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}s r HN, ROBEIRT -. I,11.
A Birthday Moniorial to tho South
A CONDENSED BIOGRAPHY,
Life of the Great Confederate Military
morn on the 10th of January, 1807,
Died on the 12th of Ootober, 1870.is1
Strong Character--His Stern Sonso of
Justice-Ills Distinguished Ancestry.
His Devotion to His Mother and His
Love for Children.
Great mon of great epochs aro few. Gen.
Robert Edward Lee, whoso birthday this
sketch is designed to commoniorato, was ono.
It has been said that "history will declaro that
the mortal remains of tho man which reposo
in the vault beneath the littlo chapel in the
lovely Virginia valley aro not only those of
a valorous soldier, but those of a great and
good American." "Success often gilds the
shallow man, but it is disaster alone that r
veals tho qualities of true greatness."
OEN. ROn ERT E. LEE.
Gen. Robert E.Loo's friends havo taken
comfort in referring to the splendors of his
descent. They trace hin back to puro Nor
man blood, and his American ancestors woro
distinguished men from the irst Rtichar"d Loo,
who camo over to Virginia in tho reign of
Charles I as seetary to the colony and mem
ber of the king's privy council.
His father, Gen. Henry L.co ("Light
Horse Harry"), was threo times choson
governor of Virginia, and ho represented
Westmoreland in the Virginia conven
tion which ratifled the Federal Constitution
after a severo struggle, in whiclh Patrick
Henry used his eloquonce to defeat it. Heo
was a writor as well as a revolutionary soldier,
who during the revolutionary war conunand
ed Leo's legion, under Gen. Greene, in the
southern department of tho.United States,
and wroto his "Momoirs" of that war. Ho
delivered the funoral oration of Gon. Wash
ington in congress, and tho resolutions
ho drey up on this occasion contained these
celebrated words: "First in wvar, irst in peace,
first in the hearts of his countrymen.
Roe E. LOliwas te yoestso o
Honr i. o wa os ornds htafrdo te
Hill Crtoinreauer tof th. spleos ofrter,
ofn bhileey, ond thi Jamesrivr. anesos fawer
disticsed married frst to fist RLo,and then
wo Miss ovrer to Virginia risthecreig ofth
CHstory knws roert tE Lcon asnh solier;
onrlo h friends pkny oucil.ste a-b
Christfatgentleman. Perhap Leo manLover
hads arryclaim to thtrito timan hosni
iovil,e sof agnomiac ra:dthonrpsantd
~so frind iubnd ftheVrgnan isrcor of
thong--iho ratise thu felraw ostitn.iHe
nfe ever e stoo ugto enes Onich f htis
biogryaphers sdfhim:ouoc to defa, unsophis
wia rter chilla eolutnary wsldir,
whodrng uhturoadol.toar arcenand ae
viruos lekhseiion, n,e wer1. Gfree , im
pldo,ntgo mhi ."mi"oftawa. o
:gtisi coaresLsf and Educastions
liss Eml V. ontiMasoin hc"ouain Lies
ofbrGo. Lword,"Frst sp aks ofhirst ipeace,fo
"Whet n the hears uf hies ontrysmenher"
mo edto S leAra hOU' better.t dct
hiobhiern and here waso anyounesrson yet
livngy Lhat l w whoi iJrmemoro hm
on Jhatnuary age0. Hils mheloo was Are
and Cter,ghluher of hr. CharlesCater,fo
oSlvey, epn im. Jh amly rived on fam-e
waon tieet narid tho hlhiss chur,n then
ton Oisc Catre, andirgfterarica hofhue
Hior nosobr .Le as thilparoonigr.
Chritibn gentld ean. Pllury Leo wa absent
badn srerW ciest that tusit thf ho.th ndi
ii, inool b;andm doblste etoawten-a ti
son Cred, hub,fther uln and iambructor o
they:'obg-he was witou aw goodsa, lIe
cnfermseed to hisapyuness. mOne of hi.s
oerathful sad oflim:c".ionad, moter.'i
t"Wen chidlier was(l 11 yares lis
ifafthey uited, Fror ios eligtn'tm dho by
odrn catuh, earny ao te gracsiano asend
virteliad s contro,a werla o arest
lo, v aniqn lui.n,., ,,,,,,e,n
wfiCn 11 i'ta.Mie< tbltouglhout his lit'e.
"This good mothetvas a great invalid; one
of his sisters was delicate, and many years
absent in Philadelphia, under tho care of
physicia'ns. Tho oldest son, Carter, was at
Cambridgo, Sidney Smith 'in tho navy, and
the other sister too young to be of much aid
in household natttrs. So Robert was the
housekeeper, attended to the marketing, gave
the orders and took care of his mother's
"At the hour when other scrhoolboys went
to play ho hurried home to order his mother's
drive, and would carry her in his arms to tho
carriage, and arrange her cushions with tho
gentleness of an oxpe:" meed nurse. One of
his relatives, who was %-dten the companmion of
these drives, still lives. 5he tells us of tho
exertions he would itdko to ent'rtain and
amuse his mother, assuring her, with the
gravity of an old man, that unless sho was
cheerful the drive would not benefit her.
When sho complained of cold or draughts
he would pull from his pocket a great jack
knifo and newspaper and uako her laugh
with his efl'orts to improviso curtains and
shut out the intrusivo wind which whistled
through tho crevices of the old family coach.
"When he left her to go to West Point, his
mother said: 'How can 1 live without Robert?
Ho is both son and daughter to inc.'
"Years after, when ho came home from
Vost Point, ho found one of tho chief actors
of his childhood's drana-his mother's old
coachman, 'Nat'-ill and throatened with
consumption. He immediately took him to
the milder climate of Georgia, nursed hin
with the tenderness of a son, and secured for
him tho best medical help. But the spring
time saw the faithful old servant laid in the
gravo by the hands pf his :ind young
No man, however renowned in public life,
can be said to have reached i symmetrical
development of character, who i.i not hIabitu
ally courteous and considerate toward thore
whomI ho daily comes in contact.. The defi
nition of a gentleman given by Princeton
college would have fitted General Leo per
fectly: "0no who habitually considers tho
happiness and comfort of others before his
General Leo's first teacher was Mr. W. 13.
Leary, aln Irish gentleman, leariod anl very
efficient as a teacher. Under his tuition tho
future general acquiredt a knowledgo of and
fondness for tho classics. Tho master and
pupil were warm friends throughout lifo.
When it was decided that he w:s to go to
West Point, he entered the scheol of Mr.
Benjamin IIallowell, who was for many years
a famous teacher in Aloxandria, in order to
perfect himself in mathematics. Mir. IIallo
well, though a strong Unionist during the
war, always spoke enthusiastically of Lee.
Ieo was 18 years old when ho entered
West Point, where ho was a favorito with
cadets, professors and oillcers, anid was grad
uated second in an unusually b:illiant class,
without over having rcceived a sin:le domerit.
Soon after ho was called to the deathbel of
his mother whon ho nursed to her dying
hour with tho tondere-t .devotion. IlIe often
said that to her ho "owed everything."
His Marrla;;o and MilhItatry Servico Un
der Gen. Scott.
On Juno 80, 1831, ie married Mary llai
dolph Custis, only daughter of George Wash
ington Parko Custis, the grandson of Martha
Washington and adopted son of George Wash
ington. By this marriage Lieut. Leo became
a frequent resident at Arlington, his wifo's
hono; the Arlington that was even then his
toric becauso of the treasures of Washingt on
it contained, but which Is doubly so now, b)e
cause of the National cemetery loented en
Arlington heights. This antiquo niansioni Is
located on tho heights opposite Washington
city. The place was also the first camp)ing
ground of the Federal army upon its entry
into Virginia sixty years. after WVashngtou's
On leaving West Point, Robert E. Leo
received the appointmntt of second heuten.
ant In the corps of engineers, and was first
ordered to Cockspur ijlandl, necar S3avmah a.
After his marriage o e as sent to Old Point,
Vai., where lie remainecd for t lbrco years. Ini
18:35 lhe was appointed assistant surveyor'
for marikingp out the biounduary linio hect ween
Ohio and Michigan. A year later he was~
inido firstI iteinnt, and in July, 198 e.np.O
tai of eninieoirs. Ini 18i8-t) he was senit Ic
imprl)ove thio navigtion of the Missiaippi at
Sit. Louis and to open a passage for Ihe ri vet
at the D)es Moines rapids. Thlere was dannget
that the M'issi..sippi woiubl cut a ebiaiel oni
thme fllinois side, which would have proved t he
(leatih of St. Louis, comimerciahly. Lo con
colved1 and( executed a plan whih avertedl
Capt. Leo w~as sent to Fort Hlamiltoni, in'
Nowv Yorkc harbor, and whbilo there, ,in 18-1 i
was nppoited one of the board of visit.ors t<
the WVest Point academy. May of tihe letter,
written to his family during thos'o year's havt
been prVCesee andl published. All show that
the buisy enginecer was ever the loving
thought fud husband and father. Paege aftei
page was writteii to his children, (xp,rssinyh
his love for themn, anid roeminding: them ol
their dutics to each othier and to their mot her,
To hisi boys lhe wrote repeatedly ini these ai
similar words: "You must, take great care oii
your kindu mother and( dear Siste'rs." Anr
again in 18-17, after the difliculties withI Mex
Ico had culinatedh ini a (heclaration of host ill
ties and.Capt. Lco was assignecd to t he ceuitra
army ini Mexico, as chief eninieer uindm
Gen. WVool, lhe writes to his sor.s: "'I shalh
not feol miy long separation fromi you, if]
find that my absenceo has been of no injury (<
you, and( that you~ have b)oth grown in good
iiess and knowledlge, nut well as stat iure. Ihut
all, howv much I wvill sull'or on mny return ii
the reoverso has occurired. You entor inito ali
my thoughts, in all muy prayers; andu omn you
in part, will doendi whether I shell ho hanpp)
or mniseralo, as you knew how much I lovc
you. You must do all ini your piower- to savWi
(len. Scott nioted the yoing officer's mili.
tary genius and appointed him11 to a posit ler
Oim hi n)rm.aa atani'.o, an ., wa. a.al h,i
bIography,ito says: "I am qotmpoiled to make
special mention of Capt. R. E: Leo, engineer.
This officer greatly distinguished hinself at
the siego of Vora Cruz." And at Cerro
Gordo Qen. Scott wrote: "I am compelled
to make special niention of Capt. Rt. E. Leo,
engineer. This ofilcer was indefatigablo dur
ing these operations hi reconnoissances, as
daring as laborious, and of tho utmost value.
Noi' was ho leIs conspicuous in placing bat
teries and in conducting columns to their sta
tions under the heavy fire of the enemy."
It, is said that when Gun. Scott was asked
'what was the most daring achievement of
the war, ho sa"id,'Leo's crossing the Pedrigal."
The Pedrigal is a vast pathlss fleld o vol
canic rock lying botween Chorubuse and
Sani Augustin and south of San Augustin
several mile.;. It was only passablo by day
light with great peril, but Capt. Leo crossed
it at night alone, carrying a messago from
B3rig. Gen. Smith to Gen. Scott. In Bcott's
own words: "The greatest feat of physical
and moral courago performied by any indi
vidual, in my knowledge, pending the cam
paign." Santa Anna was on the right and
Valencia on the loft, and the slightest dovia
tion on his part either way would have thrown
Capt. Leo into the hands of one of them. lie
had nothing to guide him on his way but the
direction of the wind.
Leo was wounded at Chapultepec. He was
twice promoted for his services in Mexico.
In 1&17 ho was breveted major for gallant
and meritorious conduct In the battle of Cerro
Gordo, and later was breveted lieutenant
colonel for brav-ry at Contreras and Cheru
busco. Year: after Gen. Scott said: "Leo is
the greatest military genity in America."
Sul,erintendent at West Point and Fight
ing Indlans in Texas.
After tho Mexican troubles were over Col.
Leo Was appointedt a member of the board of
engincors and stationed at Sollor's Point, near
Baltimoro. Ile was busy with the construc
tion of Fort Calhoun until mado superintend
ent of the military academy at West Point in
1852, where he remained three years. During
his admuiinistration tho courso of study was
exteindel to five years, and numerous ini
proveiieinis were miado in the academy and
its surroundings. It was he who built the
fine riding lml, mado the good road, the
whiarf and,; other imprnovemenits.
i.id owet.(Just as h1o left it.)
In 1u5, whe.n soveral new cavalry regi
mntts were rrgatnizedl, Col. Leo was commis
:;ioned lieu'.tna nt uolonc"l of the F3eond cav..
tllry, whiolh was conunanded by Col. Alhert
tiidneyvOdn of Cotnfede"rate famne, who
w\as!a l at :::;iloht. This regiment fur
nit-hed m-my t o.'ie-.r:s of high rank to both
attrmi'" dur': ) ihnlte war, andl produced
mortl 1; :'3 han any regiment ,i' the old
army. (;ni. t:->'rge 11. Thomas, the b ,loved
"PpThu:na:,," of thto Federal army, and
Jolmioni, ::o,n :m and Palmer, also Union
i:st:: an Hrte(e, Van Doern, Kirby Smith,
IIuoo., F"i:l'l, Cosby, IFitzrhught Lee, Confed
For it'vtral yea.; thi.; regiment was en
gaged (:an. ho Indtianis in Texas. Col.
Leo wats uvler act ive, and in onio of the battles
In at l.ttter to his wifo dated at Fort Drown,
Tex-N., Doe:. :7, 1:;;t, speaking of President
I'irees mran v,rhicht hia somtethiing to say
metiinst ut nsc of th t,"Y rn,. h ,; wr t1,:
"There arefew, I beivin h enih
enedage wh wil no acnowldgetha
slvr as n nsttuio isamoa,adp
liia vli aycuty t sueest
Irt L"1 0e mihl a. ml%t ig ilenc of.
temet o1 )Ileryk sntralversy." rymgi
m:eis f ee' orfi:lrs l who re witheomhim
air, bi 11im1 has toli mhodconsCtol e
mailo himsel mate of oery~nt fdeti, whoe
feet knowledge .T Stern a Thes reimnt mautr
of duty, h'o attra.cted:' looadcoiln
IIowasa fvoitIe lt chigre,and hio bet
happy' an<ayinhi reene (UTh oce
Urwninurecioin atl) Hrpier't Frr theol
the ins (f L.e's recal t1'olWash ingto. loe
"l'heI' co:un:md. of the eralnto Texasy, and
wa sationed .a. Sani:u fil Ani. ls nin
Rign s Hadis01c Comnisin aen, Girby with
hee, "k't hoiy !i'liLe Confedercy
eA earltr.he h ontyws.o
l ig o thi brtinke, an iupheaval, the bater
ism aof jtlh shern sttshafeeddfo
"Soua ter tonfiedea," a wart wown,
'rxy air,.ho relinquihedhisi comm. Presdui
reported'.to ithae, cnandor-inhifg toW ushy
aingtn.h lewas of Viri~nn andk wit the
imaoritof ifrgiians, clung eti the o-a
didtc iho intl Dt.omnion sathoref wrtels,
troopiir tire fw I obeliene, ithi niherbo
drs , e i ll Cmonfederanolg tad
went ver i til hertiiiii fote wliomth the( now
lt o uiiil l coury.av hohling "bodert
(!t.:te Oil ioos fdlowd.aThe.o ilr of ihe
a rcm andl toavy whitea thod togter ast
brouher,h epart somo to fa iht tgins Ctihe
flathey had peviouvslyu sere,ooher slto
fen d ii. an boh fto trraed agstom andi
fome omraee,les whlowcve sohiers.ii
Col I:. Le resi11gnetod hiv co missiound e
rd is erv;icest tof ting sundern im e
fedcy. w nde hiItcr of le s iniatnrh
ofaity " Imt ld hae lve ndesnieonc.
btY fortc (h fstryl i hs rcsie theparatn
myselfa fro aerice uto wi1)ch' I aor dovot
te all~ the bes yercfm f,adall th)Wsigtm.le
guihd afmlcri the Fedealm Ocor for mre
thn a hruaryt lof a cetury and'd ito wasscon
fodenlI.ly oieved) that a desatnlt 'inedas andb
dvo 'itiel at ad Aion. ngmr li
wa espnsib il(ellfor tsh to atemeIn tha t,ei
det Lical' 1.ent oine tfhi caneta toife
imago the ommand of thl me amy, nndh Gien.
matin, ofndm saidthm tas h ado ecdm foae
rell:rec "Jle tyln have nudllior-i-l) t. greats
itoofyu life;sa bugitl, fad witul the
wrofllt:C "W iithalls, cevoi to the Union,
anid the fee1lii no loyalte and'f dut lfat,
AmerIenu eitizeni, Ihao unish leen alo of
have,5I theefre rleigndlO mytcommission br
tIes army, and, sa oidfenso fly ndv
stat, wit th hicer opolle ththe ynoo
s'orvs ma nover bo~ nlaedd lI(i 'horderma
neveohoca ll oned todraw myica' wofd t]
kn(to you wllJd blamo0 o but ouaimust tin!e
asrindly of mrals yonm fello, anodibelrvth.
WASHINGTON AND LIE1 UNIVEnSITY.
Col. Leo was at onco invited to take com
uand of the Confedcrato forces of his etate.
On April 22, a few days after the frst gun was
fired on Fort Sutmter, ho left the hono ho was
never to see again, and went to Richmond.
The governor at once nominated him as ma
jor general, with command of the forces al
ready organized In Virginia. Tho state con
vontion unanimously confined the nomina
tion. Gen. Leo was presented to the conven
tion on April 28, by the chairman of the inill
tary conmnitto, and -was received with ex
IIo at once organized the state forces aind
put things in a defensive attitude. Thirty
thousand men wore soon collected Inl Virginia.
These Leo organized and distributed. l1e
worked incessantly, carefully examinihg into
the minutest details, and, it is said, "lnado the
reputation of a skillful organizer of armies
before ho conmenced the career of activo
commander in the field." In July of the
same year the Confederate congress tmado
Gen. Leo a full general in tho Confederate
service, ranking next to Gon. Albert Sidney
Johnston, the list being Cooper, A. S. Joln -
ston, Lee, Joseph E. Johnston nml lleaure
gard. A month later ho took command of
the forces in western Virginia, a dillicult and
disagreeable field of service. lio said: "I am
ready to take any position thocountry assigns
Ino, and do the best I can." Ono of his
biographers says of him: "This was the
secret of his successes; ho always did 'his
best,' thinking nothing which ho undertook
too small to be done faithfully." And his
wife said of him that attention to small tmat
ters was pro-einiently his characteristic.
Despito his earnest efforts to carry out his
plans this campaign of Lee's was a failure,
and ho returned to Richmond in November,
weighted with defeat and unappreciated and
even condemned by the people he served. IIo
boro all unfavorable criticism in silence. lie
was then put in charge of the coast defenses
of Georgia and South Carolina, superintend
ing the construction of fortifications. Iis
work in that fleld made him new popularity
and esteem. But ho was recalled to Rich
mond in March, 1302, with the now appoint
ment of commanding general, to take in
charge the entiro military preparations of
the Confederacy, a position hoonly retained a
few months, leaving it for a st-ill more act ivo
field. To hint are largely due t ho fortiflca
tions which mado the siege of Ricumond so
loug and so desperate.
In all his military movemonts he was very
reserved. He practiced the tnmxin of his
great lieutenant, "Mystery is tho secret of
The 1lattlo of Cold 11arbor-Leo leetlug
It was the morning before the battlo of Cold
Harbor. Gen. Leo sat silent on the steps of a
house on HIogaun's plantation, while a crowd
of oflicors talked, plmnned and counciled
around him. It was past noon; Hill and
Longstreet halted with their mon awaiting
Stonewall Jackson's right at Now Cold liar
bor; a courier announces to Lee that Jackson
was at hand; this was tho tin dotormined
upon for action. About noon the battle bo
gan. At the end of two hours Leo sent Long
street to mako a diversion in favor of the at
tacking columns, and orders for a general ad
vanco were given. Then amid the belching
n 1gmy -i *
JACKCSON AND) LEI: AT COLa) iiAnnlon,
of cannon andt tho rattling of musketry a
migtycer arose. Tlhe wordls "Jackson,
Jackson," ran along tio linesn, "ini a shout so
wild and triumphant," says one who was
presenit, "that it rolled acr'ioss the woods and1
reached the ears of the Federal army." TheI
same soldier, who can write as well as fight,
has written this dlramiatic dlescrip)tioni oif the
vecry dIramnatie ove'it, tihe ineeting between
Leo and Jacsoni that iniuediately took pliace.
Jackson was rinmg a raw boned sorrel, with,
his knees drawn up by thme ishort, strrups;, his eyes
peerig out from beneath the low rium of his pad
ded( cap); ther'o was absolutely nothing abiout him,
nave the dingy mstars on his collar, -to tiinleato hIs
rank. Leo, oni the contrary, was clad In a neat
unIform, without deccorat ionms, rode an excellenmt
aug carefully groomed hor-s-, and1 overy detail of
his personi, every miovemienat of limo (rec. anid
graceful figure of the most statelty cavalir In the
southern army, rev-~ealedl his (levated chairactler,
the consciousnoss or commnanid, a ampei:-s ofr mioral
aiid oflcal gran-leur, b,oth of wvhichm it was imi
p)ossibIe to mistake. Thmo Ainlmty lhad made
both these hunmn beIngs truly great ; to onily one0
of thema had lie glveni thme addiltionl gr:ceo of
"Ahm, general,"' said T,o, grasin~,g JTacksoan's
hiandt, "I cm very glad to coo you; I hoped to
have beein with you be-fore."
Jackoni saluted, and retuarnedi thie pjressre of
that, bend, of whose owmiar lhe said: "ii,o in a
phienom-nomn; lie I.- the only iman I wonld follow
blindfol." (Jen. Iao then looked withI aniriety
ini the dh','tion of the firIig on1 the( l-ft. "That
fire is very Iheavy," be s'id,. ini his deepi 0oc, "'I)
you tilnk your meon can slanti it, genri-'
Jackson Itrned his hieadl quiekIy. listened for
an instanit, andi lien replied in the curt tones so)
familIar to all who knew-i him:
"They cani standl albnios anylIn m, geneural.
Thmey can rItnd thiat" 'Tenm muiinutes afteor uti terid
thiese words Jaicksoni naluitd his couimmanimder, iut
mipulrs to is rawl b)oned hors-, andh went, at full
mspeed tom rejoihis corps, which, In bisownt words,
had closedi in umponm thu front andI rear of the
eniemy, andi was presslig forward. Leo ro
mnained( at, the center. Theror ho was reatdy to
dleiver his' great.blow.
TJhmis was on10 of the imost, stubbhorn hattles
of the w~ar, and was won by the Confederates.
Ucn. Mclellan wos dreivomn back to t he
It wa ;Iko's gene(raLlship whieb-I gainedl the
Confederates the "H-erondiu Battle of Manas
iaSI," anmd bni;ied the Fedeorals' third ad(vnce
Rio Leads 11IIs A rmy to tihe 'ronitier.
(Jon. Loo( detcemine'd to1 transuufer hmis army
imnto Maryhamnd, thus chanigling tIhe theiatro of
wvar froml the interior' to thle fronmtier. Onm
Flept. :3, near tho mouthi oif tho Mlonio"ny, t(
tihe sounmds of maialm music, sininmg "Mary)
land, My Maryland," (ho "Yagged rebels15
crosseid thmo Poutoumac, elatedl andi joyful aIt the
accomplihimnt (ir thu-ir ong (hmishl
urenit, . "Thouimsmlmi," msaid (Gen. Lece, "art
withtouit mhoes." Ono of the oilcra'~ of Ipe'.
Staff says thamt when, laiter' Iso pmased
t.brough llnger'stown, onoc of a group of iadieo
on the sidewalk e'xcla,imemd, as miho Ih',t san
Leec: "Oh, what a niagnmilleenit mean; why h
lhe not oni ourm sido I"
IAfter' tIme bacttlo of Sharepshureg Leo with.
drew again across thi( P otomne(, andl t h1 ox
peditioni into Marylamnd was over'. Time bloody
Loo, Jackson, Longstrct ant3 ituars tooa
part against 3urnsido.
The romainder of that bitter whiter was
passed by Ieo's army noar Fredericksburg,
the soldiers undergoing greet suffering. An
English gentleman visited Uen. Leo about
this time, and describes him as surrounded
by none of the pomp and ceremony conski
erel necessary in European enamps, although
treated with profound respect and oven filial
lovo by his soldiers.
After the winter tho battle of Chancellors
villo was fought, which cost Lo "his right
arm," ea. Jachsont.
This battle las been painted again ald
agai by graphio pens. Leu's wlolo army
charged upon the Federal works at Chaneol
lorsville, and four times lost atd won. Tho
woods were ablaze, the wounded lay thick
underfoot with tho flames ronring arountd
theml and crceping upon then, the Chancel
lorsvillo house was burning, making a great
A- . N
l.i: AS Co11-O r'1::,u)n:r.r.
torch to light, tho awful scene, the ilr* was
dense with smol:e and thick with bullets anl
shell, while tim t"houts of the colbIatallts, the
rattle of nusketry and tho ronr of artillery
made the sceno terrille. The victory for tho
Confederates was pu'r.'hased at a fearful cost
--tho death of Jaclksoi. "From1 that hour till
the end," says Emily Mason in her "Popular
Lifo of Leo," "on Leo alone rested the burden
which only Jackson h heen Competent to
By the last of Juno the whole Confederato
army was at Clamber:burg. Tho two armies
gr'avitatedl to G.etty:-bu1r;., antd on July 2,
i;1tl3, were face to fare, and thn begaun the
mortnorahlo hat t Io of hist ory which enlded in a
victory for the Federal army. The 3d of July
datwied and they still tonfrointed eacli other;
n1111 11he0 4th dawned on Lee'sdisianitled army,
which retreated the next day. Col. Free
mantle, who was l>resent att the battle of Get
tysburg, said of ILeo ni'ter the repulso:
If Loigstreet's condcit, was illiiralle, thait
of in. I0 wtast Ierfetly suihin'. 1' was . -
gagied in rallying and nconrttiing (is' hrolen
troops. 11d wvat riding ahout. i litite i fr'nt of
the staff, ciulte aloun, ilie whole of his st:aff helag
engaged in a sintilar ninner tiirtim hr t. the rear.
Ills fne, which is always Illt d andl clerful, t!id
not show igns of the slightest dlis:i ,ehiietnt,
care o' annov'atie", nud Ihe was w hI ressinIg to
every thllier he mit n few worIls of enconit;e
ment,. Few ftill to antswer[ his appeil, anm I
saw mnany b:adtly woundted inen ta ' fi I hir hits
and cheer him. Ile said to lote: "This has Ihoeen a
sad day for ics, Colon-l --a sud dlay: bitt, we ann't
expect. aliwys o gain victorles." tOne of his gin.
erals eoning up in grat disitsS, hlunentIng 11li
stat of hfit brigale, (eni. I.ce shook Iutita wit hI
him, leying, "Neve'r minId. general: ill i his huas
iein iiy fault. It i I 1lut, hnlve lest thi; light,
andt you iintut, help me out, of it in thteo be.t way
Last Iuny:: of the Confederniey-t.oeo' fiur
Vicksburg fell, the Contfedtrty . :
but the summer passed without ft :ei' do
veloptnents. Tho winter of l5;I foundl
Lee-'s armny au(ffering for the( n11enns of
subsistentue, and depleted by fre<pient deser
tions. The spiring brought the itt!o of the
tilderntesv, whero (ien. Jenkins fell <l:ai aunt
Longst.reet was wouinded. 'I'hen followed the
battles of i4pttt,sylvania Court llotse, andl
Sheridan:m's envalry raid toward Itichmonid,
and ini early Junie the sec'Lond( hat.tl0 of' Col
I:lHror'. Lter0i in the samel lui.Lth t he iiego
(If P'eter:dmirg wa':s b eguni. L ate ini J1uly (oc
curred what is knlown ini the oulth) as tho
battle of I he C'rater. nd Iater t hat of WVin
chestor and Fishier's II ill."
Tho winter oIf 1801I found Les ar imty st ill
mloroe des5titulte, fully deserving the inamo t.hey
had11 given t heiniseives-"Lee's .'lIiserables,"
aifter Victor I ilgol's "15es Miserbles," which
was Inuchel readi just, then, even by thle sol
diers. Cooke dbescibes thlenl na array,ed in
rags; their shoes soleless, t heir (conlts sleeve
less, their lanlkets ini shreds. Thriough all
Leo reiedlfIIC c'heer'ful an<l( ('oliosed. Lee's
army was reduiced to 30,001) 1nen1 an11(
stretcched along a linio foil y miiles ini extent,
conlfronltinig GrantllL of 1G1,000. Eatrly In
Thle ilghts at,I lare's 11i1l, ivie l'rki, thmo
last (ays nt I Pel.ersburig aind thle defenlso of
Fort, U re';; fIllowedIs . Itichmon flOlIell andi Lee
led his nrimy ini the famotis six days' retreat
from Pcterhburg. hi is oblject wasx to maiike
111.1 wiiy illto North Carol ina. lIt,t his ar'my
was star'ving niuil ihe suppl(iexpieted to iiet,
them) at AniieliaCourt, I lioin3: wero lost in
the fires of I ichmliond, wlilb ('(lebrateid Iho
doom11 of the Conm federnecy. Oni the ret irent they
had a strug.;le wit hi Hieiidan, wihen the rag
ged!, itarin g vet.eriins1 fought, I!ercely, thleir
haggardl faces ''lit,iiup by theo glare of the
ISoon followed the urrendier of Leo an<d
the nriiy (If V'irghin to Grnti. Ini the
village of Apponmattox Court Hous1e, at, the
bruiss' of Mr'. W ilmner M'Clean, A pr il 0, 1805,
thle two) con2mmnneri miet, A Aederal oillecr
thus ides"ribe s Lee's nlppear'aneo:
- -'- -
MAnY (t'STi t,tis.
Ge. ,e ltiAunh:,liaidwn,ht
neerheer p.wte hesae . iicn
phskuofo wic he/ ha lasb nntd
11 asnnlydese ngrye!:,v.-./u m
posure, bu at l on rudly bel thii:' . i
hn growinge iie l .1d war. .oi o .i hi:lo
111ksIiof i.' hal thrown nlor.s h nppe li(Ir
I aoa' II.e sla Is fuly ( smix feet oneIn
withodnt. or ig15 burdeith u: of super-I~ (
fluos iloil . in ing1111i 11 th 1)-:hol intri w he. wasI
rIr d and 'di,;fed: tower e b Iordering ony :c
taciiy, buot wasil freel rom ll hibiio of. I
hsof throi;hamty o p: Oess- .genlman who'i hd"
veryi dI'isgreae dui to -rform buit fail di
teriinid to lgt though it a wp0 (nd as onea
hen T olirad leai,ill'i ( i roe hatri had
take nty plaet he5 broko rnks: aldc ruhted upt
v<ehry slt-iruell i glt takp 'hfim bt huwa d
and nom&s.h.u nfn'oa. Jo a _m_u..
througli the war together I havo donWAn b
best I could for you; my heart W tbq full to
Tho surronder wa% not celebrated with
nluslo and cheers by the victors. That night
the two armies, enomies no longer, slept side
by sido without foar of surprise. On the 12th
of April, the arny of northern Virginia made
its last sad iarch to Appomattox Court
liouso, where they laid down their arias and
their colors. (Ien. Leo bad alroady departed
under Federal escort for Richmond, which he
reached on the evening of the same day. As
ho rodo through the streets on his faithful
Traveler that had borno hin through so many
dangers, men, women and children rushed out
to meet him and shout a welcome. Even the
United States soldiers crowded about his door
and saluted hin with respect.
Ills Lifo as Collogo President and Hlis
In the following August Con. Leo was pro.
vailed upon to accept the presidency of Wash.
ington college at Lexington, Va., now known
as the Washington and Leo university, and
was installed on the 2dl of October.
The collego was in a dilapidatod condition,
its buildings in a state of i'min, its library do
stroyed, its faculty dispirited and disorganized
and its endowmnnt so small that it loft but
little room for hope that the institute could
bo put in condition to receive students. These
dificulties only onhaneod Gon. Leo's interest
and activity in it. "I1 found the college
bankrupt; Io loft it rich and crowded with
students." Ho labored incessantly and earn
estly to nako it contpleto in all particulars,
and found pleasuro in the work. To an old
comrade in arms ho wrnte: "I an charmed
with the duties of civil life."
After taking chargo of the college he had
offors of large salaries to identify himsolf, it
in nane only, with prosperons insurance
conl)anhi's and great nuanufacturing associa
tions. Ono offered him $10,000 a year and
another $50,000, both of which he refused,
becauso ho would not recoivo pay where he
did not render service, and his college duties
engrossed his entire tilno and strength; yot
his salary as the presidont vas only a modest
$8,000, it is said.
Gen. Leo was sumnoned before the eon
tressional committee on reconstruction in
March, 1800, and later as a witness in the pro
posed trial of Jefferson Davis, and these were
the only occasions on which ho appeared bo
fore the public after the surrender.
Ills health began to fail two or threo years
beforo his death. lie (ied at ) o'clock on the
morning of the 12tit of October, 1870. For
so1no days previous he hail boon delirious
anl ho talked of battles won and lost, o1
action on the field and the movements of the
enemy. Among his last words were: "Strike
Imv tent! Stoil for Hill!"
'ihoy bore his body to the college chapel
escorted by a guard of honor coniposed of
Confodernto soliers. Next the hearse was
led the general's fanous horse Travolor, who
survived him but a few months. They buried
hi'i clay in a tomb benouth the chapel. Ac
cording to his request no funeral oration was
PltoP<: D MONUMENT TO LET AT nICHIMOND
I 0ron1onn1el over his hlboy. I1ov. William N.
endl-ton, his ol fricinI, rea<l the burial
services of th Episcopal church, of which he
was a nlenber. IHero rests his mortal part,
but where brave men iro gathered in the up
per world lhero will bo found his soul.
In liclmon<d, Iho city ho defended, a mon
umnent is to hbe raia'el to his lnonmory. Its site
is in a pitark. 'The fotiuattion will be i broad
and elevated terrneo overlooking the city,
tie river and the valley. Charles A. Niohmaus,
of incinnamti, lias furnuishied thme design. The
lnadies of V irginia p)r4)enred the funmds to erect
tihe moinmunent,. A nimnssivo pedestal su pports
tho bironzo st.nt ne, which is to ho of heiroimc
size, on horsenek. Tlhe p)edestal is of
granmite. with inlaitd tablet,sof coloreul marble.
IaOne iac of tho two opphosite sides are two
cnryntles in granite, fonr in all. TIhey rep
resenit P'eace', Just iceQ, I eligionm ani Patriot
lism. Famie, Warii nmid ('hi:mrity aro also figured
in b)roinze. At oj,j,ostto si<les of tihe base are
inrc-reliefs of "''mo I)eparttimro" ndt "The
"WVin'n tiIs iinontuineit, is raiserd," says a
wrriter, "'many a inaun wvill vi.'it lRichioned to
stani(l besido it., to (14) rovereneoe to the ro
mahinls it' nmy cover, nn<l( to) say, "1 loe lies the
biody of one oif theo noles1t moen who over
livedl or dic<l ini Ainerlen."
For nmameh of the inifort- ion ini thiis skcetchm,
nnid also for sozito of thei~ not:; interesting II
Ilustraltions, wo e intebt ml : to th e "P4eu aonal
Itov. J. Willi.nni Jl.':t, I). I)., p4ulishel bty I).
Ai,i,letnni & ('.lo New '. ork,i~ an<.l to thme
"l'opumlar IM of r enm. I aibert. J.. Lee.," by
& Co., of 13itjim;e.
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