Newspaper Page Text
Some Reasons for Getting Away
Front One-Crop Idea.
VITAL PROBLEM FOR FARMER
?fast inaugurate a Safe and Sane Byr
j tern of Farming to Enrich, Instead
j of Wearing Out Our Lands?
\ Cotton Exhausts Humus.
(By O. II. AL.FOKD.)
Thero aro two problems before ua
tot solution. However, tho most real
and vital problem beforo uh just at
>tMn tlnio is to get our fnnners to prac
tice a safo and eano system of farm
ing; one that will inchido crops to en
rloh instead of wear out our lands;
one that will include plenty of good:
Jive stock to consumo tho surplus prod
ucts and tho leguminous crops that
must be grown to enrich tho land and
to mako manure to still further onricb.
the land?a syHtem of farming that
will grow tho necessary corn, oats,,
wheat, rice, sugar cano, vegetables,
fruits of all klndB, poultry, hogs, mules,
horses, cattle, sheep and other live
stock for homo uso and to sell at a
price tho pcoplo In our towns and cit
ies can afford to pay.
The too oxcluslvo culture of cotton
has exhausted tho humus, tho life
giving principle In our soils; tho wash
ing of tho clean cotton fields has gono
en to such an oxtcnt that millions of
acres of the best land In the cotton
belt havo been ruined. Tho too exclu
sive culturo of cotton makcB it neces
sary to send the money obtained for
cotton north to pay for corn, oats,
pork products, mules, horses and other
farm products. Tho too oxcluslvo cul
ture of cotton has caused overproduc
tion, thoreby forced the price far below
an equitable one, so tbut thero has
been but littlo more than a bare liv
ing for cotton fnrmers. Tho too ex
olaslvo culturo of cotton ostabllBlied
the credit ByBtom. As long as our
farmers ralBo their supplies at home
there is no necessity for tho credit
system. The too exclustvo culturo of
cotton compols ub to buy on crodlt
and dump nil of our cotton on tho mar
ket in tho fall in order to satisfy our
creditors and thoreby forco tho prlco
If these stntomonts bo truo, why
have tho farmerB in tho cottoD belt
not practlcod diversification moro gen
erally long ago? Many Buy that the
fftrmerf i???? t>eon compelled to ulant
cotton to get credit, and at tho low
prices of cotton, which so long pro
vailed, woro unable to got out of debt
and go forward unhampered on an
Independent basis. This is no doubt
true of many thousands of farmers.
Thero aro, of courso, numerous rea
sons for tho too oxcluslvo culturo of
cotton, but the argument UHod by most
cotton farmers Is that cotton Is tho
most profitable crop to grow and that
the larger the area in cotton tho larger
the profits. These cotton farmerB us
ually show by llguros that an aero of
land that will grow 40 bushels of corn
will grow one halo of cotton and that
the cotton will sell for more money
than tho corn.
Now, como, let us reason together
for a few moments. Tho success of
any system of funning cannot bo
judged by tho crops or tho next earn
ings for ono year or for five years.
Any system of farming that Impov
erishes the land is a miserahlo failure,
no matter what tho profits may be for
ono year or for tlvo years. Our prob
lems largely depend upon maintaining
Boll fertility, and for this reason any
system of fanning that causes a de
cline in tho fertility of tho soil ts a
ebame and disgrace to our farmers.
Our greatest asset Is tho fertility of
our soil. Just In proportion In which
oar soils nre worn out, in that propor
tion Is our prosperity diminished. No
living man bus ovor acquired tho art
of ^rowing good crops of grain, grass
"tfcotton or vegetables on poor land.
thr soil always means small yleldB;
mill yields always means poor peo
j|, and poor people always means
t. crodlt system, very littlo educa
? ition, uncomfortablo homes, poorly
equipped farms, and, in fact, all that
, In passing, pormlt mo to suggost
that corn with peas In tho corn and
>peas grazed by hogs, and oatB follow
ed by soy beans or lespedeza will tako
the place of a large part of the cotton,
and tha. you will make as largo net
profits from the salo of these crops
as you mako from cotton. I.ami that
will mako one-half to three-fourths
^ "hale or cotton per acre, on tho aver
age, one year with anothor, will make
;30 busbols of oats and 20 bushels of
sov beans, or two tons of lespedoza
'hay. The oats and soy beans or lespe
deza hay will sell for moro cash than
tthe cotton. And wherein theso crops
and corn nnd oats used in a rotation
?nurposs any ono crop system, lies In
the fact that the fertility of the soli
[is increased whllo with the too ex
jclusive culture of cotton tho fertility
1 Tho most destructive and energetic
1 insect that the world has ever known
is gradually covering the cotton belt.
'There Is one hope and only one hope
for the farmers, and that Is tho diver
sification of crops. Tho adoption of
|a Bane and safe system of farming?
yone that will grow grasses, leguminous
crops, oats, corn, hogs, sheep, cattle,
mules, horses and some cotton will
metre the boD weevil problem.
.Tfce credit system is tho corse of tbe
ootton belt. It sweeps tbo earnings of
toll from the masses into the coffers
of tho few. Some years aro the com
missioner of agriculture of Georgia,
after careful inquiry of several hun
dred, found that tho average rates
charged tho farmers for extension of
credit i'rora April and May to October
and Novembor was 54 per cent, per
I "annum over and above the cash price.
I Wives and children were compelled to
work In tho heat and cold from Jan
uary until December to pay tho 54 per
?cent, credit profits. Diversification of
crops will abolish tho credit system.
Wo are sending millioiiH of dollars
.to other sections of tho country every
[year to pay for pork products, mules,
fhorses and othor farm produci?. Dl
.versification of crops will keep this
money at home, our bunks will soon
,"be full to overflowing and tho rate of
lutorost lowered to say C per cent, be
icausn of tho abundance of money.
Then we will havo the neceHsary
.money to pay good teachers better sal
aries to teach longor terms, to build
'Comfortablo homcB and good roads
?and properly equip our farniB.
Diversification Is tho only remedy
>for low-priced cotton. Thero Is no
?ane man who does not know that wo
will get more money for 12,000,000
than wo will for 15,000,000 bales. Tho
history of tho past 20 years Is proof
'jpo&itrvo of this statement. We all
"know that large crops of cotton mean
a low prlco and that a low price for
cotton means poverty and wretched
neos all over tho cotton belt. This be
ing truo, why will our farmers and
their wives and children toll in the
heat and cold In largo cotton fields to
grow largo cropB of cheap cotton to
pay for high-price corn, oats, bacon,
lard, mules and other farm products
with the profits of sovoral middle men,
supply merchants and railroads added?
Tho growing of every farm product
?necessary for homo use will curtail tho
production of cotton, raise the price
to nt least 12 cents per pound and
ennblo us to ubo the money obtained
for cotton to build good roads, mag
ntfieent homes, churchos and school
houses and fill our banks to overflow
ing. Lifo on tho farm will then be
froo, unfottored by the bands of prom
issory obligations and our position in
the world mado conspicuous by that
lndopendenco which the farmer alone
can enjoy in tho fullest significance
of tho term.
Every farmer should raiso his own
farm-work stock. It 1b true that mil
lions are sent out of tho cotton belt
each year for mules and horses, but
this la not the main reason why your
attention is called to this subject at
this tlmo. Probably ono of the two
chief causes of poverty In the cotton
bolt Is tho one-horso plow. Tho small
mule and a turning plow is a guarantee
of shallow soil devoid of vegetable
matter. A shallow soil devoid of veg
etablo matter means small crops and
Farmers who buy their work stock
never havo enough for tho econom
ical production of crops. We have
about one-fourth the horse powor
and earn about one-fourth as much
money as farmers In some other sec
tions of tho country.
Farmors who buy food stuffs to feed
plow teams novor raise sufficient farm
work stock to supply their needs. We
buy feed stuff and this is the main
reason why we have about ou<M'ourth
as many horses and mulos as farm
era In other sections of the country.
Wo cnn save tho millions of dollars
paid out for mules and horses each
year and bring In millions from the
salo of mulos and horses, but a great
or profit will come from securing in
this way sufficient work stock tor
economical crop production.
POPULATION AND PRODUCTION
48 Millions SI.561.000.000
ERADICATION OF QUACK GRASS
Badly Infested Field Should Be Plowed
From Five to E'jht Inches Soon
as Crop Is Removed.
(By ANDREW UOSS. Minnesota Experi
Where a field Is badly infested with
quack grass it should bo plowed from
five to eight inches deep as soon as
tho hay or grain crop is removed. All
portions of tho grass must be turned
under. Within a fow days tho plow
should be followed by a disk harrow
with tho disks set straight at tno first
timo over to avoid turning any of tho
sod. Tho disking should be repeated
onco or twice a week for six or eight
1 weeks and occasionally after tbat un
til freezing weather.
Short crop rotations are useful in
j koeping quack grass under control and
when arranged so as to provide an
opportunity to attack tho quack grass
I at tho right time they will permit
' eradication of tho weed without los
ing the use of tho land.
In the long run it is always a good
plan to give a cow a dose of some
laxative at the first symptom of ud
A HEROIC DEFENSE
Story of "The Last Cartridges"
and the French Marines.
THE BATTLE AT BAZEILLES.
Commandant Lambert's Simple Report
of tho Deaperate Conflict With the
Bavarians That Was Immortalized In
Ds Neuville'* Famous Painting.
A fumous Kreuch battle painting
called "Tho Last Cartridges." the work
of Alphonse de Neuville, represents the
desperate defense of an old house ut
Bazellles by a handful of French ma
rines agulnst great odds. Doubt huv
lng been cast upon the authenticity of
this episode, the French government
has published tho Official report made
by Commandant Lambert, who com
manded tho detachment ut Bazellles.
Tho report is simply a plain, unvar
nished recital of the events of a thrill
ing and heroic series of engagements
in which undaunted bravery and reck
less courage were truly displayed and
which would furnish abundant mate
rial for a dramatist in need of a text
for u stirring play. This Is the brief
story as It was recounted by the brave
Lambert had been wounded by a ball
in the leg and was unable to walk more
than a few steps. With a few officers
and a detachment of his soldiers, cut
off from the main body of the French
army, he took refuge in an isolated
house at tho highest point In Bazellles
and defended It against the Germans.
Firing from the windows and any
other openings that they could find,
tho soldiers Inflicted heavy loss upon
tho enemy, who swjirmed through the
streets of the town. They believed
that they would soon be rescued by
tholr own troops.
They still heard the sound of their
mitrailleuses and the detonations of
the French chnssopots, which they
could distinguish perfectly well from
the sounds of the guns of the Bava
rians about them.
They did not know that these sounds
came from n French force as hopeless
ly walled In as they themselves were
and that the main body of their coun
trymen had deserted them.
At ono time, seeing a chance for
their escape. Lambert tried to send his
comrades away while he and a few
soldiers were to remain and fall Into
the hands of tho enemy, but they re
fused to go. Meantime projectiles of
all sorts were raining Into tho old
house. Bullets perforated the doors
and windows until but little remained
of them. The building was entirely
surrounded by tho Fifteenth Bavarian
A bombshell crashed through the
roof, bearing down with It several
men. Others were cut down by VttVtt?
rlan bullets. But the light went on for
a long time, and the Frenchmen were
able to keep their assailants at bay.
At last, however, the ammunition
gave out. As the last cartridges were
fired the men. having heard the Bava
rians* demand that no quarter bo given
j those Frenchmen because of the heavy
losses they had Inflicted, proposed to
issue from the building with charged
bayonets and sell their lives dearly in
a hand to hand conllict.
Rut their coinifiandcr, the wounded
Lambert, waited until the last car
tridge was tired; then he limped
through the door and confronted the
swarming Bavarians alone. He de
clared that If they killed him It would
be time for tils soldiers to die. and it
was possible that he. their commander,
could make some terms for them.
As soon as he limped out and stood
with folded arms a dozen bayonets
were at his brenst. Ho would have
been killed in another instant if the
Bavarian captain had not, at tho risk
of his own life, precipitated himself
upon the French otllcer and beaten
back his own men. Infuriated by the
frightful loss which the defenders had
Inflicted upon their own regiment, they
would have put the whole detachment
The Bavarian captain prevailed, and
the Frenchmen were made prisoners
of war. The Bavarian officer congrat
ulated the French commander warmly
upon the desperate and heroic stand
they had made.
Right and Left Hands.
As regards the moral significance of
the right and left hands, a highland
friend who is something of n Gaelic
scholar gives mo the Interesting Infor
mation that in Oacllc the right and
left hands become respectively the
"south" hand and the "north" hand.
The moral aspect of It conies out in tho
Gaelic Idea of the south as rich, well
favored and fortunate and the north ns
the reverse. In the "south" hand are
carried riches and honor. The north
handed man is unlucky. And now we
know why It is so many Scotsmen go
south ward!?London Chronicle.
Fled the Wrath.
Friendly ?Constable~Come, come, sir,
yon must pull yourself together; there's
your wife cnlllng you. Festive Gent?
Wlia she call?hie?calling me. Billy or
William? Constable?William, sir. Fes
tive Gent?Then you bet I'm not goln'?
New Janitor ? Don't you see that
sign. "Beggars Not Allowed In This
Building?" Beggar?Yes; I put It up.
I'm tho owner.?New York Globe.
A man can know nothing of man
kind without knowing something of
The Electric Voice That Speaks
Through the Ether.
SETTING UP THE VIBRATIONS.
This Is the Work of the Oscillator,
Which Is the Electr ic Mouth, and Its
Message Is Caught by the Resonator,
Which Is the Ear of the Apparatus.
More truly tbnn uuy other tele
graphic device, the wonderful wire
less is a speaking voice, it makes
itself hoard just as the huuian voice
dues by a series of waves moving free
ly through space.
When I speak my voice is sent out
in undulations of varying length and
frequency through the air. When the
Wireless "speaks" its voice is conveyed
by undulations in the ether, which Is
it more refined medium than air. cart.,
lug the waves of light and electricity
as the air carries those of sound.
The oscillator of the wireless Is a
"mouth." sending out undulations in
tho ether as our mouths send out mi
dotations in the air, and tho resona
tor of the wireless Is an "ear." catch
ing the ethorlal waves as they im
pinge upon It. as our ears catch the
atmospheric waves that strike them.
We see nothing wonderful in vocal
sounds, because nature gave us in our
needs one Instrument to produce them
and another to receive them, ltut she
left us to lind out for ourselves how
to produce and receive "vocal" waves
in the ether. Since we had to make
tho instruments (hat deal with them
the otboric waves seem to us marvel
ous, although they are in principle no
more marvelous than the waves of air.
Man began to use electricity for con
veying intelligence by sending it cur
rent of It along a wire. He pressed a
button at one end of the line, and tho
electric current passing along the wire
induced a corresponding motion in a
tapper at the other end. It was a
roil mill bout way of employing an agon
cy which we now know can be em
ployed more simply and directly b,\
throwing away the wires and making
tlii> electric waves "speak" straight
through tile etiler.
It is true that the language employed
does not consist of the words of any
spoken tongue, hut it is one that can
be directly translated into any othci
known to man, and so it is the most
universal of all languages.
.Now. let us see how it Is employed
First as to the electric ?"mouth." When
u charge of electricity is accumulated
on a "condenser" a similar but oppo
site charge is induced upon another
condenser placed near. The air be
tween them acts as an insulator he
cause It Is a poor conductor of electric*
Ity, But when the charge attains a
certain degree of intensity the strain
upon tin? air becomes too great, and a
spark passes between the two con
densers, by which equilibrium is re
stored between them.
The passage of this spark produces,
so to speak, a shock in the ether,
which, like the explosion of a gun or
the utterance of a sound, sets up a se
ries of waves in the surrounding me
dlinn. which radiate away on ail sides.
These waves in the ether produce the
electric "voice." If the sparks are reg
ulated in number and frequency the
consequent waves ate similarly regu
lated. ? An instrument for the produc
tion of such waves is called an oscilla
tor or exciter. It is a kind of vocal ap
paratus lor speaking through the othci
instead of through the air
Hut just as we should have no know I
edge of the passage of sound waves if
we were not provided with ears to hear
them, so the electric waves would go
unregarded if we had no apparatus for
The receiving apparatus Is called a
resonator, or detec tor. It may be sit
uated hundreds of miles from the os
cillator, but it will catch the wave-;
as they undulate to It through the
etlier. and it can be made to reproduce
them in till audible or legible form by
causing them to operate a Morse dot
and dash instrument, as in ordinary
telegraphy by wire.
Hut the electric voice and the elec
tric ear are in some ways more man
ageable than tlie human voice and ear.
We can only produce ami hear air
waves of a limited range of frequency,
and we cannot do much to alter that
Sound waves vibrating less than
forty times a second or more than 40,
000 times are Inaudible to us. But elec
tric waves varying in frequency from
a few hundred up to hundreds of mil
lions a second can be rendered per
ceptible, and it is also possible so to
const met the Instruments that they
will send forth and receive particular
ranges of waves and be mute and
deaf to others.
Then the distance over which the
electric waves can be detected is al
most Infinitely greater than that of
ordinary sound waves. It takes a
strong voiced man to make his voice
audible across a little river, hut, as
everybody knows, the electric cry of n
ship In distress can be electrically
heard from the middle of the Atlantic
Acean. And there are enthusiasts who
predict that before very long wo shall
be nhie to speak by wireless to some
other planet, if only there Is somebody
there to hear and understand us!?
Oarrett P. Scrvlss in Spokane Spokes
There Is no net, however trivial, but
tins Its train of consequences, as thero
is no hair bo small but eastu its
\ OBTAIN VOTES
For every dollar purchase we will
give 100 Votes in The
\ Advertiser Contest.
Our stock of Drugs, Stationery
Toilet Articles, Cigars, Tobac
co and Sundries is Complete
and of the very best quality.
Votes given on every purchase.
Prescriptions a Specialty.
LAURENS, - SOUTH CAROLINA
Filtered Pure, High Grade
AT THE ?
i Bowser Filtering Station
THE MOST CONVENIENT
PLACE IN THE CITY TO
HAVE YOUR CAR FILLED
Telephone 33 Sullivan St.
Near Public Square.
COLUMBIA, NEWBERRY AND LAUKENS RAILROAD.
Schedule Effective July 13, 1013. |
Schedules aro published only as information, and not guaranteed.
50 54 52 61 63 66
8.00 a in 5.00pm 11.20am L,v 'Columbia Ar 8.38 pm 4.55 pnit 11.16 am
9.30 6.29 12.49 pm Prosperity 7.08 3.36 9.60
9.47 8.47 1.06 Nowbcrry 6.52 3.20 9.32
10.41 7.42 1.60 Clinton 5.58 2.35 8.44
11.04 a in 8.05 pm 2.20 pm Ar Iiaurens IjV 6.35 pm 2.00 pmi 8.20 am
Nos. 52 and 53 daily solid through trains between Charleston and Qreon.
villo. Arrlvo nnd depart fromAJnion Station, Columbia.
Nos. 54 and 55 solid through trains between Columbia and Green villo.
Arrive and depart from Garvals Street Station, Columbia. Daily except
Nos. 50 and 51 solid through trains between Columbia and Laurens. Ar
rive and dopart from Gervais Street Station, Columbia. Operated on Sunday.
W. .1 CRAIG, P. T. M., B. A. TARJRiEJR, Com'l Agt.,
Wilmington, N. C. Columbia, S. O.