '
our 'Standard Anchor Brand Asphalt
Hoofing," and has been applied accord
ing to our plans and specifications. It
contains no coal tar. or coal tar prod- !
nets, nnd Is composed out of asphalt |
throughout. in reference to Capt. I
Hunt's assertion that the roof Is of lit
tle or no value. I might stale that
while there ate- some leaks in the roof,
these leaks an- occasioned, not through1
the fault of the roofing, hut for other
icasons not in the rooting contract, j
Now, the pitch Of this roof, as nearly !
as 1 can ascertain, is about four inches.j
to the foot, and the roofing Is well !
adapted to this class of construction;
in fact we do 11? >t hesitate to advocate,
and furthermore to apply this roof
ing on buildings whose roofs have a
pitch of (0) six inches and upwards to
the foot. The crushed quartz used for
the graveling surface Is such as will
pas., through u mesh from r,-if> inch to
1-2 inch In size, and I am at a loss to
understand how Capt. Hunt can say
that he was able to find stones as big
as pigeon's ? ggs. or tho size <>r a man's
Viand. I submit the above testimony in]
defense of the Anchor Brand Roofing, |
Which has been attacked by Capt. I
Hunt, ami trust it will be accepted us [
(Signed) ' Walter B. Harris,
Representing Warren Chemical and
Manufacturing company, 17 Battery'
Place, New York city.
I notified the Charlotte Hoof and
Paving company repeatedly to send i
men to repair this roof. They sent
men more than once, but finally Mr.1
Dover, the mnnogor, told me that some
one was tampering with the roof and
that he thought that water was run
ning through the copper work and
around the windows. It Is a fact that
some of the frames ami sash were
blown in during a severe windstorm
last summer, and more than likely this
accounts for some of the leaking com
plained of. Mr. Hay Informed me that
holes bad been punched In the copper!
dome. I cannot say as to this, but j
1 do know that people were permitted i
to go and come at Will.
On two or more occasions I sent my
men to Inspect the roof after It was i
reported to me that It had leaked. They
reported that a scuttle, which Is about I
Hue.' or four feet square, was left off;
and one time both scuttles were off.
1 required that the roofing contract
ors give a guarantee for 10 years,
which fully protected tho State's In
The committee say that a fine slate
fOOf was torn off which cost the State
a great amount of money, and they
further ?ay that i? afforded perfeet pro- j
tectlOn. Hut they did not produce a
Single Witness to prove these assertions.
Who told them? The absurdity of the
statement is proved by the fad that
the principal argument used In get
ting the appropriation for the improve
ments was that "the roof was full Ol
holes and leaked like a seive." Besides
being old and worthless as a roof, tlnno
was o very small portion of tile stati
on the roof, only that -art that could
be seen from the ground- that is, tie
Steep mansard the rest was of copper
and was sold for lunk.
Eighth. Numerous objections to the
dome which are so disconnected OS to
i.ssit ite somewhat of a general 10- i
It should be Clearly understood that
I originally planned for the construc
tion of this don.I < ast steel, just like
the material used for the dome of the
capltol at Washington. Cel. Marshall
Objected to this, and the commissi.m.
as i believe, largely influenced by its
desire I., satisfy him. directed the
change to granite. This change n.s
sitatcd n greatly increase 1 load, and I
not only carefully considered the
strength Of the main building to sup
port it but, at my own exnense. had
tho best expert In this line tO make an
examination and calculation of the
pressure, Oh the masonry, of the pro
posed increased load. The proposed
change was feasible, but instead
of supporting the dome on two
steel beams, as tlrst designed, I
had pui In four large box steel
Blrdors, and Increased the thick
ness of all that metal. The expert
referred to Haid, "We are satisfied that
( lhere is no question as lo the strength
Of this revised design." With this
Change it became necessarv to give
greater pitch to the roof titan origi
nally Intended, and to make numerous
modifications and changes in the spec
ifications and detail drawings for the
work. For Instance, the change in
.pitch of thereof obviated the necessity
for the ventilators shown in tho orig
inal plans, which would have been un
sightly thereon. The modified und re
vised drawings for this portion of the
work are still on die in my office and
could have been seen by the Investi
gating committee and their "expert"
had they so desired.
It is charged that the window frames
of the dome do not nt. This appear
once Is no doubt caused by the fact
that some of them were blown In dur
ing a severe storm lust summer.
Ah tin, thai th. ie are kinks and
crimps In the gulVatil'/.ed iron of the
inner dome. Mut these are no doubt
due to natural expansion and contrac
Again that some stones on the out
side of the dome tire too short, and the
contractors filled up the spaces. Now,
tie- fact is, you cannot keep the Wtltor
out of a close Joint of stones; there
must be space enough to calk and ce
nt, nt. and it is necessary tit that point.
It must be understood that tl>? little
water 007.log past the cement swells
the oakum and this makes the Joint
Hut the great bulk of criticism
of tlie work on the dome is that i
It Is not according to plans ami
specifications, and that the nlans
actually used are not what they
should be. It is true that much of It
is not according to the drawings and
specifications seen by the . oinmittee
and their expert, but are substantial
complance with the modified drawings
and detailed working plans. As to the
criticism by Mr. Hunt and the commit
tee of the plans as changed and actu- ?
ally carried out. 1 Insist that neltheu
this contra, tor nor this committee are
competent judges. Surely the members
of the committee are no better able to
judge of the work, at this time, than
were the members of the eapitol com
mission, who saw the work as it pro
gressed and when it was completed and
Ninth. That the wood truss under
the portico roof, callcl for by the draw
ings. Is absent.
Att.r the commission deckled to
omit the two columns before referred
to. the wood truss was no longer prop
er, the drawings were changed and
Steel trussed perllns substituted, span
ning the portico the shortest way.
And h.-re again the committee under
takes to criticise the use of built Up
sections, as culled for by the drawings.
Instead of expensive solid stones. In- .
deed, they criticise everything except,
the contract price, which every body
knows was very low.
Tenth. That a sheet of galvanized
iron 1-;;L' of an Inch thick is all there
is between the interior <>f the building
and the ??wide, wide World."
These gutters are not galvanized iron,
but the best quality of IX tin. which is
the best gutter lining that can be used.
Copper lasts longer, but the expansion
is too great. These gutters, which are
of the usual thickness for this class ot
work, are painted on the under side,
? aulked with lead in the stone and the
gutter bed lays Hat on the stone cor
Eleventh. That one of the large Ho
tel stones In the rear portico is cracked,
thl* being the last of the specific,
charges which Is numbered.
This stone showed no defect when
the work was accepted, but has bro
ken since then. I do not believe it is
likely to "give away." Apparently per
fect Stones will sometimes crack In a
building and cannot be guarded
against. The committee could have
easily found evidence of this fact, had
they desired it. In several large stones,
on the east side of the building, which
are cracked and broken, as is also a
very large stone on the south side \
near tin- west corner.
Next: That the contractors .lid not
protect the interior of the building dur- .
Ing the work.
It is almost impossible to fully pro-;
toot a building during repairs and
changes nnd let the occupants remain
Inside?It is not like an unoccupied
building. I could not. and did not, I
undertake to prescribe just how the
contractors should protect the old
work, and they claimed to the commis
sion that they hud done all they COUld
do to that end.
In this connection It must be remem
bered that many of the stains from
leaks in different parts of the building
were there before the work under In
Next: As to tie- cement doors and.
water leaking from above.
Only one day last month I was sur- j
prised to see so much water ill the ?
passageway under the front portico,
as it had not rained for several days,
and I called the attention of Mr. Wil-<
Ham Hanks of The State to the condi
tions. Careful examination showed j
that the walls of the building wore
sweating all around, but where the dirt
was against the building it absorbed
the water, while it was not so absorbed I
where the cement lUlOI'S Joined tho
walls. The walls sweat regularly.!
This would not have bc.-n th. case had
they been built hollow In the outset
they had enough thickness for air |
space in the centre. This Is one of the
most serious defects In any part of the
Slate house, I had nothing' lo do with1
Next: As to the defective water clos
ets and plumbing.
This work was all done before the,
city'had plumbing rub s, or tm Inspec
tor of sewers and plumbing, or even a
sewerage system. .These rules vary In
different cities, and In the absence of
any prescribed rules each architect
ose? such plans ami methods tis seen
best, considering incatlon and sur
roundings, general appearance and
sanitary rules. in all these matters
there is constant Improvement, tust ?h
we have greatly Improved on old ?los-,
ets in the basement, which were In
stalled when Col. Marshall was on the
commission in charge of the State:
house Improvements. I trust that the!
State is able tb get even mole venti
lation, by electric fans, as suggested, or
otherw ise, as Die present location was j
not built for this purpose, or there:
would have been more Ventilation. t
think the following letter will enable
the public to form a correct estimate
of the Inclination or this Investigating
committee to condemn everything In
Office of a. W. Edens, C. F.. Inspector
of s. weis ami Plumbing, Room
No. X. City Mall.
Columbia. S. C.. Feb. If.. Knit.
Mi. Frank P. Milburn.
Dear Sir: At your request I take
i loasure in stating that the plumbing
Under the two porticos of the State
boose will compare favorably with any
piumhing that has come under my ob
servation in this city which was in
stalled prior to tho passage of the
present City plumbing rules. The clos
ets and otiur fixtures are of good qual
ity. The principal defect found was
tlio want of proper ventilation.
isigned) a. w. Eldena, C. E.
It Is charged that the contractors,
as "naked trespassers," carried away
aftd disposed of o'.d material, which
was valuable property of the State;
and the committee says they attempt
to Justify the Bel by an item of tho
I pt ific.ilions, which does not support
This Is another evidence that the
commit tec did not consider tho reports
of tho eapitol commission, as tho legis
lature directed It to do; for It appears
In one of those reports that under the
item of the specifications referred to.
the contractors, and other bidders,
.were told before bidding that they
would get all the old material, except
the marble; that the contractors al
lowed lor the value of this old material
ill their bid; that the commission luhy
investigated the matter; that the at
torney general gave his official Opinion
that the general opinion had been that
the contractors owned the old mate
ilal, and the commission could not
claim it; that the opinion of the attor
ney general was approved by the com
mission, excepting only Air. .Marshall;
am! the commission rcferied Mr. Gar
funkel's proposition to it to buy the
old material from the contractors.
1 repeat that 1 cannot believe that
this Investigating committee consid
ered the report, or knew oi these facts.
If they did, l think a discriminating!
public can see that they uro determined I
to uphold Col. .Marshall's minority rea
port, even If a suppression of cold
facts Is necessary.
As an evidence that I gave the Stale |
good and honest service in the expend
iture of Us money em the- State house. !
and in refutation of many charges
made-, but not sustained, by the in
vestigating committee! l desire i<> sub
mit the following statements of hon
orable, widely known contractors, not
withstanding the chairman of that
committee, on the lloor of the senate-,
where he was secure from reply, de
scended to the tactics of trying to be
sonn h and Impugn any of and all wit
nesses who dared to speak the- truth,
if not in support of ins report:
Ntcholus Inner, Contractor, 1'. O. Box
606, Atlanta, tin.
Atlanta. Go., March 22,1901.
Ah-. Frank 1*. Mllburn, Columbia, s. C.
Dear Sir: your favor of the L'uth to
hand, l examined the material ami
workmanship at cnpltol building, ami
Hud it a first class Job. i consider it a
good, substantial piece of work.
(Signed) Nicholas Ittner,
Savannah, <ia.. Aug. IT, 1903.
Ml". Krank 1'. .Mllburn. Columbia, S.
Dear Sir: In reply to your inquiry
of August Tth in regard to the work re
cently done on the State- house, 1 Will
say that 1 have hud considerable ex
perience in large work, and have- had
e|tiite.- a number of contracts from the
United states government. I was one
of the- Arm of the Stewart Contracting
company, who bid for the contract Inj
Columbia. I was in Columbia Aug.
14th, and while there Inspected the
State house work. As a whole, 1 think
the- work very satisfactory. There may
be some minor things thai 1 would have
done- different if l hud been award
ed the contract. Anyone looking to
hud fault can always llnd it. There is
euie thing certain, the Stan- of South
Carolina, In my estimation, has re
ceived full value for the money ex
pended, and now has a capltol that
any State might well be pi e>ud of.
This is my honest ami unprejudiced
opinion. Yours truly,
J. 10. Burgess, Manager.
Savannah Contracting Company.
Note. .Mr. Surges remodeled interior,
of postofHce building in Columbia, In
Augusta, Ca.. Sept.2, 1903.
Mr. Frank 1*. Mllburn, Columbia, S.
Dear Sir: In reply to your faVOl' of'
Aug. 20th, wanting an opinion from us
on the new State capltol in your city,
we beg to say the writer has frequent
ly gone- over this building during con
struction and since It was finished, and j
Consider it as good a job .as It is pos
sible- to make out of a remodeling Job, ,
ami being familiar with the price paid
for the work, I ' consider tin- State se
curod a regular excursion price on that
We ban- had considerable experience
in remodeling work, and know how
difficult it is to make everything per
fectly satisfactory, as there is some
thing always In the way that cannot
be moved. You would have- no trouble
to prove up values it the matter was ?
Investigated, as you know from ex
perience that it Is much easier to ct'lt- !
leise than it is to execute,
Yours very truly,
(Signed) J. H. McKenzie & Sons,
(lenernl i Ion tractors.
By Charles K. McKenzie.
Johnson City, Tenii., Se-pt. 2tl. 1903.
Mr. Frank P. .Mllburn. Columbia, S.
Deai- Sir: Replying to your Inquiry
of Aug. 2Bth, asking my opinion of the
work recently done on the south Caro
lina state; house, i will say that i con
sidered the same well executed and ful
ly up to the standard for such work. I
have had experience In remodeling old i
capitols, and have found it hard to i
please every one, as they do not un
derstnnd the many troubles that we;
have to contend with. 1 am surprised
that any objections are- raised in re
gard to the job, as 1 thought the qual
ity of the work done, considering the
quantity, was well worth the? price
paid for It. I should think it would he j
worth fully $200,000 to duplicate the.
same work now under the present con-,
dltlons of markets, epj.
Signed) J. IS. Parrlsh,
Contractor and Builder, Lynchburg,
Columbia, S. C. Feb. 3. 1904.
Mr. Frank l'. Mllburn, Columbia, s.
Dear Sir: Replying to your favor of
recent elate, in which you rnquost us to
Inspect the work done on the State
cnpltol building at Columbia, s. c. we
beg to advise as follows:
After a careful inspection of the,
work, we are prepared to say that In !
mir opinion, that the work se-enis to
have been performed In a substantial j
am) workmanlike- manner. In our Opin- j
Ion, the appropriation was entirely too
small for the amount of work under
taken. Very truly yours,
(Signed) W. T. Uadlow Co..
By G. 11. Hndlow. I
General Contractors, Jacksonville,
Columbia, S. C, Feb. IS, 1904.
Mr. Frank P. Mllburn.
De>nr Sir: I have this day been
through the cnpltol building at Co
lumbia. S. C, ami after looking over!
the work I am satisfied that the work
done* by the contractor is a faithful
performance of the spirit and intent
of the plans and specifications, as the
WOt'k done Is worth a gnyi deal more
than his contract price.
T nlso road Mr. Hunt's report as to
Steel celling .and floor light ami am
satisfied that In- is entirely loo high in
his valuation of the ceiling, and that
the lloor light appears to have been
used or walked upon bet?re the ccme-nt
set, in which ease the damages would
not appear for some time.
And I would say further, that In re
pairing or adding to buildings there
are a great many things which no
ability on the part of the architect can
t'oi sec. and which have to be taken up
as they dovelop; so. after care-fully
looking over the matter, i am satisfied
that the- criticisms upon yourself and
contractors are uncalled for ond un
I finel that the granite used Is not as
hard as the original granite; the'
texture being coarser. It would not
take the same finish. I find that the
specifications provide that each class
ami style of work shall be so many
cuts and the old work would not be
taken by Hi" cont actor as his guide
in performing his work, while the gen
ornl style nnd outlines would be the
1 dp not . 'in: der that the vemoval
of tin two no]Unius mentioned In Mr.
Hunt's i e port WOUld weaken the struc
ture. I think the manner in Which you
provided for the; change was proper. I
find tho thickness of the celling and
gutters are such ns are used on all
it Is my experience as s contractor
for 20 years that a number of roofs
leak for soma time after the building
Ih completed, and to cover thin a
guarantee is given for one yea)
The copper und tile roof on the gov
eminent building in Augusta leuked
from lime to time nnd gave the officers
(Signed) T. C. Brown & Son.
Per T. C. Brown.
Qonerdl Contractors, Augusta, <?n.
THE GOVERNMENT EXPERT.
No doubt the public is curious to
know something more of Mr. Hunt,
upon whom tip- committee seems con
tent to rest for the support of Its nu
merous criticisms of designs, plans and
work. With the single exception of the
I had understood, until last week,
that the name of this witness was II.
H, Hunt, and that he wtis a govern
inent architect, as Commltteeman Pat
terson announced in the house, and I 1
made diligent Inquiry in Washington
as to identity ami standing.
In the limited time at my disposal
sime Thursday, i have Inquired as to
tin work, position, etc., of Mr. S. S.
Hunt, resulting in the following In
Before going to Washington, Mr.
Hunt enjoyed the reputation of being
a good mechanic.
The Washington city dlreotory for
1908 contains his name as a contractor.
Tb.- congressional directory does not
show any such olllce as "superintend
ent of constructing of the United Stales
eapitol." The last congressional dlrec
lory shows as connected with the olllce
superintendent of the eapitol:
Superintendent, Elliott Woods, Con
Chief clerk. George H. Williams, 2PJ
Chief electrical engineer. Christian B.
Gl lent, 642 East Capitol street.
Clerk, .lohn Welch. 310 North Caro
lina avenue, s. E.
W. I:. Kllpatrick wires:
"Archlb t Bays neither s. s. Hunt
nor M. H. Hunt, superintendent of con
struction eapitol. Never heard of such
.1. l<. Taylor, the supervising archl- i
tect of tin- United states government,
"Office has no knowledge of S. S.
Hunt in connection with any of its'
Haul .1. Pelz of Washington, one ..t
the three architects (and the only stir- j
vlvor) who designed tho famous con
gressional library, says that ids name '
is not in the government Blue Book:
that he neither knows S. S. Hunt as
a builder; contra' tor or architect, and ;
that if he had been of prominence In i
? ?ber capacity, he would have known ?
Will South Carolinians endorse the
llbclous report Of ?bis investigating!
committee, confessedly based on the j
opinion of this witness, in the face of'
the opinions of Nicholas Ittnor Of At- ;
Innta, J. E, Burgess of Savannah, j
Charles F. McKenzie of Augusta, J. E.
Banish of Lynchburg, G. H. Hndlow
of Jacksonville, and T. C. Brown of
The following extracts from the rec
ords of the Capitol commission will no
doubt prove interesting to the public:
"Upon motion of Mr. Derham:
"Resolved. That when the work on
the State house is finished, pilot to
accepting the same, the architect shall
notify the governor, who shall call!
th" commission together, who with
the architect shall inspect the work,
and if the same is satisfactory the cer
tificate shall issue."
Columbia, S. C, May 22, 11)02.
Hon. M. B. McSweeney, Chairman
State HoAISC Commission:
Dear Sir?I wish to report that Mo
llvain, Unkefer Co., contractors, have
completed tb" work as outlined by me I
on the Slate house. That is. the spir
it*, Intent anil meaning of the plans,
specifications and modifications of the
same, and ate entitled to the final pay
Krank 1*. Milburn.
P. S. This report to be (lied when
the commission arc satisfied with the l
work as done.
"Resolved, That It appears to the
commission for the completion of the
State house that the work is satisfac
tory and that the contract has been
whereupon Mr. Marshall made the
following motion as a substitute:
Resolved, That In the opinion of this
commission the work done under tl e
contract to complete the State house
has not been performed by the con
tractors according to the plans, speci
fications and contract, and therefore,
the work done is not satisfactory to
A roll call having been demanded up
on the question of the adoption of Mr.
Marshall's substitute. the substitute
was rejected by a vote of 7 to 1. as fol
Those voting tin McSweeney, Jen
nings, Mower, Johnson, Wilson, Bel
I hive tried t< briefly and calmly
show the public the plain facts connect
ed with the State house work, with
out resorting to rant and cheap dap
trap about bamboozling, etc.
1 have no desire to conceal anything
from the public and I court the fullest
Investigation, feeling sure of a com
plete vindication from the cruel at
tack which has been made upon my
character for the first time.
Frank I*. Milburn. 1
A I'UK ACIIKIl WITH a REiconp.
Tin? itcv, .lohn iiiimio of Onffney linn
Tied 488 Matrimonial KuoIm.
Special to The State.
Gaffnoy, Feb. 16.?Rev. John Uuppe,
who has possibly marled more cou
ples than any other man In this coun
ty, married two more North Carolina
couples last Sunday. These were Mr.
A. Moore and Miss L. 10. Settlemyer,
of Henrietta, and Mr. C. A. Hawkins
and Miss Battle McSwaln, of Holling
Sprlpgs. This makes a total of 438
knots Hod by this aged'divine. Many
are the people who can date their
greatest happiness to the time when
they stood trembling before him.
Miss Blanche Wilson has gone on
a trip north.
Mr. II. K. Osbornfl has announced
himself a candidate for the office of
alderman from Ward Six.
.Mr. T Davenport has sold his gro
cery business to Mrs.- T. Davenport,
who will Conduct the business a t tho
same place. Mr. Davenport will bo
come a knlghf of the grip. Ills line
will be groceries.
Help In Appreciated. ,
People's Recorder (colored).
It Is Indeed gratifying to note the
Interest die Columbia Daily State, tho
White citizens of Columbia and else
where, and Dr. Bay of lower Rlchland
county are taking -In raising and dis
tributing contributions of money, food
and tint hing for and to tho colored suf
ferers of lower Rlchland. All remem
ber how their crops were all swept,
away by hall, wind and rain last year,
and how hundreds of tho poorer class
have undergone almost, starvation.
Now theso white friends, from their
bounteous storehouses, are most liber
ally contributing to the needs of the
Being ti Columbian, we do all the
more appreciate this manifest Chris
tian beneficence. May the blessed Lord
restore to those benefactors ten fold.
We thank them, is about tho only pay
back that wo can give.
a t'nini Explosion.
Buffalo, N. Y.. Feb. 21.--Two ni.n
wme asphyxiated, one burned to death
and Fevernl wore seriously lnji.sed In
nn explosion of blast furnace gas at
the plant of tho I.acknwanna Steel
company today. Tho dead are: Geo.
Roynolds, a mason; Michael H. Smith,
a mason. Frank Pranatt, employed in
the power houso.
\\ i Ii I. ii fur The State
The readers of The Stute, or rather
thai portion of them who have paid
the writer the compliment of reading
Ids articles, which have appeared from
time to time in its columns mil
hardly be reminded of his position on 1
the subject of education. There is. I
however, one thing In connection with
the question to which he bogs to enter
a pint.-st, although it is done With a
considerable degree of reluctance.
It Is possible. ..r course, that this
evil, ami the word Is used advisedly,
may not owe Its origin to our system
of education, but to a change of pub
lie sentiment, which lias found de
velopment outside of higher education.
Then, loo, the fact must be recogniz
ed that In all human affairs, it mat
ters not how good the general ten
dency is. there must be some evil; but
while giving full acknowledgment to
this truth, every eftorl should be made
to keep tin* evil Incident thereto to i
the lowest passible point.
Thy evil to which allusion is made Is
the craze that has found lodgment in
the mind Ol almost every girl that
jUSl as soon as she leaves the college
or high school she must tind some
kind of employment, despite the fact
that in the large majority of cases it
involves leaving her home and being
thrown with strangers. Any system j
of education or of public sentiment
that instills a feeling of this kind Into
the mind of a girl, that she must be In
dependent and make her own way in
the wotdd, is radically and inexcusably
There are. of course, many cases
where this seeking for emplo] ment Is
painfully necessary, and Where this is
the case a girl should be encouraged
and rendered every assistance; but
wl -e this condition does not exist, I
she is both unjust to herself and her
parents when she voluntarily leaves
them lust at the time when they will i
derive so much pleasure from her
presence in the house. She has been j
sorely missed during the four years she
has spent at college, bul this separation
was cheerfully borne by her parents, '
for they could look forward to the time I
when she would finish her education
and once more be with them to bright-I
en their home. Independence and the
desire to make one's own way in the
world, is both natural and commend
able, but there is such a thing as car
rying even a good Impulse- too far, Mid
there is something radically wrong in !
any system of home or school train
ing that implants the idea in the mind
of a girl that she should not be de
pendent on her lather, even when lit
is abundantly able to provide for her
lOven if it be granted that she can
have more social enjoyment in the
town or city than in the country home
of her parents, this furnishes no suttl
clent excuse for her to leave her par
ents w hen her presence and lu lp af- I
lords them such unalloyed happiness.
It often ha|>pens that thO mother, get
ting on in years, is worn out with toil
and care. She has given all her
strength and time to the raising and j
training of her children, and to her '
it is an Inexpressible pleasure when |
her daughter Insists on assuming some
ot her duties and responsibilities, and
enables her to enjoy a well-earned
A number of years ago It was the
writer's good fortune to bo a frequent
visitor at a home where the condition
?above mentioned existed. The moth
er's health was not good and the oldest
daughter had simply relieved her of all
household cares, not even allowing the
younger children t<> trouble her with
any of their troubles. This daughter
was accomplished, well educated, a
very line musician and could easily i
have Secured a position to teach. Tins
she would have liked to do, but she
felt that her first duty was at home. ,
and the discharge of this sacred duty j
will OVO! he the sweetest and tender
est recollection of her life, for when
she was called on to see that mother;
pass away she was sustained and
soothed by the consciousness that she
had done all that lay in hor power to
make her mother's last years pass in
peace and happiiu -<s.
One of the greatest and noblest men- ?
Robert I-;, l.ee?who has ever lived on'
this earth, made duty the watchword
of his whole life, ami no sacrifice or
danger ever restrained him from do
ing what he conceived to be right. Tin
path of duty often calls us to walk
in ways that humanly speaking are
the very reverse of the ones we would
choose, but then there should ever he
present tin- thought that after all the
Strongest happiness comes from the
consciousness of having done our ut
most to promote the happiness of those
who are dear to us. Fortunate, In
deed, is tin- daughter who, when she
looks for the last time on the face of
her mother, with her tired hands fold
ed across her bosom, can feel that she
never brought tears to the now closed
eyes or pangs of sorrow to the im- I
selfish heart, which has forever ceas
ed to beat.
If sin- can feel thus then she has a
POUCO and Joy that will be her greatest
solace as long as life endures, for what
ever, for weal or woe, the future has !
in store for her. this Is something that
no earthly power can take away.
A girl when she first leaves col- .
lege .and enters, as It were, upon the i
threshold of her life, stands In great
need of her mother's counsel and pro
tection, and it is a misfortune when
stress of circumstances deprives her
of this safeguard. If there be one
thing on earth that conns as a gift I
from Heaven It Is the love of a moth
er for her child. No pen can portray
It; no plummet can sound Its depths,
for it Is as deep and wide as a rath
omless sea. to which no measurement
can be given,
The writer trusts that he may ho i
pardoned for giving one more Illus
tration of the sacrifice of inclination
to duty, the facts of which are just as
A good many years ago there ex
isted an engagement between two
young people, but there was. In the
estimation of the young lady at loost,
an Inseparable barrier in the way of
its immediate consummation, that ob
stacle being an Invalid mother, for
'whose can- the daughter considered
I herself responsible. After the lapse
of a good many years the mother pass
ed away and a short time alter her
drath the daughter married the gen
tleman to whom she had boon so loin;
attached. They were both let
ting along in years then, but can any
one doubt that that loving daughter
found gn at happiness In the few years
of her married life? It Is very easy to j
believe that In this short time there
came to her enough of earthly happi
ness to compensate for her long years
of Sacrifice to a sacred duty.
It has always 1.n a source of won
der to the writer that some truly great
writer has never made a ?special point
of trying at least to portray n moth
er's love for a child, following out that
love from Its birth, and when *lt first
draws sustenance from her bosom,
through the years of Its gradual mental
and physical development. So far as
the, writer's knowledge extends this Is
for the novelist an unexplored mine,
waiting for the tomb of a master
hand to bring Its Jewels into the light
Baltimore, Feb. 21.?It was thought
that not a life was lost In the fire here,
but a charred body supposed to be
that of a colored man has been found
In the water nt Rowley's wharf. The
body Is so badly burned as to bo un
SUIS'/ V Dil ES All Y OITCH.
Canal Clcfl Through Region ilnre of
All Save Ulbllvul lltuhu???.
W E. Curtis in Chicago Record-Her
Afloat on the Red sea. Jan. 18.?
Every vessel passing through the Sue/,
.?anal Is compelled to take u pilot, be
?ause skippers of ordinary vessels can
not be trusted to navigate the narrow
channel. for the slightest deviation
may cause damage that will cost thou
sands of dollars to repair. Bach year,
however, navigation is tendered easier
by the widening of the channel and
by the excavation of additional sidings
or basins where vessels can pass.
Prom the moment the pilot goes on the
bridge he takes charge of the move
ments of the ship and Is responsible for
whatever may happen, regulating the
speed according to tonnage und
\Vs:els cannot pass In motion. When
they meet the one which arrives ilrst
at the signal station is compelled to
Stop and tie up In the basin until the
other goes by. These basins are found
at Intervals of a few miles, and tit
every basin is a "gare" or station in I
charge of a signal officer, who corre
sponds to a train dispatcher on one
of our railroads, and the block system
is used to regulate the movement of
vessels. Form? ly no traffic was al
lowed at night, but now it is carried on
without interruption by the aid of
electric lights on the shore and search
lights on the vessels.
The canal looks exactly what It Is -
a big ditch on a desert Of sand on
which foxes, jackals, hyenas and oc
casionally lion.'; ate seen by the watch
men in the signal towers. At sonic
places the banks of earth on either
side are so high that passengers on tin.'
steamer cannot see over them, but for
most of the Journey you have a wide I
sweep on both sides back to the moun
tains that rise from the desert, ami
at a certain paint for a mile or two
Mount Sinai Is visible 37 miles to the
southeast, and Is pointed out to you
by the captain or the deck steward.
Naked Arab boys run along the banks
crying for baksheesh and easily keep
abreast of the creeping vessel, grab
bing at pennies which pnssongerp
throw them from the deck. Half the
coins toll down in the water, which Is
exasperating to tho youngsters. They
do not like to stop and dive for them
while there is a chance of getting more,
but I imagine they mark the spots and
conic bai l; to recover lost bin ksheesh
when they have left the vessel.
There are only two towns of any
account on the canal. One Is lsmalia,
a half way point, with a population ol
1,000. it is the only monument In honor
of the Khedive [small, who did the
most and spent tin.' most to carry out!
the enterprise, and lost his throne1
thereby. It is rather a pretty town, 1
abundantly Irrigated, ami hence has
lovely gat dens and groves of palms
and other trees. Here reside most of
the engineers and other Officer's of the
canal, because It Is preferable to Port
Saul. There is a hospital for sick em
ployees, <lub for the benefit of the;
Olflcers, and several good houses. In- ;
eluding one ere tod espei tally for the
entertainment of M. de Lesseps, when
ho should be pluased to use it. Beyond 1
lsmalia, as before, are occasional
oases in the desert?groves of palms I
and luxuriant gardens surrounding the;
stations of the canal olilclals, for,
wherever you can turn water on that
lonely desert everything will grow with
a wild luxuriance, it seems as if the
earth suddenly released germinating
power that had been accumulating
during centuries of suppreslon.
The chief interest is found in the
town of Sue/., because It is tlte crossing 1
place of the great caravans of camels
that furnish transportation botwon the!
two continents of Asia and Africa, and
travel regularly between Cairo, Da-1
mnSCUS and Bagdad; also because bib-|
iicill historians believe that here the
waters of the lied sea opened 3,5001
years ago and allowed 3.000,000 of the j
i hildren of Israel to cross over upon ;
dry bottom. It requires n considerable '
concession to the imagination and a
Strength of faith that a majority of j
mankind do not possess to accept this'
theory, but no one knows to the con- '
irary. and experience 1ms taught mo|
never to doubt the faith of interesting;
.stories, if you do, you depnivo your
self and others of much pleasure. It ;
Is like a Italy/ing the attraction of a
pretty woman, or separating her fea-1
lures Into lots, classifying them and
measuring them by the Venus do Mllo.
On the other side of the Red sea.
which, by the way, is not red. but blue
?us blue as the sky In June?you can
800 the purple peaks of the Stlialtlc
range, and a few miles from the shore, ,
which you cm reach In three hours
by donkey, one of these remnrkablol
oases that are frequently found in the;
desert. This particular one is called
the Wells of MOSCS. There is a com
fortless hotel kept by an Arab, where
beds and refreshment can be obtained,
but it Is better to .start, early in the
morning, so as to get back the same
day, and take a luncheon in a basket '
from Sue/.. Tho trip can be easily:
made while the vessel Is coaling.
The children of Israel, according to
the Bible, wandered til 100 days In tin*
wilderness of Shur nnd found no water,;
ami when liny came to Ma rah they
could not drink tho waters, for they
were bitter, and the peoplo murmured
against Moses, sayin: "What shall we'
drink?" and ho cried unto the Lord
and the Lord showed him a tree which j
he cast into the waters and I ho waters,
wcro made sweet. And they came to;
Ellin, where there were 12 wells of |
water, and three score and ten pnlm
trees, and they encamped there by the
Waters. And Miriam, the prophetess,
the sister of Aaron, took a timbrel
in her hand, and all the women went '
out after her with timbrels and with
dances. That beautiful scene, one of1
the most dramatic in the whole Bible,
is believed to have taken place here,
for these wells are the Well8 of Elim,
and three and ten palm trees st1"
shelter a collection of a dozen or more;
springs. Tho village is peopled by j
naked Arabs, sinewy, springy, en
durlng fellows, whose flesh shines like
polished mahogany, and who must ro?'
sen-' le the young men of Israel when ;
they started on the journey that was
not finished for 40 years.
It Is dlillcult to understand why and
how they happened to be wundering
about so long down here. If you will'
look at the map you will see that Sue/,
is utmost mi a line with Cairo, and it
was the most natural rendezvous of the
tribes, who were scattered all along
the Nil' from Memphis, which is .lust
above Cairo, to Thebos. which is just
below Luxor. The account In the
Blhie Is condensed; nnd we are com
pel; d to take a good deal of these tra
ditions on faith, but. as I have already
suggested. It Is worth while to do so.
The Rod son is 1,400 miles long, and
Its greatest width Is 200 miles. It Is
about the shape of a sausage, and ta
pers nt both ends. On one side is
Arabia, the most mysterious and prim
itive of all countries, and on the other
side are Egypt, Nubia ami the Soudan.
At tho north end what is known as the
Slnaltlc peninsula projects southward
and divides tho sea into two arms,
and near the point of the peninsula Is
Tor, tin- landing place for Sinai. Op
posite Tor is Jebel Ez-Zelt, which
means "tlie mountain of oil." Where po?
troloum was discovered some year ft ago
and created great excitement. Hun
dreds of thousands of dollars hive
been expended in sinking wells and
building docks, warehouses and roiin
., but havo all boon abandoned.
because, for some reason, the manu
facturers could not compete with tho
Standard Oil company or the Russian
factorlos on the Black and Caspian
People think that there In a good deal
more wealth In Arabia than we know
of. It was* anas of greater important**
than now. and In ancient days pro
duced considerable gold and other met
als, but now It ships little but dates,
wool and coffee, and even these are
gradually falling off. Mocha coffee Is
produced at the extreme end of the
Arabian peninsula, in it province called
Yemen, and derives Its name from the
little port It is shipped from, But the
people have no enterprise, the coffee
orchards have been injured by insects
and blight, and the trees have not been
renewed. This Is acounted for by had "
government. As everywhere else In
the dominions of the sultan of Turkey,
for Arabia Is nominally a part of the
Ottoman empire, the officials receive
no salaries, and live oil blackmail.
Hence, whenever a citizen gets a little
ahead, when he shows signs of pros
perity, he Immediately becomes an
object of plunder and persecution by
the tax gatherer and by every other
representative of the government.
There is no Incentive for the coffee
growers to extend their orchards or
to Increase their product.
One does not realize, until he comes
face to lace with the fact, that Arabia
Is neatly half as huge as the United
Mates. Us area Is almost as great as
that of India, and Is nearly equal to
that of nur States east of the Missis
sippi river. The population Is un
known, because there has never been
a census, but it is suposed to be be
tween Beven and twelve millions. The
distance from north to south is more
than a thousand miles, and from east
to west It varies from 000 to SoO. Yet
In all this enormous territory there is
i'o centralized authority. The Interior
is govere'ned by petty sheiks, each
being absolute over the members of
his own tribe. Along a coast line of
nearly 2,r>oo miles are only six ports,
where the sultan of Turkey maintains
pasha governors and garrisons to pro
tect tlie collectors of customs, who are
required to pay him a certain amount
of tribute every year, and they wring
it out of the people tiny way they can.
The relationship between the gov
ernment at Constantinople and the
Bedouins of Arabia is very slender,
ami is due solely to the cohesive pow or
of the Mohammedan religion. There is
no law In Arabia but the Koran; there
aii' no courts but the priests; there are
no mails, no postofllces, no postage
stamps, and a person who wants to
communicate with a distant fried must
send his letter by a messenger, which
is expensive, or by a caravan, which is
the common way. There Is no tele
graph line, no newspaper, no railroad,
and, strange to suy, not a river In till
that vast area except a few shallow,
rocky beds, which during the spring
bring down water from the melting
BUOW on the mountain tops to the *oa.
but for nine months In the year are
as dry as a crematory.
The captain tells me that they pro
duce a curious phenomenon. The const
of the Red sea Is lined with coral
banks, built by those mysterious and
wonderful little masons who, like some
men that I know of, butt1 fresh water,
and wherever tin.- spring Hoods fall Into
the sea there is always a wide break
in the coral reef.
The mountains of Arabia reach an
altitude of 10,000 feet, and In spots
when- borings have been made the sand
Is more than 800 feet dee]). It Is the
prevailing Imprcsion that Arabia is a
vast expanse of desert, but that is a
mistake. There are wide Strips of bar
ren sund, which are Irreclaimable for
cultivation only because they cannot
be reached by water, but two-thirds of
the country is capable of cultivation,
and. lying at an altitude of 3,000 feet
abovo the sea, might produce cotton,
sugar and other semi-tropical staples
in unlimited quantities. Although
there are no streams plenty id' water
can be bad for irrigation purposes by
digging 20 or ;t0 feet, and the introduc
tion of windmills would simplify ihe
pumping problem. On the const it is
Intensely hot, and the humidity of the
atmosphere during the summer season
makes life almost unendurable, but in
the interior, upon the table lands along
the mountain slopes and in the valleys,
the mercury seldom rises above 85 de
grees, even in mid-summer. While
the direct rays of the sun are ?:,(< use.
It Is cool In the shade, and at night t he
mercury often falls below 50.
Move than two-thirds of the popula
tion are Bedouin nomads, without per
manent places of abode, who live in
tents made of camel's hair. Just like
the patriarchs of ? Id. They have enor
mous (locks of sheep and goals, and
lvrds of CO tie and camels. The follow
the grass and move from place to place
with all their possessions. There are,
however, several prosperous cities of
considerable population and commerce.
Trade Is conducted by camel caravans,
which cross the desert regularly, nnd
transport enormous quantities of dates,
wool und other merchandise.
William B. Curtis.
i School for (Jrown-Uim.
Oastonla (N. C.) Gazette.
The fUntosvllio Landmark refers to
the pluck of a boy 17 years old and of
a man twlco that age who recently
buckled down to books at Hole's Creak
academy without knowing how to read.
The boy didn't know his letters, the
man began In the lust reader. Yew.
that is plucky in a sense. Not that
the task is so great, but that the
nerve to get one's consent to undo dak*
It at those ages is so tare. i'.ut It
ought not to be rare. Tin- task is not
great, not dlltlcult of accomplishment.
Little children who live with hooks
and picture blocks learn to read be
fore they arc six years of age. Irars
without special teaching; with some
direct and regular instruction they
would learn sooner. We do not boliove
that there Is in the Slate an hl.'ernte
grown man of ordinary Intelligence
and industry that could not learn to
rend in six weeks, write in ten weeks,
and gel a good beginning in arithmetic
In a few more weeks. If he would only
give these things attention and reg
ular study. Why hasn't somebody
started a school for grown men who
cannot read and wrlto? The gap lie ?
tween the man who cannot read and
tlie man who can?how great and how
wide it is! What storehouses of rich
ness and Vast and fertile Heids are
shin away from him who cannot road.
Itoyond tin Alps lies Italy?nnd the
Alps In this case are not Impassable.
The gap Is wide but not difficult 1??
him who tries, and the prize t? so
Worth the winning! The man who
cannot thinks the way is hard, the
man who can knows It Is not. The
grown man who cannot read nnd write
?somebody show him, somebody help
him. Here's missionary work for one,
and priceless happiness for two.
Ml'KCtl.vroits IN THOUBMC.
Ilm?- Tlrcii Starting War Riitunrn In
Italy for Money Purposes.
Home. Feb. 21.-? Humors of warlike
preparations by Italy having been cir
culated a semi-official communication
has emanated from the government
which is In substance as followa:
Stories of alleged armaments and of
the movements of warships and troops
for service abroad fll*0 entirely false.
Indications exist thai this fa se newn
is connected with stock exchange
speculations and those responsible
have been brought before tlie law
courts to be punished according to law
with Imprisonment of from throe to
The communication evidently alludes
! to the Insistence by a portion of the
press that Italy will he antagonistic to
Austria in the Balkans and to the
predictions of International complica
tions thus causing a fall in Italian
bonds and a rise In the exchange on
Dr. Jiiinrftnn'* Snee???.
Capo Town, Fob. 21.?Dr. Jemssoa
has succeeded *n ?omsletiag a oaWnet,