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I The Explorer and Four
Companions With Fifty
two Do*s Climb Over Ice
Mountains to the Pole.
New Range of Mountains
The Pole Surrounded by a
Vast Plateau Named In
King Haakon's Honcr.
Three Days Spent at
Point Farthest South.
"Devil's Dancing Room."
BY ROALO AMUNDSEN.
Copyright, 1912, by th? N?w York Time?
[All rights reserved.]
w WOR ART, Tasmania, March 8,
Wf-m 11:20 a. m.-On the 10th of
February, 1911. we commeuc
ed to work our way toward
the south, from that day to the lltb
of April establishing three depots,
rwhlch in all contained a quantity of
provisions of about 3,000 kilos. One
thousand six hundred kilos, including
1,100 kilos of seal meat, were cached
dn 80 degrees. 730 kilos in SI degrees
and 800 kilos in 82 degrees south lati
As no landmarks were to be St?$&,
these depots were marked with flo^s
seveu kilometers on each side In Uio
easterly and westerly directions.
The ground and the state of the bar
Tier were of the best and specially well
adapted to driving wit!: dogs. On Feb.
15 we had thus traveled about a hun
dred kilometers. The weight of the
Bledges was 300 kllosvnnd the number
of dogs was six for each sledge. The
"GOOD OLD FRAM!"
est south latitude attained was 78 de
grees 41 minutes.
Before the arrival of winter we had
6.000 hilos of seal meat iu the depots,
euough for ourselves and 110 dogs.
Elgin dog houses, a combination of
tents and snow huts were built.
"winter on the Ice Barrier.
Having cured for the dogs, the turu
.'nine to use our solid little hut It
was u I most entirely covered with snow
by the middle of April. First we bad
to get light ami air. The Lux lamp,
which had a power of 200 standard
Captain Roald Amundsen, First Man
to Reach the South Pole.
1 Thoto by American Press Association.
Roald Amundun, discoverer of the south pol?, is a bachelor, forty
year* old, and a native of Norway. Hia firat taata of exploration was in
1897, when he sailed as first officer of Gerlach's Bslgian south polar expe
dition. He is the first man to accomplish the long attempted feat of tak
ing a ship from the Atlantic to the Pacific ocean by way of the Northwest
passage. This he accomplished in 1903 and 1905.
mir f.nr(. of the harrier was smooth and
fine, with no sastrugl. The crevices
Were very local and were found dan
Ctrons Id only two places. For the
rwrt long, smooth undulations.
The weather was excellent?calm or
? light breere. The lowest temperature
on these depot trip* was minus 46 Cel
an? or centigrade (40 degrees below
Mrs F.). On the 4th of March, on our
return from the first trip beginning on
the loth of February, we found out
that the Pram had already left us.
With pride and delight we heard that
her smart captain had succeeded in
?ailing her farthest south and there
hob)ting the colors of his country. A
glorious moment for him and his com
rade* the farthest north and the far
thest south?good old Fram! The high
<nudies, gave ua a brilliant light and
kept the temperature up to 20 degrees
Celsius (?8 degrees P.) throughout thj
winter, and our excellent ventilation
system gave us all the air we wanted.
In direct communication with tbe
but and dugout on tbe barrier were
workshops, packing rooms, cellar* for
provisions, coal, wood and oil, a plain
bath, a steam bath and observatories.
Thus we had everything within door*
if tbe weather should be too cold and
The sun left ns on the 22d of April
and did not return until four months
later. The winter was spent in chang
ing our whole outfit, which on the de
pot trips was found to be too clumsy
and soi!d for the smooth surface nf
the barrier. Besides this, a* much
scientific work ns i>ossible was done,
and some astonishing meteorological
observations were taken.
Open Water All Winter.
There was very little suow. and
there was open water ciose by through
out the winter. Tor the same reason
higher temperature had been expected,
but it remained very low.
In Ove months there were observed
temperatures between minus 50 and
00 degrees Celsius (58 and 70 degrees
below zero F.). the lowest tempera
ture, on the 13th of August, being
minus 60 degrees Celsius. It was then
calm. On Aug. 1 the temperature was
minus 5S degrees Celsius, and there
were six meters of wind. The mean
temperature for the year was minus
2S degrees Celsius (14.8 below zero F.l.
I had expected hurricane after hur
ricane, but I observed only two mod
erate storms and many excellent auro
ra austrnlis In all directions.
The sanitary conditions were of the
best all the winter, and when the sun
returned on Aug. '_'1 we met the men
sound in mind and body, ready to set
about the task that had to be solved.
Already, the day before, we bad
brought our sledges to the starting
place for our march toward the south.
Only in the beginning of September
did the temperature rise to such an
extent that there was any Question of
First Start For the Pole.
On Sept. 8 eight men. with seven
sledges, ninety dogs and provisions for
four months, started.. The ground was
perfect. The temperature was not bad.
The next day It appeared that we bad
started too early, ns the temperature of '
the following days fell and was kept
steady between minus 50 and 00 Cel
sius (r>s degrees and ??', degrees below
zero F.). Personally, wo did not suf
fer at nil from this c Id. Our good furs
protected us. Hut with our dogs it was
a different matter. It would easily be
seen that they shrunk from day to day.
and we understood pretty soon that
they could not stand the long run to
our depot at 80 degrees south.
We agreed on returning and to wait
for the arrival of spring. The provi
sions were cached, and off wo went for
the but With the exception of the
loss of a few dogs and a couple of
frozen heels everything was all right.
Only in the middle of October spring
came In earnest. Seals and birds np
pea red. The temperature was steady
between 20 and HO Celsius (<>8 degrees
and Sd degrees F.).
The original plan that all of us should
go toward the south had been changed.
Five men had to do this work, while
the other three were to start for the
east nod visit King Edward VII. land.
This last mentioned trip was not in
cluded in our program, but owing to
the fact that the English bad not reach
ed it at least this summer, as was their
intention, we agreed that the best thing
to do was also to make this trip.
On Oct. 20 the southern party started
?live men, four sledges, fifty-two dogs
and provisions for 'our months?every
thing in excellent order.
The Journey to the Pole.
We had made up our minds to take
the first part of the trip ns easily as
possible in order to give ourselves and
the dogs a rational training, and on
the 23d we mndo our depot in 80 de
grees south. Wo wont right ahead.
In spile of Hie dense fog rn error of
two to three kilometers happened once
in awhile, and W0 were caught by the
'lag marks and found these on our way
Having reste] and fed the dogs on
all the seal meat they were able to eat,
wo started again on the 20th, with the
temperature steadily between minus 20
and 30 Celsius (1 degrees and 22 de
grees below zero F.).
From the start It was the intention
not to drive more than thirty kilo
meters a day, but it appeared that this
was too little for our strong, willing
animals. At 80 degrees south wo began
to build snow cairns of n man's height,
in order to hnve marks on our return
trip. On the 31st we reached the depot
at 81 degrees and stopped there one
flay and fed the dogs on as much pem
mienn as they wanted.
We reached the depot at 82 degrees
on the 5th of November, where the dogs
for the last time got all they wanted to
eat On the 8th. southward again, with
a dally march of 50 kilometers.
In order to lighten our heavy sledges
we established depots at each degree
of south latitude.
Like a Pleasure Trip.
The trip from 82 degrees to 66 de
grees became a pleasure trip?excellent
ground, fine sledging and an even
temperature. Everything went like a
On the 0th wo sighted South Vic
toria land and the continuation of tho
mountain range which Sir Ernest
Bhackleton mentioned In his chart as
running toward the southeast from the
Beard more glacier, and on tho snmo
day we reached 83 degrees and estab
lished here depot No. 4. On the 11th
(Continued on Page Nine.)
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