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That the Price of raw cotton is a
negligible factor in the ultimate' cost
of cotton cloth to the consumer and
has little bearing on the high cost of
clothes was Indicated in testimony be
fore the sub-committee of Congress
for the 1)istriet of Columbia having
hearings on the <iuestion of* the high
cost of living in Washington. The
testimony was given 'by Mr. N. F. Cal
Vin, representing Uw 'Cotton States
Advisorv Board, and followed hie tes
timony on food Prices, as follows:
I bring this point out, as I said at
the beginning, for the purpose of
showing that it is not What the farnk
er Is getting for his various products
and commodities that is 'hurting the
consuming public. It is the cost of
'distrIbution, our impierfect system of
distribution, which seems to be re
sponsible for the situation that con
fronts us at this time.
I 'want to' talk for a little while
about colton. because we have got to
wear Clothes as well as eat, and I
want to tell you somnething aboit cot
ton, and cotton. farrubig and then I
will be through.
Here are six yards of gingham. Alr.
Chairman, that I 'bought this morn
ing at one of the leading dry go(s
stores of, the city. I paild 75 cents a
yard for it; here 10. the check (indi
cating). It weighs 15 ounces, Pre
cisely. It cost me $4.50 in cash. The
farmer got 25.r ents for the cotton
in that $4.50 worth of gingham. The
average price cotton last year was 27
cents. Sixteen ounces to the pound
makes 1.7 cents per ounce. Multiply
15 ounces by 1.7 cents, and you have
25.5 cents. .Ir. Cotton Farmer got
'As I said in the beginning I am not
going to tell you 'who got the differ
ence betiween the 25.6 cents and $4.50.
Somdbody got It.
Senator Capper: How much a yard
did you say you paid for it?
tir. Calvin: Seventy-flve cents. Af
ter I bought it, I looked around and
the store was pretty full of folks. I
said, "Is there a sale on?" And I was
told, "Yes; you would not get It for
that if there had not been a sale on
today." Just being a mere man I was
not supposed to know that. I do not
know what I would have paid for it if
there had not been a sale on.
Senator Capper: All these goods are
still going upl)?
Yes, Senator; and every now and
then somebody raises a lot of sand
about the cotton farmer profiteering
and gotting rich. I want -to tell you
that the price of cotton today is cut
ting absolutely no figure In the price
of cotton goods. It Is not even consid
Ihere is a piece of what the ladies
call voile, I believe. Here is the ticket
(exhibiting same-$3.48, or 58 cents a
yard. Ax-yards anI it cost In $3.48.
It Weighs 11 ounces precisely.
The farmer got for the cotton iII this
piece of goods 18.7 cents, the goods
that I paid $3.48 for this morning.
I (Iid not overlook the men when I
;was remembering the ladies, and 1.got
some sockgs. I bought two pairs of
cotton socks. They weigh 2 1-2 ounc
es. I paid 40 cents a pair-80 cents
for the two pair. The farmer got 4.25
cents for the cotton in these two pairs
of socks. I paid 80 cents for them. I
have some handkerchiefs here, Sena
tor. I saw tliem in at window oil the
way up and I asked Ae price. They
looked like good handkerchiefs an( 1
was told that the price was 25 cents
apiece. Tiey 1weigh 4 1-4 ounces. Tn
Other words, they weigh -a little less
than an ounce each. The farmer got
less than 1 1-2 cents for tile cotton in
each one of tihose andkerciefs-less
lan i 1-2 cents; and I paid 25 cents
Senator fall, I will give you one of
them to rememiber the cotton farmer
hy. That is a 25-cent handkerchief
for 'which the farmer (who grew the
cotton received less than 1.5 cents.
Thel farmer got less than 1 1-2 cents
for the cotton in each one of those
handkerchiefs, and I paid 25 cents
apiece for them.
III this connection I want to say
this as applied to the cotton farmers,
that. many people do not seem to ap
precIate the situation they are in. The
Census Bureau shows hat there are
2,000,00 'aimilies in the South engaged
In cotton production, The average is
a fraction over five to a family. Last
year the production was a little less
than 12,000,000 Lales, making six bales
to the family as the average produc
tion. Assume that they got 30 cents a
pound for it, which they did not get.
According to government figures they
received an acerage of 27 cents per
pound. Six bales of cotton at 30 cents
per pound would be $900 -to the fam
l)y. 1Mverybody that. knows anything
ahout cotton knows that It is an all
the year round crop, from January to
December, and there Is about an av
erage of three out of a family who
work inl .te cotton fields and they
work for $900 a year to produce six
bales of cotton, when cotton Is 30
cents a pound. I do not think anyope
would want them to work for less
than that. SIxty-two per cent of cot
ton producers are tenants, and they
pay one-fourth of all they make to
the landlord. That leaves them ap
proximately $650 a year for a family
of five and three of them work .in
the field on the average.
I only say theso things here because
there are a whole lot of fQlks that
come from different parts of the United
States that do not seem to under
stand the situation In the South. -1r.
Chairman, if the average northern
mman could go south and travel through
(eorgla, Alabama, Alississippi, Louis
lana and 'Texas and see the hovels
that the average cotton farmer lives
in, he would never comiplain any more
abott the cotton farmer getting more
han lie ought to have for his cotton.
I have t,veled over the Pennsyl
van ia system from here to Clicago
aind to St. Louis and I wait to tell
you th1v It is like traveling through
Paradise front the standpoint of tihe
homes as co mpared with travel in the
Soti; beeatise the cotton farmer has
aways been a sa'-, utintil recently
a slave of cotton. he is doing bet
ter now. The troubile is hat we are
afflicted with tlhe tenant system down
South. It. is an evil system. A man
who has his land worked exclusive
ly by tenants canl prodice cotton Jtust
as cheaply when labor is $10 a day as
when it is 50 cents a day, because lie
does not supply any of the labor.
Therefore, wvlen cot.ton is high, as i1
is now, he makes good money; but it.
never has gone high enotigh yet and
probably never will for the average
tenant to make money raksing cotton.
The landlord can make money on this
basis; there is no questioning that
'mr. Miller: Mr. Calvin, as you kiow,
linters went up in price. Where (id
the )roflt made out of those linfers
go? It did not go to the prodtcer of
cotton, did it?,
Mr. Calvin: Well, no, sIr. The
price of linters was not pernitted to
go up Il ike the price of commodities.
That is where the South got stung a
little .bit. The irice of linter's fixed
1) ylhe War Trade Board iwas 4.67
cents a pound, When cotton was 8
and 9 cents a pound linters were 3 and
I cents a )(ound. So wvhen cotton went
ul to 25 and 30 cents a pound, linters
ought to have gone up to a.bout 10
cents. But the War Trade Board coi
mandeered all the linters on the mar
ket and took them at $4.67 a hundred.
'Mr. Miller: Before the war you
could get linters at 4 1-2 cents
:Mr. Calvin: That was very low
grade linters. I have seen it before
the war selling for 5 to 6 cents. There
are tio cuttings; one is a very low
grade and is not worth anythinig,
scarcely, but the higher grades have
always been worth something.
'Chairman Ball: This woti( have
been a very Interesting matter carried
down to the consumer, in order to find
out how much of this cost went. to the
illanifactirer atid how much to the re
-Ar. Calvinl: It would be very inter
esting indeed. I thought, Air. Chair
ian, that perhaps if I could start a
little agiation along this line and let
I! be known, let the coiintry know just,
what is going on. Jst how m1ilch more
the consilmer is having to pay thlali
tile farimer gols, somebody woild have
to come across and state -who is get
ting tlie lion's shiare of the profits.
A ea I load of Cro ckery and China
to arrive this week.
S. M. & 1:. I[. WlI KI-:s & (O.
NOIC' OF EILET"ION.
inite of Souh Citrolini,,,
County of Laurens.
Whereas, Petiliolns signed by a legal
number of the (ualified electors and
free-holders residing in I au rens
school distilet No. 2, Iaurens county,
South Carolina, asking for an election
upomn the qunestion of voting an addli
tional -l mill tax upon tile property iil
said school distriet to be used for
school purposes, have been flied with
the county board of education, an
election is hereby ordered up1)on said
(luestion, said election to be held on
the 2nd day of October, 1919, at Pros
pect school building in said district,
under the management of the trustees
of said school district.
Only such electors as return real
or pelsonal property for taxation and
who exhibit their tax receipts and reg
istratIon certificates as required in
the general election shall be allowed
Those favoring the 4 mill additional
tax shall vote a ballot. containing the
word "YES" written orm printed there
on. Those against the -1 mill addi
tional tax shall vote a ballot contain
ing the word "NO" written or printed
thereon. Polls shall open at the hour
of 8 o'clock in the forenoon and shall
remain open until the hour of -1 o'clock
in the afternoon when they shall 1)e
closed, and the h allots counted.
The trustees shall report the result
of the election to the colity aIditolr
and county superintendent of educa
tioi within ten days thereafter.
R. TP. WILFON,
9-2t 11y order of County Board.
Just received carload Red Cedar Shingles.
Place your order bpfore t y are all gone.
Herb L. Roper
PLANT GRAIN and COVER CROP NOW
11 is .oil duly to sow cover crops and grain for the benieit of
your land an d frI feed iext sprilng. A few l( in-es ilIte(d in, gol
seed low will be worth hundli(ieds of dollars Iext sill ing to 'Our
lantd in the forii' of vegetable matter. You can'I afford o bu y any
hut Ihe higliest. seed. W\e have nothing but tested, re-eleanied seed.
huy now and sow vith the first rains.
Per b . 10h-b. lots
Leap's Prolific W heat ....... .... .... .... ....$2.75 $2.75
Appler Oats (home grown) . ................. . .140 1.35
F'uIlghum Oats (some grown) ........ ........ 1.90 1.85
Texas Oats, from best seedmen in Texas . ......1.20 1.15
Abruzzi Rye -. -... -.... .... .... .... .... .... 3.40 3.30
Turf Oats (very best for grazing) . .;0 1.60
Winter Barley .... .... ........... . 2.60 2.50
Alfalfa .... .... .... ......- . .... .... .. per lb.- .35 .32
Crimson Clover in chaff .... .... .... ....per lb. .17% .17%
Crimson. Clover, clean .............. ....per lb. .25 .22
Burr Clver .... .... ........ .... .. ....per lb. .12% .10
Augusta Vetch .... .... ... . .... ,.... .. ..lb. .15 .13
Hairy Vetch -... .... . ....Ask
R a e v .- - . . - - . . - - .. . . . . . . . . p e r .2 0 .1 3
R1-ed Clover -. - ..-- --.. .... ... .... .... Ask
Lawn Orass --.... -................. ...Ask
Reference-Nat ional L in & Eixchange Bank.
FARIS SEED COMPANY
Headquarters For High Grade Seed
GREENWOOD, S. C.
BIG ACIN ISi L
Fifty Head of Mares and Horses to be sold at Auction
Friday, October 10th, 191
AT 11 O'CLOCK A. M.
At Laurens Court House, S. C.
Fifty head of Mares and Horses from 3 to 5 years old.
All the above stock are the good kind and will take the
place of high-priced mules. They are the work kind
and will please any one. Also some ood saddle horses
and mares. In this lot we have some speedy ones
that will surprise you to see them go.
Remember the place and date, Laurens, S. C.,
Friday, October 10th, 1919. Your price buys
the animal. We shall expect you.
NInety SIx S tock Company