Newspaper Page Text
IHOW GREAT WARS
OF HISTORY WERE
BROUGHT TO END
Peace Talk Recalls How Negotla
tions Were Started In
GERMAN MOVE STANDS ALONE
History Does Not Disclose an Exact
Parallel to Course of Central Pow.
ers-Mediation, Such as Of
fered by President, Seldom
Has Beeii Accepted.
New York.--llow did great wars
enl1d'1t v peate elrs siel as Pres
ident Wilson's usunily borne fruit?
Did an undefeated warring power lik
'ertnany ever heo('r'' hold out the o(,-O
brancih to the enmt'l ?
Those are queistions, of Intenlse Inl
terest to hutnillnity today. Their an
s'wmers hanvoe a dirr1e't iearing oln tle
tlor uppermtilosv in ery 11.1 d
-- " 0 s'i. the : wit ul holentist of
Euro'''s -t bet no brIavt will Cease.
llistory d s n1o: t li stlot aniy exllet
patrallelI to) (brman~wy':; courlse, lit least
bIllting hr fvcoius a ee
belwfo . rqul-te 1lwr m dversa rie's to)
inet her mtal d 1isn i t I .s!bI le titss
Aloreoover, Pre-Sb!lnt Wllsonl's offer
of liledia tioln f:14- li f la I t t ra re
iy have nat i on a I* i I,'d I !th-t S vvs of
such anl oppttn'1ait ty. The Ilied States
maty now hrconoI i IIl, grea-.t Ipiea Ice
maker, the iedi:iar between the vn
telte and the Central owers. hitt it
,will be almost the i'st time such a
sMIlintion lias dev'loped.
Manly timnes, indeeld, inl aii lmost every
i, a beaten foe las requested p'ence
11miI'ys through . neutitial. Such 1tin
let Is l"usuilly rightly tikeni as it Col
Lessiton of1 defeatI. In olre tasti war,
the onfliliet withii Stpain, the M:IJlb
goverilltielt onl .ltly 26. 1-N. realiz
Ing that fllrthelr sitr11glo was fruit
Jess, mfle ove~rilrs tll thW Ulnited
States througl l l s C:1111h411, wvho
,\Is then F'rench Amb?ahissador lt
Protocol Was Signed.
The American gover-nment immerfli
1tely avalied itself of, this chancve to
get together with thl fot mdt l'i' days
later 1th(e protocol \.Ias signetd.
When Englantil tird of the long,
Josing tight with lier Ameieann colo
nies, she first sent separate envoys to
tie French goverimit iii Ann'rean's
ally. These were fot low ed bv other'
-negotiators ' who dilcussed tlie situ(
ation with the comumi ssiiors t he
Amerlean governmiieint had sent to
The Amerienn m n d
'heeni posit i vely mm 1 !. 1b 1 1 'y 11h2
Continental a,1nrt' not tor 'tIte
Ilea e w vI tItouIIt th 1 -'::ato of
Frante, whi'h rtl . -' 2f the
4greenien t in ' . - 1' '-l..
.the ple'lent taon
But the11 itm e
iseparate t re ' tion
thalt it :<ht ul ntil , a222i
d~nred by12 lthe'inrso
w~hatf had( been2 'iha . :.-tp 'd the
Oulr war2i of 1 St2 .s:ltw anu ''ler of
the Riss~ittn ("arl to' not asa meitaitor,
of a1 fewv '.yst 22 4. Tli''hi' ffer ws re
'tI erengh2a, spetakiniig for the' l~n't'o
govermolenet, lt ii h' kno t the102f
tor' fliat 122 was2 wI~illing t'' negotiate
'1The United2 Statfes imma~ed iat tely s'enit
coninsinaers, bult Gr"eat Iritain d~e
-layed1 a lonig tIme. She did not ap.
point the promnised envotys, who
.singned the poea E of fOhent., unfitltier
t roub~les hiad aggralvn ted greatly and
'she was qite dtesirous oft pea1ce.
InteThe Mexican War.
InteMexican war President Polk
'would have mahlde peaice at almost ainy
'time, but Mexico would not receive
Finally he Bent a representative,
jNicholas P. Trlst, along with Glen. Win'
field1 Scott's army. rlrst was author
ized1 to treat with Mexico as ,soon as
the enemy government wouldt grant
him a hearing.
But Scott quarreled with Trtst and
refused to ftransiit his letter to the
Mexican leadet(rs. Tirtst wvas forced to
get the British miister to forward It
After repeated discouirnging fall
-Bres and retbuff's, tie finailly muet comn
.missioners who) hadt been nappolnted b~y
the newv Mexican government which
succeeded that of Santa Anna. But
thIs was after Pre4sidenit P'otk hald or
diered his recall Trtst dilraregar'ded
the recall order andl negollated the
.treaty of Guadalupe Hlidalgo, which
.was accepted on b~otht idles andl end
pd the wvar.
President TheCodoret Roosevelt was
one of the most successfut mediators
in history, a fact which was recog
ntzed1 when the Nobel commtssin
awardled him a peace prize.
On June 8, 1905, Rtoosevelt brought
'the Russo-Japanese war to a close b~y
~sending identical disprgtches to Petro
tgrad and Tokyo urging the belliger
euat governments to enter Into peace
*Russia's defeats in the field and
IJaDAn's serious financial straits im.
polled thet to comply. Both sent en
voys to the United States, who no
gotiated the treaty of Portsmouth.
The Napoleonic peace treaties usu
ally began with an armistice. The
most famous, the treaty of Tilsit, was
brought about by a per'sonal meet
Ing between Napoleon and Alexander I
on a raft in the middle of the River
Niemen to agree uponl1 ani armistice
which the czar had already sought.
An armIstiee wvas also agreed upon
after the hattle of Lutzen. but Napo
leon would not agree to the allies'
terms and resutmed hostilitles. Ills
fall in 1811 was necomphanied by no
1e()gotialtiols ; the allies were actually
lit Paris. Napoleon's generals her
Sladed him to sign an aet of abdica
tion, and the French senate dethroned
Oi the death of Czar Nicholas I,
his successor, Alexander ii, announced
to the courts of Elurope his desire that
the Crimean war should end, and this
is the Ilearest apiolclth to a parallel
with Germany's action today.
A peace conference was held in
Vienna, but in three ilonths4 it was
broken off and the war resutimed. The
war went on until Austria, a neutral
lower, threatened to join the allies un
less the czar accepted her ultIiatum.
IHe at first refused, but a personal let
ter froi the neutral k hin. of l'russia
I :ilnced hIin to rco nsiler, and the
iII I peace con terence was bIeld.
The \%ar of Italy. hFrance anl Aus
tria, in 1859, was torminaitil in a sur
riigfashion11 by til nri-nistive a1greed
onil ronl between1 Napoleonl lit
anld -ra wi J1%e, just as the Flretich
and Ihll., armies wre in thili full
tite (if success. Victor nliamauel was
foredal to agre, and Ite terttus of the
armnit istice were embodied in a peace
The Civil War.
''lho war betwen Prussia anlI Den
ma rk in V8011 caue abruptly to anl end
when the Danes learned Ilat neither
lingland ilor France would help them.
They <llstalssed their war ministry
from (111ico a-I sent proposals for a
truce (irectly to M1erlIn an1d Vienna.
The tertus of peace between the
United States and the Confederney
were iarnranged by generalis In the field.
In the war i between Austrin, Ptrus
sin, :til Italy In 1 ran. -'n z Jlosef. atf
iier his u ieeats it Koigernet z adelse
whore. infrmi taed Nni leoll Ill of his
williILrniess to cede- \enet to Italy
:ini his lh-slre that N Ioapln hI minell
'or. Napoleon accepted, mind llismairck
atenfteli tle( lerims anl sint themuti to
Nnaioliti. whio, as nawlintior, accepted
them. Ati iimttistlee follow'el.
Iln 1870 tihe l-'rinch gaovernment
whlch suCeeed Napohlon eil tsked
first for ai .artii.tico, ithaen for peaice,
but the reque.sts were dclined and
the4 sIege of 'aris began. After the
surrender of Paris the Gertmnans con
steiiaid to an1 alrtmilstice to) periIit time
electioni of a nt1111ional assemaably whieh
it couild rocognilze. Thet piminari1111-es
it a were areed oll bet weetn Ils
mnatck and141 Thiers at Versa IlIes. ani1d
the treai ty followedi at -rtnkfort.
'Ile \\s-Turki wI I was clit
shr b1ay igl:i's throat to enter it.
ltus- in arranellb an ar1mistle% liminedi
tlly mui t111,414ti:it4l4 Ie treaty of San
tfnodirectly with Tuirkey. ang
hind, bnekedc~ by F-rance land Austria,
r-fuse1"d to rr e ie it, a114u l th conl
(ris f la-ru was unnoed ; bull
it ta1t the xa;lr la:u4l neigao.lated
isiaretI tri2ty wih :aglantid emibody
ly maulte Iiaitre.
China Gives Up.
ihani tia tw 'appi iiraiia'hes to Jao
punit wl tihe war ofca 180p* wais going
oni, hitt thlrouiigih tnvoiys whot haid tio
iprop'i'r credenials, and .hiilin refused
2t tri-t w'ith thaii. \\'h,'n I ('hi m wvas
uhly def41.::tedi an tiiIhe .Japanese'5
armI.- 'ab ll t; tire ont Peaking, the
er ir h- ii Is to Sb2h ivinoi, an tud the
2 teaty was; at onci' dr~iano.
lIussim pmt ian andl to tih' Tiurco
oridaring :it ar'mii le just as the vie
taori cts T'urk s were titrebintg on Cen
Thle Hoer war: tendedai in tnn untprece
dleted wity. TIhte moembeiirs of the
Trransvnaiil governmient rode into Mid
dltihurg and1( retested to beC sent to
Lord Kitchener to ittrange peace terms
with hillim. Hie mta. themi, but hteld that
beetttse of the pecutlar character of
the Boer artty the tanen In the field
wouldi have to be consulted if any as
surance of peace was to be given.
Steyn, De Wet and Delarey went to the
commanttldeirs, explained the situation to
thiem, and each b~ody in the field chose
two dlelegates to meet at Vereeniging
anid dIeele the miatter by vote.
An armistice in the first Batlkan war
wals endedC~ by a breaking ofi' or nego
Ilatlons. The powers then agreed upon
termas and offered mediation. A sec
ondi armaistico was signied, b)ut Mon
tenegro would not join It and wvent to
w'ith thle war. She capturedl Scutari,
but Austria took it away from her, and
the secondl~ peace conference, which
.was successfuil, met at London.
Nlnety-Four, He Takes Fifth Bride.
Coloaedo Springs, Colo.-Married
for the first (iume in London, the day
Victoria was crowaedl queen, Capt,
Charles A. (Gordon, now a reslIent of
tils city, has celebrated his fifth wed
ding day. Hle is ninety-four and ble
b~ridie, Mrs. Margaret Dixon, seventy
eight. Gordon's only sont is the same
age as his prospective step-mother.
Gilt Causes Death.
Chicago.--A gas amnp, given Mr. and
Mrs. NIcholas Dalim as a wecdding
present, killed them. Their bodlet
were found when the police broke intG
their flat after noticing the snmell 01
gas. A rubber tube to the lamp wai
SOWING RAPE IN CORNFIELD
Dwarf Essex Rape Broadcasted After
Final Cultivation Best Adapted
for Shcep Pasture.
As a feeding pro-position there Is
n that gives in 11 4r14 pro its, con (sid
iig the 1111ount of capital 1inve4-sted,
ihalt latieniing Ihllp in t cornfield
v.here rape has lon --owed lit the last
clthivationl 'of the Corn. Tesheop
r:ly he boiight (arly., 1ti1 p1stiurell or
('4el arlierI. Soiling crtops un3itil t1e rape
it for themli tol blk turned Into thll
411 rnit h. Thl Ii k- I)wurf E s,evx rapt, Is
! !I .ri (i t I I t--,I-,13 1. 11 10 , t - ( 1I3cc 1, 1 I 3v44WIIIV(II1
ture -(. Abot fi-v or !,Ix poutids of sved
will lford-A lin cevllent -411and, If wd
h:4'14 i:s(h IIt' r l iet 11 io.il elilt iv II i4 n of,
he 444111 Crop, pll4'U' ing that the Conl
liton I'rl fvorable fl'. anIl enriy gerl
1t 11:1iiln (if thiek seet4d.
lUnn-icolly 3n4) daig will resul1t to
1h (rn crop; ti -h41vp will teln
.tume : l:arge perCentae of th lower
betre :nn lede staks. Od bred
i1g wes that hav pase1d thir. 11nult
viiy uisefuilne. c en always hek
Id wtpivkes whieb makhe thetal
1tiii 34 totur 'Iin ol n rap an ticrn
I I I , Ii) 14 1311 t I*3. 34 I 1 0 11 31141 (.4 )rI I -
Ibi. Y r 13ling woh r tn I III1y 1 bek. fa :I
C - I 3 in ili- \\e.i v. Nil vrin f*o l d,'s
'. 3 I-o r ir.3I) qw 3p a Iql will pr 3
.. 3 n i r insure. :I g o'111
: 14 (::r w r 4 o. 1343 '.1313 ith 1h 1 l:
e~s . nolpa toris i; with ',hl 4 p. nni
.. - I ths I.n u14 r y 3 - ;: r I n y
.<~~ I. ''i Ii. In*tn it t !!s AetrIt
RMJG WORM 'S EASILY CURED
University Expert Favors Iodine and
Acetic Acid Treatmen. for Re.
moval of Trouble.
11:: M. IT. Ri:YNOI. i4. lInIversity Fairn,
34t. 3' i4.)
li3 tt1 '' :1.; -. 4111: s iltI, ly rinised.
I~a I :. - h, - : In . -I-: 1 Io-cialIly .1bout~
I h II and n 4 11 : 1 4 n . I r y :Iar
l:.' th Itr c. e I t( wr :i 11:'In s -. II I I
Iw 1nye suhl e to I I I n . ( , re ItIhh'. I t i s
tas i by )Iiil v. 11:bh- 1por si Ies
h Ich ;:rw I I I It . r I 1 zhe II. .4 n111et hi i;
Iw hInlw In Ia g ra e le-Ivaf.
1,ir' w r1mi 133 he ruth lier4 ellsily
cur1e-(1 1 by gi vi Ig tIh1 Silt a i good
lla-n t'rentinig th4emll once each dlly with
In11111 pa rts (if tinetollrt of iodine 1n111
0:11-1: 1) n etl n11 d. 11T trelitim1ent
lnny- be continued4 for several days,
:a4 u13111l'rs e-cessary.
WEANING COLTS IS SIMPLE
Ordinary Youngste.' Should Be Taken
From Its Mother When From Four
to Six Months Old.
The ordinlary (-,)t Is Ilest wennefd
fr~e Its nn~twr it fratnl four to) six
4, . rebra or i ept .1t con1stantl
:. . wf irk. foui r t' nt4:1 14 1o 14".
n. ' !wrwis . six 11n11t111S. 1i ' prop -
1l haul)i 1. w4 nn1111 i, 1 3inAltipl. im1ar
terI. liefore wenior th 433 Ile ('4it shouhl114
ini .:'y iat3.! *Lrain1 r:ation,1 so4 tha31 when4'
3)n11 separation 1311(' 411ines there3' will be' n4
Splendid Marc and Foil.
1'441uJ4lete, the~ fouil and1( its 41hun3 not) b4
ing). perm'Iiltt to se) .40or 5ime&l1 ea4ch oth-'
4'r for som4314 w.eeks'.
Go4od elenni onits form the blest of all
grins113 for the wveuning fonl, but in
order4'l t4o build( up1 bodlily fait wh'~Ilch
the colt needsl In cold wenlther, one-.
four13th oIf the grain ration In thet fall
31314 w.'inter may13 conIsBt of groulnd corn.
Al so, severail small handfuls of oIl
meal' Imay1' 4 be(11addedv wih goodl resuilts.
I.et the4 ('441 have plenty0313 of good4. c'leanl
ixe'd 13n4y, 1plty of goodi water anid a4
KEEP SWINE IN CLEAN PENS
Cholera Germs and Vermin elourish
Most in Hot Weather-Avoid
Trouble by Cleaning.
Li''e and1( cholern3'1 germs33- flour1ish
333 3 in ho(t wealt her, 1and4 both1 by3 1a
31n :33 for r33med1'es and4( ciennlaig uip
who~. a flocek Is down''z with 'onltalglous
41. . o 33 Is (er' n!::' n1 r'id~'ulous1 113nd
hI, not to) do It.
rEJTURE FOR HOG PASTURES
Four Pecks of Oats and Four Pounds
of Rape to Acre WIll Furnish
Ample Supply of Grass.
Fo. r hog pasture sow on eachI nere n
ixture of four pecks of oats and four
po(un1ds of rape. Broadcast or d1r1ll.
Thel~ mildure Is ordlinarlly ready for
paisturo about eight weeks after seeid
GOOD ROADS ASSIST FARMER
Striying Example Shown in spottoyi
vana County, Virginia-Big in.
creaso Made in Shipments.
Tie valie of good roads to the
farimer is strikingly shown in the ex
perience of Spottsyiyanla county. Vir
ginia, from an investient of $100,000
to Itnprove 40 miles of road. Two
Years after completing this road the
railroad shipped from Fredericksburg,
ilit' couity s,(-it, during a period of 12
Iioiths, 71,000 tols of products of tie
soil, hiuleI over the itproved highway
to tlit town. Before the improveient
had been iliatle the total was only 29,
011l) tons annua1liy.
lResults equally startling were shown
inl the quantity of diiry products. In
199! these aiotilted to 11.1,815 pounds;
in 1lu1 they had risen to 253,028
Iiounds-an increase of practically 140
per cent in two years.
AVOID LIFTING HEAVY LOADS
Practical Plan Outlined for Putting
Weighty Implements on Wagon
by One or Two Men.
When plittflg a heavy liay rack,
water or grain tank, wagonhox or ii
mire spreader, etc., ol i wagon, it enn
1n:isily hIe puit onl without. ally lielvy
lifting if thei. two wheels ire takten off
nll 101e' sile 'where the tiik. or wiit
ever It miight he, Is to be lifted on.
After ite( wiliels art off thie tiiik
("III he lifte on nd I ithe axles enn he
rais up withll a long pole (one lit a
tiIIn4) I the wheels put onl. Wh'lere
ItI r' are only one or two mhen it cln
in !y hi Inkeii off in the siime way.
One irritation Spared Him.
"(h-o rg ' Waingtoll used to get
very itaputien4.1t ul evvenldgan.
"Ys"replied the mn1 who wans lok
ilr: :it the( Iteh-phonle dir-ectory ; "I sup
jo. he had his troubles, even if lie
dlil live lit atine wlen nobody wats
in a ipositioni to tell himii the line was
Up Against Hard Task.
"I an't quill. maike up iy mind
whe'thor younuig \olgs is trying to he
ak desperado or 11 mollycot(.0h ...e." "Neth
vr. Ile is co(sintllously tndleavor
ilg to tle thl e hero fit tih lnovel
his best girl is reading."-Washington
Worth While Quotation.
'revious 1iiil prieiess are thle bless
ings which booiks scatter around our
dalily paths. We walk, in imagination,
with the noblest si ri ts, through the
iost sublitne and enchlianting regions.
Our buyer, I
hat stores ar
Form Fitting C
Justt rei'C ved a comliplete l
WE BEPIR ES4ENT SIWVERlA
.AND) LETP f
SEED FOR THE
REDUCE THE HIC-GH
COST OF LIVING BY
RAISING YOUR OWN
The basis of a good garden lies in
the seeds that are used. They
are the chief factor. The most
successful gardeners in this coun
L AND RET H S E E D
We have spent much time prepar
ing for the gardeners. We have
assembled every variety of relia
ble seed that under ordinary con
ditions will produce a bountiful
POWE DRUG CO.
Men's Spring Hats
Selected After An In
spection of Broadway
Vir E. P. Minter, has just return
v York, the American style cen
basing the spring felt hats Mr.
t some hours inspecting the men
y to find the most popular shades
>f the season.
way he went directly to the big
id purchased the beauties we are
g, and which are duplicates of the
r hats worn today in New York.
today and Select One
ollars More New Ties
of the niew~est Agai n we have addhed1 to our alrleady 'I)~ co plete
Form Fitting line of classyw Neekwear fo- the 'mI, inrl
TL OF AMIERICA 'S LAROIlCST TA IllARI NO iioU~sE. CALLr
M AISRE YOU FOR A PERFECT SPI>R[NO SI'[lT.
CO.'S M AN'S SCHOAP