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Mr. ?. Mclver Williamson
HE STUNTS THE STALK.
How 50, 75 and 100 Bushels of Cora can
be Made to the Acre?Deep Plow
ing Very Esseitial.
The following highly valuable paper,
prepared by Mr. E. Mclver Williamson
of Darlington county, has just been
published in the Hartsville County Mes
For a number of years after I began
to farm I followed the old time method
of putting the fertilizer all under the
com, planting on a level or higher, six
by three feet, pushing the plant from
the start and making a big stalk, but
the ears were few, and frequently
small. I planted much corn in the
spring and bought much more corn the
next spring, until finally I was driven
to the conclusion that corn could not be
made on uplands in this section, cer
tainly not by the old method, except at
I did not give up, however, for I
knew that the farmer who did not
make his own corn never had succeeded,
and never would, so I began to experi
ment. First, I planted lower, and the
yield was better, but the stalk was still
too large, so I discontinued altogether
the application of fertilizer before
planting, and, knowing that all crops
should be fertilized at some time, I
used mixed fertilizer as a side applica
\ and npplied the more soluble ni
l of soda later, being guided in this
b^ i excellent results obtained from
its .j as a top dressing for oats. Still
the yield, though regular, was not
large, and the smallness of the stalk it
self now suggested that they should be
planted thicker in the drill. This was
done the next year with results so sat
isfactory that I continued from year to
year to increase the number of stalks
and the fertilizer with which to sus
tain them, also to apply nitrate of soda
at last plowing and to lay by early,
sowing peas broadcast. This method
steadily increased the yield, until year
before last (1904) with corn 11 inches
apart in six-foot rows and $11 worth of
fertilizar to the acre, I made 84 bush
els average to the acre, several of my
best acres making a3 much as 125 bush
Last year (1905) I followed the same
method, planting the first week in April,
70 acres which had produced the year
before 1,000 pounds seed cotton per acre.
This land is sandy upland, somewhat
rolling. Seasons were very unfavora
ble, owing to the tremendous rains in
May, and the dry and extremely hot
weather later. From June 12th to July
12th, the time when it most needed
moisture, there was 5-8 of an inch of
rainfall here; yet with $7.01. cost of
fertilizer, my yieid was 52 bushels per
acre. Rows were six feet and corn 16
inches in drill.
With this method, on land that will
ordinarily produce 1,000 pounds of seed
cotton with 800 pounds of fertilizer, 50
bushels of corn per acre should be
made by using 200 pounds of cotton
seed meal, 200 pounds of acid phos
phate, and 400 pounds of kainit mixed,
or their equivalent in other fertilizer,
and 125 pounds of nitrate of soda, all
to be used as side application as di
On land that will make a bale and
one-half of cotton per acre when well
fertilized, 100 bushels of corn should
be produced by doubling the amount of
fertilizer above, except that 300 pounds
of nitrate of soda should be used.
In each case there should be left on
the land in cornstalks, peas, vines and
roots, from $12 to $16 worth of fertiliz
ing material per acre, beside the great
benefit to the land from so large an
amount of vegetable matter. The place
of this in the permanent improvement
of land can never be taken by commer
cial fertilizer, for it is absolutely im
possible to make lands rich as long as
they are lacking in vegetable matter.
Land should be thoroughly and deeply
broken for corn, and this is tha time in
a system of rotation to deepen the
soil. Cotton requires a more compact
soil than corn, and while a deep soil is
essential to its best developement, it
.will not produce as well on loose open
land, while corn does best on land thor
oughly broken. A deep soil will not
only produce more heavily than a shal
low soil with good seasons, but it will
stand more wet as well as more dry
In preparing for the corn crop, land
should be broken broadcast during the
winter one-fourth deeper than it has
been plowed before, or if much vegeta
ble matter is being turned under, it
may be broken one-third deeper. This
is as much deepening as land will us
ually stand in one year and produce
well, though it may be continued each
year, so long as much dead vegetable
matter is being turned under. It may,
however, be sub-soiled to any depth by
following in bottom of turn plow fur
row, provided no more of the sub-soil
than it has been directed, is'turned up.
Break with two horse plow, if possible,
or better with disc plow. With the
latter cotton or corn stalks as large as
we ever make can be turned under
without having been chopped, and in
peavines it will not choke or drag.
Never plow land when it is wet, if
you expect ever to have any use for it
Bed with turn plow in six foot rows,
leaving five-inch balk. When ready to
plant, break?this out with scooter, fol
lowing in bottom of this furrow deep
with Dixie plow, wing taken off. Ridge
then on this furrow with same plow
still going deep. Run corn planter on
this ridge, dropping one grain every
five or six inches. Plant early, as soon
as frost danger is past, say first sea
sonable spell after March 16th in this
??ction. Especially is early planting
necessary on very rich lands where
stalks cannot otherwise be prevented
from growing too large. Give first
working with harrow or any plow that
will not cover the plant. For second
working, use 10 or 12 inch sweep on
both sides of corn, which should now be
about eight inches high. Thin after
this working. It is not necessary that
the plants should be left all the same
distance apart, if the right number re
main to each yard of row.
Corn should not be worked again un
til the growth has been so retarded
and the stalk so hardened that it will
never grow too large. This is the most
difficult point in the whole process. Ex
perience and judgment are required to
know just how much the stalk should
be stunted, and plenty of nerve is re
quired to hold back your corn when
your neighbors, who fertilized at plant
ing time and cultivated rapidly, have
corn twice the size of yours. (They
are having their fun now. Yours will
come at harvest time.) The richer the
land the more necessary it is that the
stunting process should be thoroughly
When you are convinced that your
corn has been sufficiently 'Hated,
you may begin to make *. It
should be from 12 to 18 ,;h,
and look worse than you eve. any
corn to look before.
Put half your mixed fertilizer (this
being the first used at all) in the old
sweep furrow on both sides of every
other middle, and cover by breaking
out this middle with turn plow. About
one week later treat the other middle
the same way. Within a few days side
corn in first middle with 16-inch sys
tem. Put all your nitrate of sodu in
this furrow, if less than 150 pounds. If
more, use one-half of it now. Cover
with one furrow of turn plow, then sow
peas in this middle broadcast at the
rate of at least one bushel to the acre,
and finish breaking out.
In a few days side corn in other mid
dle with same sweep, put balance of
soda in this furrow if it has been di
vided, cover with turn plow, sow peas
and break out. This lays by your crop
with a good bed and plenty of dirt
around your stalk. This should be from
June 10th to 20th unless season is very
late, and corn should be hardly bunch
ing for tassel. V'
Lay by early. More corn is ruined
by late plowing than by lack of plow
ing. This is when the ear is hurt. Two
good rains after laying by should make
you a good crop of corn, and it will
certainly make with much less rain if
pushed and fertilized in the same old
The stalks thus raised are very small,
and do not require anything like the
moisture, even in proportion to size,
that is necessary for large supply
stalks. They may, therefore, be left
much thicker in the row. This is no
new process. It has long been a cus
tom to cut back vines and trees in or
der to increase the yield and quality of
fruit, and so long as you do not hold
back your corn, it will go, like mine so
long went, to all stalk.
Do not be discouraged by the looks
of your corn during the process of cul
tivation. It will yield out of all pro
portion to its appearance. Large stalks
cannot make large yields, except with
extremely favorable seasons, for they
cannot stand a lack of moisture. Early
applications of manure go to make
large stalks which you do not want,
and the plant food is all thus used up
before the ear, which you do want is
made. Tall stalks not only will not pro
duce well themselves, but will not al
low you to make the pea vines, so ne
cessary to the improvement of land. ?
Corn raised by this method should
never grow over seven and half feet
high and the ear should be near to the
I consider the final application of ni
ONE ACRE CROP ANALYSIS:
Z Cl, Oh >
2,800 pounds ' corn
(grain) 50 20 11
500 pounds of shucks 5 2 7
400 pounds of cobs 2 0 2
"A" taken land 58 22 20
1,200 lbs corn stalks 12 8 17
3,000 lbs peas, vines
and roots grown in
corn. 59 16 44
Entire crop contains 129 41 81 28.26 J
Taken from land "A" 58 22 20 12.03
Left for next crop - 71 19 61 16.23
100 bushels of oats
and straw will re
quire - - - - 78 31 48
1,500 lbs seed cotton
and stalks will re
quire - - - - 64 17 56
50 bushels corn, cobs,
shucks and stalks
will require - - 70 25 37
tr?te of soda an essential point in this
ear making process. It should always
be applied at last plowing and unmixed
with other fertilizers.
I am satisfied with one car to the
stalk, unless a prolific variety is plant
kd, and leave 100 stalks for every bush
el that I expect to make. I find the
six foot row easiest to cultivate with
out injuring the corn. For 50 bushels
to the acre, I leave it 16 inches apart;
for 75 bushels to the acre, 12 inches
apart, and for 100 bushels eight inches
apart. Corn should be planted from
four to six inches below the level, and
laid by from four to six inches above.
No hoeing should be necessary, and mid
dles may be kept clean until time to
break out, by using harrow or by run
ning one shovel furrow in centre of
middle and bedding on that, with one
or more rounds of turn plow.
I would advise only a few acres tried
by this method the first year, or until
you are familiar with its application.
Especially is it hard, at first, to fully
carry out the stunting process, where
a whole crop is involved, and this is the
absolutely essential part of the process.
This method I have applied or seen
applied successfully to all kinds of land
in this section except river lands and
moist bottoms, and I am confident it
can be made of great benefit through
out the entire South.
In the middle West, where corn is so
prolific and profitable, and where, un
fortunately for us, so much of ours has
been produced, the stalk does not nat
urally grow large. As we come South
its size increases, at the expense of the
ear, until in Cuba and Mexico it is
nearly all stalk (witness Mexican va
The purpose of this method is to elim
inate this tendency of corn to over
growth at the expense of yield, in this
By this method I have made my corn
crop more profitable than my cotton
erop, and my neighbors and friends
who havo adopted it have, without ex
coption, derived great benefit there
Plant your own seed. I would not ad
vise a change of seed and method the
same year, as you will not then know
from which you have derived the bene
fit. I have used three varieties, and
all have done well. I have never used
this method for late planting. In fact,
I do not advise the late planting of
corn, unless it be necessary for cold
The increased cost of labor and the
high price of all material end land are
rapidly making farming unprofitable,
except to those who are getting from
one acre what they formerly got from
two. We must make our lands richer
by plowing deep, planting peas and
other legumes, manuring them with:
acid phosphate and potash, which are
relatively cheap and returning to the
soil the resultant vegetable matter rich
in humus and expensive nitrogen. The
needs of our soil are such that the
South can never reap the full measure
of prosperity that should be hers, until
this is done.
I give this method as a farmer to
the farmers of the South, trusting that
thereby they may be bonefitted as I
N. B. Dial,. a. O. Todd.
DIAL & TODD,
Attorneys and Coun
sellors at Law.
Enterprise Bank and Todd Olli en Build
Laurkns, S. O.
and other DRUGS, and nervous
Charges more reasonable than other
like institutions. $25.00 per week pays
for treatment, remedies and board.
Result absolutely the same.
L. G. CORBETT, M. D.
THE CAROLINA SANITARIUM,
Greenville, S. C.
We Have Just Received Another Car of That
which we always keep on hand. The price is all
right.. Also fresh shipment of
k Seed Irish Potatoes
and GARDEN SEED of every kind and
description. Our goods are all guaranteed
to give satisfaction or money refunded.
I Watts Mills Store,
<?j Laurens, - Smith Carolina.
\^K^r. 7V\ ytr' sw\ . w\ *?? ^^^K HR <-Urs !tt\ .
"Oh, I AM SO TIRED!"
Is heard daily from old and young, rich and poor. Did you ever stop and consider
the cause of this remark? We will venture to say nine cases out of ten are
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est enemy of American health to-day, fasten its merciless fangs on your health.
Remember, "A Stitch in time saves nine", and a bottle of the celebrated
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parts of this broad land, by curing them permanently of this miserable disease.
Yes, not like the pepsin digestives that help for a time, but cures permanently
by causing the digestive organs to perform their functions. Nature being such
a great rectifier of its own ills, with the assistance of this powerful medicine,
gives you a healthy stomach and removes indigestion and its symptoms perma
nently Sold on a $5.00 guarantee. 50 centa and $1.00 per kettle at
Laurens Drug Company.
Not Buy the Best Stove or
Range? Buy a
It has been on the market j?
for over fifty-seven years, gs
and has always given satis-Sjk
faction; you are ''stove safe"
if you buy a Buck's. The ^8
Oven of a Buck's Range is a
distinctive feature. It isgjg
large, roomy and well venti- sl8
lated. The construction ofjs?
the Oven is such that warp- >lg
ing is impossible. White ?5
enameled oven doors and 3^
oven racks makes Buck's
Ranges sanitary. Buck's &B
ovens are self basters. See Jta
our line before buying. W
S. S. BOYD,
Tho Old Reliable Plumber and
Tinner, who has been in busi
ness in I,aureus for over
L. L. BROWNING,
of Celumbia, who will make this
his. home and be associated
with Mr. Poyd in the
plumbing business. He
has had 20 years'
We announce to the public that we are now
ready for any work in our line, and respectfully solicit
a share of your patronage. We will carry in stock a
high grade line of Plumbing Material, and will at all
times be ready to quote you closest prices for any sized
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Yours for High Grade Work at
Boyd &, Browning,
Plumbers That Know How.
Laurens, - - - - South Carolina.
Get it Repaired at
"You break it
I mend it."
Guns, Pistols, Clocks, Locks, Automobiles.
Pictures and Picture Frames made to Order.
A. Ross Blakely
Next to Express Office Laurens, S. C.
J. E. M1NTER & BRO.'S
J. E. Minter & Bro.'s Bargain Basement.
Our buyer, Mr. E. P. Minter, leaves for New York Monday to purchase a Big Stock for Spring
for all our Departments, and especially for our Bargain Basement. We have already
received large shipments for this Department, so
We will offer the following Specials in our Bargain Basement:
We have just completed making some important changes in our store. We have fitted up our basement
into a modern well-lighted store room, where we will keep at all times a splendid stock of goods
of all kinds, which will be sold UNDER VALUE. If it is Real Bargains you are looking
for you will always find them at
4,000 yards Calico, lights
and darks, 3J cents.
I lot Ladies' Black Under
skirts bargain basement price
2,000 yards yard-wide Sea
Island bargain basement price
5 cents the yard.
100 dozen Ladies' 10-cent
Hose, bargain basement price
1 lot Children's Hose, bar
gain basement price 8 cents.
50 dozen Men' Shirts, beau
ful Spring styles, bargain base
ment price 49c ents.
1 lot Men's 50-cent Shirts,
bargain basement price 39cts.
1 lot Men's $1.25 Pants, bar
gain basement price 89c.
1 lot 15-cent Towels, bargain
basement price 10c.
100 dozen Men's 10-cent Half
Hose, bargain basement price
5 cents per pair.
1 lot Men's Pants worth
$2.00, bargain basement price
$1.50 Counterpane, bargain
basement price $1.09.
$1.25 Counterpane, bargain
basement price 94 cents.
Clothing ,nthe Bargain Basement
We have pui here some short lots to close out quick at a sacrifice. Come get your size, and
you will be surprised to find how much you have saved.
MEET ME AT
J. E. Minter & Bro.'s
LAURBNS, SOUTH CAROLINA.