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VOL. IXXILL. RAE NLWXI3PIIII, S. C., W.l:.i) i5iAC (YL E 4 8G )ihfdIzpitr.N.4
ADDRESS TO T1114E GRANG1CCS.
Annual RIeport of the Master of the
Brothers avd Sisters of the Nat oiwl
We meet to-day, as an Order, after
an existence of twenty years, under
encouraging auspices and with flat.
bering prospects. The Grange has
been on trial during this long period
of time, has successfully combated
the strongest opposition, has passed
the experimental age and been estab
lished as ore of the permanent and
stable institutions of the country.
Notwithstanding its large mdmbet
ship-scattered over this broad land
in nearly every county, parish, State
and Territory-it has never disturbed
the peace of the country, or done
anything hostile to the general .wel
fate. Opposed to all class antagon
isms, its tendency has ever been to
development and improvement. I
offers to the American farmer the
only well grounded hope for protect.
ing and advancing his interests.
Prior to the establishment of the
Grange, the farmers were without
organization. Indeed, the Grange
was the first organization established
in the history of civilization for the
protection and advancement of farm
era' rights. Through its influence
and developments channels of
thought have been opened up to the
people that have resulted in the es
tablishment of a number of organiza
tions among the laboring and pro
ducing classes, which will be potent
factors in determining the future civ
ilization of our country.
Prior to the establishment of the
Grange, there were a few newspapers
devoted to the improvement of the
methods and the development of Ag.
ricultural science, and none advo.
eating the political rights of farmers.
Now a number of Grange Journals
are doing efficient work in arousing
farmers to the necessity of organiza
tion, and demanding equal protec
tion with other classes for Agricul.
ture before the law-making bodies of
the land. Prior to the establishment
of the Grange there were no colleges
in this country where boys were
taught practical farming. Now
through the influence of the
Grange we have a number of first
class Agricultural Colleges, where
"practical agriculture, domestic sci
ence, and all the arts which adorn a
home," are taught.
Prior to the establishment of the
Grange there was no co-operation
among farmers. Now in nearly every
State large sums of money are annu
ally saved to the Patrons by prac
ticing the principles of business co
operation as recommended by the
National Grange. There are a num
ber of co operative associations con
ducted by Patrons, whose annual
sales exceed one hundred thousand
dollars A number of banking
houses are conducted successfully uy
the members of our Order. Prior to
the establishment of the G range there
were no restraints upon the aggres
sions5 of monop)olies. Now there are
restrictive lawvs in nearly all tihe
States upon thie injustice and dis
crimi nation practicedl by transporta
tion companies, and( the agitation in
auguratedl by the Grange against
the unequal and unjust protection af
forded the oil comp)anies, the tele
grap)h companies, thme manufacturi ng
andl banking establishments, etc., is
having a wholesome effect upon our
law-nmaking bodies with prospecCt of
But why enumerate what has been
accomplished by the Grange? It has
done more than all other agencies
combined to "d(evelop aL higheri muan
hood and woman hood"' among ar-i
culturists, to elevate our calling anid
place us in position to seeure tihe
rights to which we are justly entitled
under the constitution of this govern
For the prosper-ity which has at
tendled the wor-k of our Order for so
many years, and for the goodl it has
accomplished "for our~ country andl
mankind," we should return our pro
found thanks, with grateful hear-ts,
to the great I Am, whose kind Prmovi
dence overrules all human enter
Much misconception exists as to
thme objects andl methods of' the
Grange, and there is some difference
of op)inion among membe-rs, upon
what are known as "the political fea
tures of the Order."
This being tihe case, it may not be
out of place to examine biicly tihe
p)oints of dlifTerenlce, that there may
be no misunderstanding in theo work
that is before us.
In the "Act of Incorporation," we
ture, we mutually resolve to laboi
for the good of our Order, our coun,
try and mankind." Under the head
of "Specific Objects," we find in para,
graph 3 some useful hints on rational
agriculture and business co-opera.
tion. In paragraph 4 we find a lucid
explanation of our "Business Rela.
tions," showing that we desire no
antagonisms of any kind ; that while
"we are not enemies of railroads,
navigable and irrigating canals, nor
of any corporation that will advance
our industrial interests." "We are
opposed to such spirit and manage
mcent of any corporation or enter.
prise that tends to oppress the pec
pl and rob them of their just profits.
We are not enecies to capital, but
we oppose the tyranny of monopolies.
We long to see the antagonism be
tween ";apital ned labor removed by
cominon consent, and by an elight.
cned statesmanship worthy of the
In same paragraph, under the head
of "Education," occurs the following
'We shall advance the cu5se of edu
cation among ourselves and for our
children, by all just means in our
power. We especially advocate for
agricultural and industrial colleges
that practical agriculture, lomcatic
science, and all the arts which adorn
the home, be taught in their course
Inl the 5th paragraph, under the
caption "The Grange not Partisan,"
is the following : "We emphatically
and sincerely assert the oft repeatec
truth, taught in our organic law, that
the Grange-N ational. State or Subor
dinate-is not a polit cal or party or
ganization. No Grange, if true to
its obligations, can discuss political
or religious questions, nor call po
litical conventions, nor nominate can
didates, nor even discuss their merits
in its inectinls."
The imprc-per co>nstruction placed
upon this paragrapil by many has re
tarded to soie extent the work of
our Order. The N ational Gran1:e,
iln order to m ai.c ti s so plain that
no niistatke would be likely to be
made, struck out the wor:ds "political
or religious" wiom tiey occur in
"The Declaration of i if;rposes,' and
inserted in their stead the words
"party or sectarian." By formal
resolution' it also made the protec
tive tariff question, which has always
been a party political question, a le.
(iti,ate suliect for discussion in the
Grange;thc-reby ele;arly showing that
it does not l)ropose t) prevent mein
bers of' the Order from investigating
any and all questions. I do not un
deratand that "party questions" used
in this coillect.ion to be the ques
tions upon which great political par
ties of the country may ditTer, such as
transportation, the protective tariff,
currency, etc., etc. If this were the
true construction to be placed upon
our organic law, we could discuss no
question o a public nature, as they
are all political-even working a
road, building a bridge, or levying a
county tax, Paley says: "Political
economy is the administration of the
reve'ues of a nation, or the manage.
mnent and reguilat.ion of its r'esources
and pIrod uctiv~e prop)erty and labor;
also the science which treat,s of' these
subl j ects."
'T'he restriction initendeCid by this
p)aragraph is to orevent the Girange
from ever becoming a polit,ieal party.
T1hmis is sure.ly a very wVise provision
andI should alw'ays be strictly ad.
A nationmal f'armers' organization
wvithiout.the powe'r to discuss the po
lit,ical rights of' it,s nmem,ber's, would
b)e a fatrce beneath t.he d ignity of' in.
tellhigenit men. TIhie farmers wat,t ani
organization that w!!l use its influ
enlce upon th:e Legisl atures, State and
.National, to prmotect their interests,
j;ust as ():her class organizations pro
tect the rights of' t,hiir members; and1
no orIganiizationi can long maintain
standing with themi if' it, does not ren.
decr such assistance.
A nmong tbe fiirst acts of' thme Order
was1 the algit,ationt of t's' qjuestion oh
re(guilating the power~ or tran)sporta
tion compthanies. In n'': r!y every~ an
nual:u address of~ toy predicesso:s. at,
tentiion has beent cal led to the exac
1ions of mtonopolicR, anid t,he necessi
ty for legislative control to preveni
their discri mi nations and inijust,ice.
Able and ex haustiv~e rep)orts have
beeni made by the various st.andin<F
comimiitte'e; at dIifhrent Sessions 0o
thue N ational G ramnge, shoin g hiow
the farmmner iaire robbedi by, mnonopo)
is uder tbe lprotection of law, :and
sugrgesat ing' remt''ies.
i ,et s5 n ow ni [ce~ br'iefly lie renit
edi es t ht have buen froem time t,
timte suiggest.ed by ['.he N ationial
Gr'ange f'or thbe relief' o)1 ag riculItu re
A paper adopted at t.he Richmioni
session. na'tr cnlling rtnntion to th,
the several States and in both houses
of the National Congress, for repre
sentatives chosen directly from its
votaries, as the only-means of relief'."
Again, in the proceedings held in
1882, we find the following resolt
Lions offered by the Committee of
Agriculture were adopted
"Resolved, That in the exercise of
the elective frai,chise we shall recog
nize allegiance to principle as the
only safe rule of action.
"Resolved, That we repudiate all
leadership in politics except that
which tends to the advancement of'
the material interests of all our peu
ple, through the exercise of the vir
tues that dignify and ennoble citizen
"Resolved, '1'hat safe protection
for our industries against organized
extortion implies suitable and, Li
;ome degree, proportionate repre
sentation in State and National Leg
Again, we copy from a report of
thc same committee, made in 1 88-,
the following sentence :
"We believe it is the sacred dluty
of farmers to attempt and effeet tiir
own protection by the use of their
own intelligence in every law mnaking
body of the State and Nation."
The Committee on Agricniture, in
1885, offered the following, which
was unanimously accepted :
"While it is not needed that you
recede from membership in your r'
spective partisan political parties,
still it is vitally essential that the
political party to which you adhere
is thoroughly pledged and truly loyal
to agriculture, its redemption, and
the promotion of its i.terests. Con
mence with the county and State
governments and officers, and persist
ently work until each and all are
fuly committed to your cause; then
plue the same course !. to your
Federal gover"nmnent and the ol11eer3,
and never cease to rest till you can
truly say that every ollicie.l from the
1resident of the N:tion to corontc
of the county is properly ini'urw'ed
and earnestly working in hrmrinmy
and unison with ' ar:nors of the
N ation for adv,n;Uent a. p;roo
Lion of the true interests aid weli'are
of agriculture, irrespecivU of' all par
tisan politics or parties."
Many other que-h.mio'1: roi the
proceedings might he mnd t ' -v
that the remedy propoc 'r e
National G range for our r".- i .
wue he ballot in on-!er thre eo <. . :
muy be> fairly 01n(l f'((ll' reprsc-alil in
the State an aio w L<T((t10t 5rel
The Grange is peculiarly wtll
adapted to the wants anld niecessi;ies
of the farmers. It has a financial ha
sis, capable, if properly managed, of
sustaining it indefinitely. 'lhe mna
chinery of its organizatio. after
twenty years work has shown itself
well suited to the purpose foir whicb
it was intended. It hais developed
an unsuspected amount of talent
and ability among farmer. Through
its influence some cheeks have
been placed upon the a1ggressions
of monopoly. Through its in11h1.
ence the attention of the legislative
bodies has been called to tile conl
dit,ion of' agriculture, andu farmllers
are treated with a little miore resoeet
than formerly. It is emlbeddedt in
human rights, and is as broad :1-, hui.
Inanity itself. It, is a couniterpariit ofl
Our Democratic inIstit,utionls, w. eh
are now testing tile capacity of' the
plell for self' governmlent. So thle
(Grange is testinIg the capacity o1
fe.rnirs for acting~ togetheri for the
p)rotectioni o1 their righl ts social, i d
ulcationlal, business and1( politiesi .
Wo believe tihe pe ople to bv capable
of sellf governmlient. WVe mulst5 ad -
mlit that theC aggressions1 of capiltal
ists upon the rights of' the pe'ople alre
no0w straining the prlinlciple to j:s lit
mlost capmacity. Yet, we believe this
granid muovenment of' the producling,
c!asses, seconded by a Imovement of'
tile laboring classes, will peaceeably'
restrain monopoly and( (establishl thle
fact thlat the p)eople can govern them
For thlis pat.riotic work I call upon
thle Patrons e. erywhiere to rally thecir
menmbers, reruit and( close upi thirit
ranIks and( boldlhy (10 thleir whole dutly
ini tis tile grandlest, endea'ivor' e.ver
inugurated on thit conitinlent ill be
half' of tihe pr'oduing classes, being
an effo)rt, to elevat,e thiemi in1 the scale
of' hulmanit-y, to enable the iI to enjoyV
an equitable pori1tioni of 1 he rewards
of their indu1Istry, andt to p)~rrve
proprietorship inl their Ilnds
and1( petitions long enough 4, and to
litt,le effect. Let us triy the remledy
wich ihias1 lbeenI suIggestedI at 1 early
every meleting of the N ational ( ra uge,
let us wiL,h our bll ots; nendr mini to
tile Legislat,ures, State and1( N ational,i
wvho will eqnalie.m,d ..e,il,., ta.
will it f. '3l(tl'.ldI)ishm)I11en1t of C
T':' - ..x : A''1. 0 . 1:' QlImEl.: ,
Ifs )ill )( i
in , I . v 'l e. <! Ih ,a!! y consulted
relntive to '.: ropri''y of formin!.g p
alliances bet ,vcon the G range and F
other orders andI associations. My t:
answer; have been stibstaintially as
follow., : ll(
The C range is a secret Orde:-, =d
chartered for specifie purposes, and n:
cannot eiter into alliances ol1'enlsive d,
or defensive With 3 any orlcr or asso- ai
elion; "et we s ynpathize with a;
land(i and Iabor organizations, whose T
IeadIIin ()bject i:, to prtect their o1
n In be I's f'r('in t.he injutstice ()ff il '.'- W
p)Oratedl caplita:, and will gladly ' work
InI pa9ral!' lines for the acomniplisl:- r
ment:ll o.f c('r.:m pnlrpoUs:.i
The Cilb)w.'in1 romn our" "I )eelar - it
tio)il o;' i' lrToscs, will expl::in our ri
posit.ion : ,
"W'.e al)t)':: to all ;;ood citizensa
for thter r"h ) t.p'ratit)n, to as- ()
Si:=t in ou: 'I.uri l(:.;-r,in ref'rill, 1
thatt we niay eventualy ! remove f:'nm T1'
0U' in5idst the a:; \'''igrf of ty'rann- (
"We hail thle g'n'ral desire fr ira- i(
icrinal h a'mnon1y, ei uitalte comnpr(on- A
isee, and'. earnest co-o)peraLt,i n as anl re
tme O1 Ou1r fuLttrc sues(' s8." I
Ag::,in, in) our be(aultifull I u:-,alkationt
Ce'remny, we ~indl t hese words :
"Patt::s.eheisinil: in ourl he(ar'tu
everv kint(d teelin,g towardls: all Ortdc':
and aissociations, which Feek fto pro
mno?.c h :a :) welfar.-." b,t, its strive
with theml, Workin. Il.tl in hand fr)1 hc
t.l . d o)1 W our1e!ow being is." m
S ):":)m'!" ox n : E M I.:u. 141
In11 i111nbel( O"" -tait': ie ');1( ir
increasin' rapidly. m) .euring to
Iainers7' t e in!!1',nce. :3 respet, tI' tt
w hich thei in:1t(eri::t am numbeiIrr:.i Cil
title thtin. 8:
in ,ti-r1':' i dl n v in;r. I mt
have ndl .ir.: : h ; c rrespItond ce to
a::dl Oh; , : : t,iu: inii' the cceo! e
dorm.'..1 .r, mut ' iv.. tlh, I<
es . " t. 1 . '3'i: i
AIag: r: '4. bin : w l theos v
t,.-~ I, I )i 23' I
iwi to n v'ii, tic, :. e tira,l'es In
h: eog n : a ':: ":',.(I by which re(
!L (,e- L!l < lrr : : l- pIt rit - C1(
s31 31.A3 (2' -:mi''s 30 IcCoum()rde are
r the peop1le.l !!
. 1 (. r:tn ' in 1.O: active there
'1 i i. " b ' ne. i , :111(1 the 1o
Lin Ina tlt r is W.
generally 't m.e'. ,n1c or I tnized1 wi
phai Of i-l-il' the membelll)Crs. fit
Man 1.v e !he plan of s.1
hus:iiin'K e' operl .ion re1:mn jd i
b,y th:e N';tion1a! Grainge.(I
Son e hav11"e thI a nCyi(')' Sy;tem, C(I
wh1ile Othler:, wOr-k on the " Ordler oI'
Plan." 'o' -:" are nuccessflly c 1'.
(1i CLIfe n'd h insuranee coln- as
t1. , ,, l.. , .
iae dorment, Iw i '1lm ny s
eli it:; 4.o:; M'or,:u 4 : . taly ne in .It
In os lo4 a.! ti) swher the 11'at.1'
m 3''y':n ' 4. 18343 to(th1, 10 b a
Ied each year, and lasted t.hroup It
I loved him for his many noble
ualities of head and heart, and will
rer cherish and honor his memory.
I am sure that the fraternal syni.
ithies of the Order go out to Sister
shbaugh, upon whom this blow has
Milen with such crushing weight.
On the eve of our departure from
)ile for this meeting, we were sad
nned by the intelligence that another
ember had been "called to lay
Jwii" her "il mleinent,s on earth,"
id "eross, over the river."
The death of Sister Edith S.
homap1)on, of D)elaware, leaves anl
her vacant chair in our midst, ani
c sorrow to know we will not be
eeted1 agai by her kind voice i.t
we C(Iole with Iro. ThIom)soi
his great loss, and pray GDod's
chest blessings upo ''the dear littLe
i('S at hoie."
For the business operations of the
rdcer duringl the 1list twelve mon tlw,
refer you to the reports (f thl
r('asurer, tecret ary, and I. xeeutiv
There are other questions of ifmn
>rtance demanding your attention.
s they wilt. he discussed inl the
ports of' the Standing (ommIittees,
will detain) you no longer.
The State Fair of 18,86 has becu
Id and it is within the bounds of
oderation to sey that it was a minost.
actify inVg success: in every respect
he ex:hiits were numerous and
trie(d, an) of high order of merit, a.
qu1ality,. Tf'he attendanlce' wa
r.e., and the r'ec'i It.L o tIe S'oc'it.v
tisfactotry. 'a'l amlil i t in l' it
Ia jitly he said t(, ha e be"n t'(fual
th-" rair of I-'::. ThI'l.l," re
it re.; not (iltc' :u-h'r thi
.1tbt ;;ui ribuLabmle Lt) 1k dr , i ll mina
n ,f "lhe ;"oci(.y It _ to) pwrmil
. chance on ht' twroulds, they
Lvyi' hist, yeair laid~ the Scociety a
r .ger sumI thmi tli ialling off ii the
ceips this year aiiotuntci to. The
>lumi ,,a l"ecrd .ays: r. After v, it,
ssing this innginfieett exhibit of
e nat.ual an(i industrial proulets
the State, :tad this imlmenlse re
inn of her 1eoIle, it is impossille
Coincide wit h t.he Isieless views
comle individuals whiosee utter
W0s lasc oi late bceeni prtominenitly
i' tlhc public. TIhe m:j(rity of
sitors to this city durinVg t,be past
i were from I. Ultt among the agricucl
rist3 of the State, and while there
.s no great ostentat.ion amd show of
alth there was no want of cheer
1iness inl their bearing and coe'.ci
ti0oi, mor anythin g to indicate a
ch of Confidlenice in the flt,mre. I)1
'ed the fair of 188 is suifilcient to
mvincc any one that tie resourceS
the State are far from ex
mItste(1, both es Io materials and
to the Spirit of her people,
ici tint. the great mass oif the
run-rsI: are' by nol means so un1
rtmini::' *alciiI hopec(less as someW per
I , wou'i hiave us Ibeli eve. TI'he
atec A.ym. ha'ral aicti Mechancuca
>c3it.ty i.' tco be cong'rautuilat,ed oni thce
cleli-H acnd successful work it is
>i n' and thce re-ele(ction ofI ColI. I)iun
mLni iClh. I loliloway to the otIiees
Il'resident andc Secretairy prciii se
iequcally b rilliant c'areer durine'
o)ther termn. Upocn the iniiicumeic
th Yse two olliees; theCbulk of thec
rik of t.h So)ciety fils, an to thme
1the~ .sui3ces .(o far att.ained.-1
Thie numtter of estab)lising ani Ag
rnum iral Cocll ece is a~ Idead weighit onl
(e Farmers:' movl emenO t wvhichl pr'o
sses4 to 1be ini the incteirests ofecono
y. Noc onie will dispute time tact
at, such a college is a good th inug
a Stacte to h ave, hnt it,. is exNpeni
ve. anid we cave yet to see a show
ar thact ''HI conivince its that the
>od it e--ihcl di w~oiibt 1he (aOniIIeni
irate with thme expnse(lH involved.
.%(t( wo l each its dtis~cies thec theoiry
3ike( nonec of thcem -ne'ce l 'arim
's. Th'e (hpialitie wS h- chane
- ~I nci aic('3lly c acq ui i hoodici
* . .his of idu adecn
C Npeir ilien l h)ur. run on)
r - :nn mc sytemato ~Senh., Icy
n iy appropriat*ed fromIl theC treas.'
ry, of theO State, ic; il iaptedl to
.n(ch thocse lessonsci w hieb a mans
A IliN1' '10 OUR G1RLS.
Open Declaration of War Against the
A war has begun in Atlanta
against the parlor beaus-young
men who like to spend an agreeable
evening with young ladies at their
homes, but who never ask the young
ladies to go to the theatre or any
place where money is necessary. One
young woman says with disgust that
young men spend evenings in her
parlor and tell her all about the per
I'ormances they have attended alone.
The Mihwaukee Sentinel says this is
a timely and wholesome warfare.
Any evening numbers of young men
may be seen at the Milwaukee then
tres alone, although they are known
to be society young men and inde.
fatigable parlor beaus. They go to
the theatre whenever there is any.
thing worth seeing alone, although
they are able to take young ladies.
There never was a time when young
men were so indifTerent to the just
claims of' young ladies. There is an
understood rule that the young men
shall make some recognition of a
courtesy at the hands of a young
lady. but if he does this he certainly
(oes no more. There is no escaping
the conviction that the young man
who is constantly enjoying the society
of young ladies is a very mean
spirited and selfish person if he at
tends a theatre alone. There are any
number of charming young women
who (1o not require that a young
nan shall go to thr eXpenlse of a
carriage. They are willing to go
by street ear, or better yet, to walk
to the theatre. Any young man, with
the right sort of feelings, is willing
to go only hall as often and to take
a young lady with him. The Atlanta
girls resent their treatment, not be
cause of the loss of the theatre, but
b n eauise of the lack of decent con
sideratilt the vo ug menl show. It
is Clt: indiierence to one of the
plailest, rights of' young woimlein.
ThI'ey propose to use the cold sholi
ade.r ierealfter. 'Ihey (1o not intend
that youn g men shall play the role
of grand mogul, and think it is
enough if' they smile on the young
ladies of an evening in the parlor.
The girls are right about this, and
we hope 1hey will keep up the agi
at i iin aotil the evil is renedted.
Orunqe(wiv Timws awd De-mocr(d.
TIEC (;ItANGIits' SICaiiON.
Twentieth Annui al 31eet.ing of the Na
The twentieth annual session of
the National Grange, Patrons of
Hlushandry, opened yesterday with
reIresentatives from twenty- four
States. During the year two huii
(red new granges were organized,
There are $60,000 in the treasury.
Last night the members and their
familes visited the Walnut Street
Theatre. The public reception will
o)ccuipy their attention to-day.
The event of interest to-day will
be the pub 111)1ic recepition at, 2:30
o'clock. G overnor Il'attison and other
eminent men will be preseit. Mlrs.
Margaret, Lu~cas, a sister of J1ohni
Bright, of' England, will attend1 the
reception to-daey. Next Sat,urday the
si xth degree will be eon ferred upmn
I feen hundr11 led candlidaftes, and the
seventih degree will lbe con ferred
upon onme hund(red andi fifty cani
A.ue d lituig then week.(
G overinir lHobie, of' M\aine ; Gov
tlrior-e'le't Luce, of' i\l iebigan; See
retary of State Lipscomnb, of South
Carolia, and( manihy otheris of' the
dn elegaten to) the eon~vention occup)ied
seats in the W altnut Street Theatre
last evening, at the in vitation oh
.\lainager F'leishman and Miss Minnie
M addiern, A fler' the i perormanmce of
"Caprice" Miss Madldern held a ro
(eiptionl to her guests on the stage.
Tlhie ectress shook each one by the
hand1( and( afterwards made a little
speech~l, and the orchestra played
elTe Stear Spangled Banner,'" "'Yan
kee D oodle"' and "'Dixie."'
'Thle above isi clipped froim the
['biladelphiai 'Times of the I ith in
stanti end it is evidenit that? Secretary
of State i pseomb is hmavintg a good
timie and we may rest assured that
hie is tnkhing carec of the Soumth.
Whalit Truuen ~ a'rit 't I Dbo.
Th'e unpret'edl.el sale of 1Boschies's
(ia;m: Syruip i thin a fewv years lies
aistoished' in hie woild. It, is w'ithouit
diounhei thie sai-t, i best. remedy ever'
dfiscofs\red't for the sp)eedy' aiind effectual
('tie of' (onghs, ( ols and thei severest
launig trotibles.- It acts ont an enitirely
di fferenlt pri necie fiomo the usual pre(
s(''ilt, iln Ie n by hthyshet, as I.