Newspaper Page Text
NEWBERRY, S. (., bII A, ())i PRICE$150AYEAR
Fs~,XRiSHEI) IN 1865.
THE FARMERS' COLLEGE.
Figures Showing that Separate Agri
tural Colleges are Better and
Cheaper than Agricultural An
"X" in News and Courier.
"The College question agai' is
the caption of an article appearing
in the News and Courier of Septem
ber 21. signed by "D." in which
he appears to be well satisfied
with his effort, and which, if not an
awered by the friends of a "separate
agricultural college," may have the
effect 'desired by him. But we are
not disposed to allow him to have it
his own way so easily. '"D" is evi
dently no tyro in logic, and when he
lays down his propositions we are
disposed to give him a fair chance to
air himself. He asserts that the
friends of a separate agricultnral
college have not yet established
either of the following propositions,
which appear reasonable at first
1st. "That the separate college is
more beneficial to the farming in
terest of the State than the depart
ment system," and
2d. "That it is so much better as to
fully compensate for the largely in
creased expenditure involved in its
establishment and management.'
He adds- that the public interest de
mands the proof of both; and we are
of the opinion that he may find that
he has not settled the case by any
Can the friends of the proposed
college possibly climb over this logi
cal wall ? If not, of course we may
infer that it is perfectly legitimate
for the South Carolina College to
continue to misappropriate the land
script' funds as it has done in past
years. How are these propositions
to be settled ? By the light of ex
perience, of course. There is no
other way that I know of. In the
light of experience all of -D's" logi
cal gymnastics pass for what they
are worth, and the public may decide.
whether the propositions be demon
He would crush us with figures and
hurls his little "department" against
the separate college in Mississippi
with as much assurance as if it
amounted to something. As he is so
proud of his "department," we pro.
pose that he add to the wonderful
work accomplished by it the work
done by all of the so-called agricul
tural and mechanical colleges of the
United States, having an -'agricul
tural annex," as desired by him.
There are twenty nine of them for
white pupils, and let us "pit" them
againt the work of the eight agricul
tural and mecbanical colleges
in the country, which have eman
cipated themselves from the
thraldom of the classics or the so
called "liberal culture" which we do
not care to have in agricultural col
lege or upon the farm. That covers
the whole experience of the country
up to date, and is the very best
standard that I know of. Taking.the
latest United States Educational Re
port from Washington, 1884-85,~we
find in tables IX and X the follow.
ing facts: There are' in all thirty
seven colleges for whites, supported
in whole or in part by the 'land
-script funds. Twenty-nine of these
have agricultural annexes, into
which some of them also incoporate
a "mechanical," "scientific" and
"mining" departments, in order to
make it appear large, I suppose, for
they are doing mighty little work.
The twenty-nine colleges received
fromi the scrip and from special ap
propriations the sum of about $940,
062 for 1884-5, of which about $50,
000 can be accounted for in building
equipment, &c., leaving about 8890,
062 for running the institutions. The
average annual cost, therefore, was
about $30,684, for which they
gave instruction to a total number of
683 students in the college classes,
equal to an average attendance of
fifty-eight to the college, and grad
uated in all eighteen studeuts. The
cost therefore, of running an agricul
tural attachment per student in at
tend ance at the attachment is $52S885
per annum. There are nine of these
so-called agricultural and mechani
cal colleges with attachments that
did not have a single student to re
port in those branches. As in the
South Carolina College, the money
was being,.wholly diverted to other
purposes and the agricultural classes
were not getting a single dollar of it
expeeded in the development of agri
culture or mechanics in those States.
These are facts drawn from their own
reports, and I believe may be relied
But let us see the advantage of a
separate .agricultural college. These
eight separate colleges received in
all an appropriation of $301,805, of
which about $100,000 was for build
ing and equipment, leaving about
$201,895 as the annual cost of run
ning them as above, This was an
average of $25,238 each per annum.
for which they gav'e instruction to a
total number of 1,143 students. equal
to an average attendance of 142 in
the college classes only, andl grad
usted forty-five students. TIhis
amounted to a cost of about $176 48
per annum per student in the sepa
rate colleges, as againt $528 85 pe
student in tbe annexes.
."D" is anxious to compare results,
and so are we :
Twenty- Eig.ht Advan*
.n-ine separate tages of
- Colleges A gr'] and se parat e
-with mfechan'I CoUtage
Annees Gonleges, per year.
Mof runi'g 530,65,400 $S523e 00 -5.44t;0
Total number 1 i,s 1,13 - .
Ttlnuinber} -:i 0
Cot per setudent, sm2$ 55 s:7 4" $:i23
Average atton-? i 5 142 84
With an average appropriation ot
$.440 a year less than is rcquired to
run colleg-:es with annexes, they
were educating ahiuost three times a=
many students and proiducing almost
three times as mnytr gradu-tes in a.
rieulture and me.chanies, .at a cost of
about one-thirdi what it cost to do th'
same work in auriculturai annexes
This was the experience in l.' --
and among the poorest of the poo:
colleges, with azriciultural annexr
stood the South Carolina College.
Does "I" still insist that the prop
ositions are needing demonstration
If so, let him make the experience of
the past five years, and he will show
up equally as badly for his little an
nex and the misappropriation of the
funds donated by the tieneral Gov
ernment for particular purpose,
which the South Carolina College has
not, and does not, and never can ftul
But satisfied with the production
of the "formidable (:') propositions
already discussed, he coolly pro
ceeds to impale the Mlississijppi Ag
ricultural College upon the horns of
a dilemma (?) As a trick in logic
his device is uultque and can be rnade
to fire at both ends. As >ne end has
already been fired off at the Missi
sissippi Agricultural College, I will
rect the other end upon the South
Carolina College. i silnly para
phrase his dilemma.
The only strong card that the
South Carolina College has is that
it gives a thorough course in "liberal
culture"-a very excellent thing in
its way for lawyers and doctors nc
doubt; but will not any banker, rail.
road company, merchant, druggist,
doctor or lawyer require any of it:
graduates to start at tile very bottom
of the business and learn it the same
as if he had not studied at this Col.
lege before he can be promoted ? In
other words, a young man who grad
uates at that College has to uegin
exactly where he would have had tc
begin four years before when ie
entered college, in order to earl
his livelihood in any of the in.
dustrial or commercial pursuits by
which men support themselves in
South Carolina. That being true
and daily practice proves it to be so
if one hundred stuacets from home:
supported by industrial and commer
cial pursuits attend the South Caroli
na College and only one hundred re
turn to begin exactly where they
would have begun had they not at
tended that institution, then it is not
benefiting the students.
If less than one hundred studeuts
from homes supported by indust:ial
and commercial pursuits who attend
the South Carolina College return tc
their homes to contribute to the
farther development of the State
then it is doiug an injury to the
state, and all classes should unite in
seeing that it is suppressed.
Further, if the proportion of stu
dents from such homes who returi
to them after only a short sojourn at
the South Carolina College is greate.
than when the students remain sev.
eral years, then the longer a student
remains at such a place the worsi
it is for him, and the less grounds
there are for the longer maintenance
of such an institution.
As requested by him, I have stud.
ied "D's" logic, and he is at libertl
to further exercise his ingenuity in
this direction, if he'is of the opiniol
that it will advance his cause o.
suppress the advocates of a separate
Visit of >Irs. Cievelan<l1 to 3Irs. Polk
NasIrviiL1:, TENx., October 10.
The President andl his wife pa5sse
the day quietly at Bell Mead, the
home of General W. HI. and Senato:
Howell E .Jackson, six miles frou
This afternoon thiey calledt on Mrs
James K. Polk.
The pike by which they' enter
the. city was thirong~ed with pepl f:
three miles. and the route he was t<
take was crowdeld with spectators
The party arrived at the Polk plae<
at five o'clock. The mneeting be
tween Mrs. Poik, the former mistres
of the Wh ite House, and its presen1
youthful occupant, was interestin:
in the extreme.
As was remnarked~ by one of th<
gentlemen present. -The mantle has
falen on worthy shoumlders.'
\Ms. Polk seemed to be complete-l'
exhilarated by the visit and was oo
only in a cheerful mood. but happy
The weight of he'r eighity-four years
bowed her but slightly, and thougl
she says she is feeble, one can scarce
ly detiect it in her bearingz.
She remarked that it was a ver)
uuisual occurrence for a lady o^hlei
age, forty years after she occupie
the place of first lady in the land. t:
receive a visit from a successor.
The event seceed to calli up n>at;
pleasant reminiscences of the past.
M1rs. P'olk snys -he was personal!:
aquanted ithi every President
from th.e time of .! ohn ( uincy Adam:
to that of Lincoln.
P'residenit Jackson often visitec
thetm after his ad.iniistration anm
when her husband was Governor.
She was just married when Lafav
ette visited Nashville. Martin Va:
Buren visited M1r. P'ok at his hann
in Columnia while the former was
Me'~ to-day publitcly acknowle<iget
the error it committedi int publishini
any- matter uncompidentary to M\1rs
Cleveland durinz her visit to this city
Will E. I Jaskell, the junior nmmb
of the Tri'nne CompDany,. will assumn
over his own sigratu re the responsi
bilitr for thle t'icveland edi:ori:l a:n
entirely exone rate Mr. Blethien fro:
all kn'owledge. participation or re
soniilitr in the same.
A WRECK ON THE AIt LINE.
An Excursion Train of Nine Cars Re
turning from Atlanta Run into by a
Wild H'reigixt-I)isobedience of
Orders the Cause of the Ca
SP.ecial to the News and Courer.
G l:EENYiVLLrE, October '?.-A
fri,htful collision occurred this morn.
inon the Air Line Road near Greer's
Station, ten miles north of this city.
Passenger train No. 51, coming from
Atlanta with nine cars of excursion
ists returning from the Exposition,
collided with a special freight train
bound south, two miles from Greer';
Station. Engineer Robert F. Wall,
of the passenger train, and Mrs.
Hampton McDowell, of Asheville,
were killed, and eleven others were
injured. The acci-dent was one of the
most frightful ever recorded in this
section, and the most remarkable
feature has been the small loss of life.
When the passenger train reached
here this morning orders were handed
to Conductor Marshall -and Engineer
Wall to run four hours and twenty
minutes late. This gave the train
the right of way on tiat schedule,
and after signing up orders and tak
ing copies, the trai.n pulled out for
its north.ward run, making about
thirty miles an hour. Orders for No.
51 had been given to all trains on the
line, and when the special freight
train reached Greer's Engineer Har.
ris and Conductor Raville were in
posse3sion*of them. Had they side
tracked at Greer's all would have
been well, but they did not do so.
It was only four miles to Taylor's
Station, and they calculated that
with the delayed schedule they could
make that point before the passenger
train. The calculation was a frac
tion wrong, and ten minutes after the
freight train bad left the station the
DOWN A STEEP GRADE.
The freight was running on a steep
down grade and the passenger had
just rounded a long curve when, like
a meeting of mighty monsters in
combat, the two giant locomotives
crashed together. They careened
with the shock and fell back, the sap
senger engine turning completely
around and the engine of the freight
careening to one side. Back of the
passenger engine was the postal car.
and next to it the express car. Here
came the full force of the collision.
The express car climbed through and
half way over the mail car, making
the two almost as one and scarcely
distinguishable. The baggage ,car,
which came next, was wrecked, bul
not telescoped. With this the shock
spent itself, and back in the
Pullman sleeper, at the rear of the
train, it was scarcely felt.
Three of the forward cars of the
freight were wrecked, and, catching
fire, were burned.
APPEARANCE OF TIHE WRECK. *
This was the scene that met thi
eves of the passengers who crowded
from thie.train. A mass of mangled
engines and of crushed and wrecked
cars was there, and it was knowr
that human bieings wvere among the
d ebris. Prompt efforts were begur
for the rescue. In the forward pos
tal car were Route Agents Killian
D)ykeman and Wilson, two young
men riding on permits and Sherif
Glenn, of York County. When the
crash came the express car crashed
half through the postal car. .Ageni
Killian, who was stricken down found
himself imprisoned among the
broken timber at the top of the car
Agents D)ykeman and Wilson were
thrown and imprisoned by the wreck
IAs if by a miracle none was serious
ly injured, and the other three occu
Ipants of the car escaped altogether
TIlE s(iENE IN TIIE ENPIRESS C'AR.
In the express car with Messengei
E'rini were his cousin, Mrs. IIamp,
ton 3lcD)owell, his brother. Willie
and his sisters, Mary and Nannie
anud their cousin, Miss Quinn, o~
Washingvton. They had chosen tC
ride w'ith .him because of- the crowc
in thec tramin. When the first shock~
palssed the young ladie were in thc
midldle of the postal car, bruised, bul
alive Miss Quinn was imprisonec
at the top of the car. where she had
JTust then the cry of fire arose
and it was dIiscovered that the ex
press car was on fire from the store
A :thoughi themselves wounded
Agents Killian and Dy keman mad<
Ibrave and herculean efforts to rescut
thie young ladies, and succeeded
The fire blazed up several times, bn
was caebh time extinguished.
n.. '1)owELL TuiN IN Two.
The body of Mrs. McDowell was
male~d beyond description. Th<
clotlhing was torn off and the .lowel
limbs lay bleeding on the track be
low, while the upper portion of th<
body was tanigled inthe upper dlebrv
of t-he catr. I was a spectacle o
TIlE NANG;LED N;EssENuER.
Expres.e Messenger Erwin wa
found with his left leg broken and hi~
right foot crushed to a jelly. Hi
broter,Wille, as bruised, but no
TilE DEAD EN''NEER.
Among the wreck of the passenge
engine was found the dead body o
Enigineer Wal,li e cried once t<
the'conductor after the shock anc
then dlied. Ed Parnell, his fireman
was badly scalded about the neel
and shoulders, but he will recover.
r A FATED FIRENAN.
Turning to the freight engine th<
body of J. L. Webster, fireman, wa
fo,undi. 11is right arm was cru.shed
and required immediate amputatio'n
lie was otherwise painfully injured
Philip Black, negro irakeneii
the freight train, was on the top of
a car when be saw the train comiing.
He fell on the car ant received tei
shock, and is now suffering from con
cussion of the brain, from which he
will probably die. This complete
the list of casualties.
CARIN( FV: TILE WOUNIE).
Steps were at once taken to carn
for the wounded. The body of Mrs.
McDowell was sent on to her rela
tives and an inquest is to be hell to
night on the body of Engineer Wall.
Seven of the wounded were broufght
3n here, where they are being cardcc
for. Messenger Erwin's foot will
require amputation. Physicians
from the city and numerous volun
teers have been busy all day looking
to the wounded.
There appears no doubt that the
accident was due to the carelessness
of the engineer and conductor of
the freight train. They both diap
peared immediately afterwards. an,
have not been seen since. The wreck
has caused great excitement here
and public opinion is rapidly crys
talizing in a demand for the punish
ment of the guilty parties.
The fdllowing is a complete list of
LIST OF KILLED AND INJ'I:IC:I.
Mrs. Hampton McDowell, of Ashe
Robert F. Wall, of Charlotte
J. B3. Irwin, of Asheville, le(
broken and foot crushed.
J. L. Webster, fatally mangled.
Philip Black, colored, fatally
Ed Parnell, scalded.
James Killian, of Greenville, spin<
S. M. Dykeman, of Atlanta, back
injured and hand wounded.
W. R. Wilson, of Atlanta, bruised
Misses Mary and Nellie Erwin and
Willie Erwin, bruised painfully.
Miss Quinn, of Washington, slight
FIREMAN WEBSTER DEAD.
SrARTANRURO, October 20.-An
other death from the Air Line col
lision occurred here at6 o'clock this
evening. He was a white fireman
by the name of Webster, 'from Selma
Ala. A colored train band is in e
critical condition. They had th(
best medical attention possible. .A
detachment of the Morgan Rifle:
was on the train, but fortunately es
THE CRIMINAL CARELESSNESS OF Till
CONDUCTOR AND ENGINEER OF
THE FREIGHT TRAIN.
Special to the Register.
GREENVILLE, October 21.-An in
quisition-was held to-day at Greer'
Station over the dead body of Rober
F. Wall, the engineer of the passen
ger train who was killed in the col
lision yesterday morning. The in
quest was held by Coroner McBee
of this conty, and a j.ury, with WVil
liam Hill as foreman.
C. F. Marshall, conductor of th
passenger train, was sworn, and sai
that tie was running~ from Atlanta ti
Charlotte by onders with the right o
track. When the collision occurre
he was taking up tickets in the sixt!
car back from the engine, hut wen
forward immediately and found En
gineer Wall dead.
The evidence of other witnes'se
went to show that the freight trai1
p)assed Grecrs contrary to orders
and that it was wild and reckless.
The verdict of the jury was that tho
deceased, R. ri. Wall. was killed b;
the collision, and that the collisioi
was occasioned by thje reckless run
ning of Conductor Reville and En
gineer J. F. IIarris on the specti
train which collided with the patssen
It is now clearlv estalished t ha
Conductor Reville and Enginee
IIarris juImpedi from the freight trail
before the collision, and, with th'
knowledge of their ownl reeMecssness
became frightened at the horril
disaster and fled. It is reporid her:
to-night that they went to Charlotte
drew their pay and went to Sals
burv. where they have been arrested
Tramxpa, Florida, Asking for Money.
,Ja ('.oN Vi.L:, FL.A., October 2C
-D)r. King Wyly, p)resident of th
State Health P'rotection Association
telegraphs C. Hi. Jones, editor of th
Timnes-'nion, as follows:
"'The mayor of Tam;pa has wire
me that they are in ne'ed of money i
T'aiapa. Will you lease. throngt
tihe Associated P'ress ai.d your co1
umns, ask the dilTercnt counties am
committees to Send such amounts a
they can to either the mayor or th
First National Bank of T2ampa to b)
used as may he dleemed expeit to
all existingl suflein. arn for sic!
of persons thrown out o'' emnploy
ment. The suffering fal especiall;
ori the laboring class, white an<
black, now out of work who mnust b
.JA(KSONvitL:, LA.., October 22.
A light frost fell here this mnorning
The report from Tampa is : "Twent:
new cases to-day; no deaths. Ti.
disease is of a very mihd typE
Weather cool and favorable."' Jaclk
sonville's relief fund: for Tampa'
sufferers exceeds thirteen hundrei
Male of an H[istor'ical Dorailmnt.
WXorrmTRoN, Minn., Oct. 19.
Mrs. Charles Bullis of this place ha
just sold to George H. Treadwel
Commander of the G. A. R., of A
bany, N. Y., the original ordi nanc
of secession passed by the state c
Virginia. The consideration wa
There are rumors in the air that
the Central svstel in upper Carolina.
embrtcing the Arugusta arid Green
wood, Laure;s and Spartanhurg,
Laurens and Greenville and the
Savannah Valley railroads, is soon
to pass int. the hauds of the Rich
moud Terminal Company, to be
worked in connection with the Rich
m:.or,d and Danville system.
These rumors cause no surprise.
Since the purchase of the Georgia
Central by a New York syndicate in
terested largely in the Richmond
and Danville, the absorption of-its
lines in Carolina by the Richmond
Terminal Company has been re
garded by many as a foregone con
clusion. Indeed, there 'are those
who regard the conSolidation of the
Georgia Central with the Rclimond
and )anville as almost a certainty.
Nor rre these all the changes that
are destined to take place in the
near future in the railroad map of
the South. I ndications are not
wanting that railroad lines in Vir
ainia, North and South Carolina,
Georgia, Tennessee and Alaba-na
will join under one management.
As the Western Union swallowed up
all competitors, so will the Rich
mond Terminal in the States named.
The whisperings in the air are that
the time is not far distant when the
Richmond Terininal Company will
control, in addition to the Richmond
and Danville system, the East Ten
nessee and the Georgia Central sys
tems frcm Washington and Rich
mond in the east to Knoxville, Chat
tanooga, Birmingham, Atlanta, Mont
gomery and Selina in the south and
southwest, and Columbus, Macon,
Augusta and other interior cities in
Georgia, Virginia and the Carolinas,
with Newport News, Port Royal,
Savannah and Brunswick on the At
NOTHING TO LOSE.
Abbecille Press and Banner.
The people of Abbeville will have
nothing to lose by the talked of
change, but the possibility of much
gain is evident. For the last few
years Abbeville has paid dearly for
her failure to secure either the Au
gusta and Knoxville road or the
Savannah Valley road. Besides get
ting none of the advantages of the
Uew roads, the Columbia and Green
ville road has felt at liberty to im
pose on us at will in the matter of
freight charges and convenient
passenger schedules, so that between
the three roads we have been in a
t bad wa.
With the Augusta and Knoxville
in the hands of the owners of the
-Columbia and Greenville road, they
will not in all probability have their
-schedules .arrangedl so as to give the
travelling public tire most useless
andt vexatious (delays at Greenwood
I r elsewhere-at least we shah hope
for the br.tter. Nothring could lbe
fworse thran the p)resent schedules by
which tire passenger train on the
Spartarnburg road leaves G;reenwood
imirhourbefore the arrival of the
(Columrbia and Greenville train.
"Christ in the Camp.i"
Charlestu. Suml,ay .accs.
Tfhe Rev. .J. Wrih. Jones, one of thre
"fighlting parsons" of the Army of
-Northern Virginia, has published a
work for which he had been gather
ng materials for mo,re than twenty
years. It was Ihis p)rivilege to follow
tihe veterans of tire Army of .Northern
-Virginia, as p)riv-ate soldicr, or as
chaplain, from Ilarpers Ferry- in '61
Lt-> A ppomnattox Courthonse I- '65.
Ile knew personally most of the lead
ogv oilicers. Ie min gled freely with
tire priva'te soldier in camp, ou the
in rch, in the hiv~ouac, on r he battle
'ild and-in tire hrospitai. D)r. Jones,
thereflore, had special qiualifications
tor his scif imposed task, wIch was
to describe thre religions side of the
hristory of tire Army of Northern Vir
Dr. Tories says, wh truth, that
any histo-yv of thre famous Army
wi ich omits an account of tire won
der ful inence of religion upon it
wi~ ch fails to tell mow the~ courage,
dilscip)line and morale of the whole
Iwas iilruenced by the piety and evan
I 'ic al zeal of many of its oflicers
an meni-would Ibe inucomplete anid
unaifcoy It is a subject for
Iconu'ratul ation thrat one so well fatedI
Ishrouldr have supplied what was is
sing, and have ad ded a gloriou.s page
to tire recordI of as sup)erb a body of
sodesas tire world ever knew.
Bishop Granberry, in his intro
dclItion to --Christ ini the Camp.'
rspeaks mos' feelingly of tire ciharac
-ter of tire pecigand worship i
tire army. Th'e sermons in the camp
would have suited any congregation
in the city or country. The style
was not controversial, speculative or
e urious, bunt ermip~ently practical and
direct. Th'lere was no stirring up of
bad blood ; no prompting to malice
or revenge. ReliJio in tire army
was a p)eculiar type or phase of pilety.
-It had its own form, color, flavor.
-Military discipline was not unfavor
able to it. Thre soldiers- habit, of
unqilestioning obedience to ordhers,
of trust in superior ollicers 'and of
Ifreedom from anxiety about things
'for wh1ich hre is not responsible, fits
into the life of faith. Bishop Gran
Iberry says that he has nowhere wit
nessed more compllete, symmetrical,
andc beamutiful examples of Christian
character than in the Confederate
ir. ,Jones covers, as may be im
chapters lie shows the spirit in which
the "men in grey" went to the front,
and t'ie influence of Christian otlicers. I
The lofty yet simple religious life of
Gen. Lee is tenderly described. Dr.
Jones then sketches with loving hand
the religious career and conduct of
Stonewall Jackson. Then come sim
ilar sketches of other officers of note.
The hospital work and work of the
chaplains and missionaries are ad.
mirably set forth. There is thrilling
force in the accounts of the Great
Revival along the Rapidan. In the
last year of the war there were, of
course, enormous difficulties in the
way of missionary work.
In the concluding cbapter of the
book Dr. Jones reports the number
of converts, andi multiplies proofs of
the genuineness of the religious
work. There are most touching in
cidents of resignation and unaffected
piety. South Carolina holds a noble
place. I)r. Jones says, with abso
lute truth, that the wonderful pros
perity of the South at the present
tilne was brought about, not so much
by foreign immigration, or foreign
capital, as by the skill, energy and
patient industry of the men in grey
and the boys they have reared. There
was the old faith, and hope, and
courage. in another field than that of
Dr. Jones's work, as may be seen
from what has been said, deserves a
place in every household as a me
morial of patriotism and endurance,
and as a treasnry of Christian pre
cept and example. Dr. Jones omits,
however, it seems, all notice of the
work of Roman Catholic priests in
the Army of Northern Virginia.
This oversight can be repaired in-a
subsequent edition. The chaplains,
generally, were not Roman Catholic,
even where the soldiers of Roman
Catholic faith were numerous-; but
there were Roman Catholic chaplains
in the Louisiana brigade undoubtedly,
and general missionary work cannot
have been neglected.
What Can be Done With Cotton.
Register, Oct. 22.
Mr. M. A. Ransom, a farmer in
Aiken County, S. C., has furnished
the State Department of Agriculture
a report on an experiment he made
this year on one acre of cotton. It
shows what can be accomplished
with a proper system of fertilization
The land on which the crop was
made was good pine land, with clay
subsoil. It was in oats last year,
but has been moderately well fer
tilized for several years. The land
was broken early in March with a
turn. plough, running six or seven
incues deep. In bedding a six inch
shovel plough was used, followed in
same furrow with a long bull-tongue,
breaking to the depth of ten to eleven
inches, planted on a low flat bed and
"knocked off" with board.. Good
stand was obtained. Chopped out in
usual way before "running around."
First ploughing or siding was done
with a cultivator, subsequent plough.
iugs with a sweep. The general plan
observed was deep breaking and
shallow cultivation. The entire cost
of producing the crop, according to
an itemized statement furnished the
Department of Agriculture, includ
ing labor, fertilizers and average
rent of the land, was $34.02. The
product was 901 pounds of lint cot
ton which sold at nine cents per
pound, givig a return of $81.00, to
which must be added the value of the
seed, fifty bushels, at 20 cents, a low
price, $l0.00-making the aggregate
return $91.09. Deductinig cost, $54,
02, leaves a net profit on the yield of
the acre of $36.U2. Deducting from
the~ cost of prodtuction the value of
the seed. it will be seen that the cost
of growing the crop was less than
5 cets per pound..
Mr. Ransom conducted the experi
menit atthe request of the depart
ment, and he says in his report that
while the result is nothing wonder
ful, it is so satisfactory-$37 per
acre profit--as to make it an exceed
inly favorable showing for the in
tensive syste'n of farming, which he
thinks should he followed more gen
erally by our farmers.
Gordon to Meet Foraker on the Stump.
- eal to the Aews awl Courier.
A-i ..mA, October 21.-Governor
.John B. Gordon will enter the State
campaign in Ohio next week, where
he has consented to deliver a series
of political addresses. The appeals
to the Governor from prominent
Ohio Democrats have been so urgent
that he has finally -consented to take
the stump, where heC proposes to an
swer Foraker's continued assaults on
the South and to pledge the fealty of
the Ex-Confederates to the General
Chairmain B. 1F. .Jones' Call.
Pr'r Ts-w1r. Pw., October 22.--The
Chronice!- 'T@rph to-day pirints
Chairman B. F. Jones' call for the
National Republican Committee to
meet at Arlington Ilotel, Washing
ton, at 10 :30 a. m. December 8th, to
fix the date and place of the next
National Republican Convention.
A Cautious Analysis.
From Ti'! Bits.
I have a letter of introduction to
Mr. Samuel Slump," sail1 a stranger
in a western town to a citizen. "Can
you tell me if he is a man of drink
"Wall, stranger," replied the citi
zen, expectorating copiously, "I
would go so fur as to say -that Sam
Iis a hard drinker, but I reckon if
you ask him to go an' take suthin',
you won't have to build a fire under
TilI; QUEER LAWS AND CUSTOMS
OF THE GOOD OLD DAYS.
How the Romans Secured Wives-Why
the Ring is Worn-Jewish Marriage
Rites-The Uninvited Guests'
Revenge in the Colonial
Adam would probably never have
married if he had been compelled to
hunt around the present Allegheny
court buildings to find the little.back
room of the Register's office, where
he would be obliged to pay his half
dollar and swear to more things than
he ever dreamed of before he could
-get a marriage license. He would
certainly have been in a bad fix when
he came to swear that Eve was of
full age, or to produce the written
consent of her father or mother. It
is safe to say that he would have
given it up and died an old bachelor.
Yet without minister, magistrate,
register or other official intervention
the marriage of Adam and Eve was
such that it wo'ild have stood the
test of the old English common law.
From earliest times the various
states of society have linposed regu
lations for the observance of this sol
emn contract. For marriage is sim
ply a contract, except that the par
ties cannot now change or terminate
it by mutual consent, as they can all
other contracts. There is in the
Royal Library of Paris a written
contract made in 1297, between two
persons of noble birth in Armagnal.
The husband and wife were bound to
each other for seven years. It was also
agreed that the parties should have
the right to renew the tie at the end
of that time if they mutually agreed;
but if not, the children were to be
equally divided, and if the number
should chance not to be even, they
were to draw lots for the odd one.
The Roman Church alone regarded
marriage as a sacrament, but all the
other churches recognized it as a di
vine institution, and, accordingly,
ev.ery denomination has provided re
ligious services for its solemnization.
So strong a hold did the church in En
gland gain upon it that for a long time
the regulation of marriage and di
vorce was almost exclusively under
the church's jurisdiction.
Among the Romans there were
three ways of obtaining a wife-by
capture. sale or gift. When a Rpman
bought a wife, and this was the usual
way, the ceremony- that followed was
merely gone through for the sake of
having indisputable evidence of the
sale. The-head of the family had to
give her over to the husband in the
presence of- witnesses, and it is from
this that we now have the custom of
giving away the bride. Before the
period of Rome's greatness, the par
ties could, dissolve the marriage by
mutual consent. When they wished
to terminate the contract, they usu
ally went before an altar and in the
presence of witnesses declared the
marriage at an end. At and after
the time of iRome&s greatness the
marriage was indissoluble. The Ro
man husband took his wife not as
her husband, but as her father. She
came into his family the same almost
as an adopted daughte'r. Originally
the^husband had absolute and com
plete control over her and her prop
erty. Even after his death she was
subjected to any guardianship tbat
he might have had appointed for her
during his lifetime. But a change
camne in her condition, and came as
changes usually come, from one ex
treme to another. The wife was now
subject to the tutelage of guardians
appointed by her own family. This
tutelage gave her a very independent
position as to her sepa ,e estate and
Before this change came, and even
afterward, there was exercised among
the Romans complete tyranny by the
head of the family over his relations
which were members of his family.
As head of the family the eldest male
was always the head. lHe had power
not only over his relatives, but all
persons connected with his household
and his children's households. While
the father lived his son was subject
to him, although t"e son might be 40
years old and have a large family of
his own. The grandchildren were
subject to the grandfather the same
as their own father. The family was
then regarded much as we now re
gardl the individual. If a member
committed a crime the whole family
was held responsible, and it was per
fectly lawful for the injured family
to get revenge or satisfaction even if
it were necessary to exterminate the
whole offending family. This was
carried to such an extent that some
times whole families were destroyed.
The blood feud, and it was well
named, descended from father to son.
It was to the Roman, in effect, what
the inherited curse was to the Greek.
The feud was kept up not so much
for the sake of putnishmtent as to pre
vent thesupposed liability of the of.
fending family to commit fresh of
fenses. With all their peculiar cus
toms in regard to the family, it must
be said to their credit that they never
to any extent practiced polygamy.
If the Romans did not countenance
polygamy, the Hebrews did; and
they had a more peculiar, custom.
Trhere was a law among them called
the Levirate, which means brother-in
law, and according to this law, at the
death of the husband, the next oldest
unmarried brother-in-law of the wid
ow married her if there were no chil
dren. In this way the wife of the
eldest brother might, in the course of
time, have been the wife of all the
brothers. This custom afterward ex
tended to many of the western na
tions, but the~ marriage took place
whether there were any children or
not. There was another kind of
mar.riage called nponia, and, like
the Levirate, it extended to the wes
tern counties. This, however, did
not gain much foothold among the
Hebrews. Polygnia was simply po
lygamy reversed. According. to it
the woman was the head of the house,
and might have as many legal hus
bands at one time as she pleased.
Her children bore her name, and re
cognized her as head of the house.
Some of the customs attending a
Hebraic marriage were peculiar.
The bridegroom dressed himself in
the most gorgeous style he could
command. He next perfumed him
self with frankincense and- myr;.
Then he went forth covered with gar
lands, or, if he were rich, he would
wear a circlet of gold and ride a gay
ly caparisoned horse. He was at
tended to the bride's house by his =
groomsmen, musicians, singers and
torch bearers. The marriage was
always celebrated at night, and the
bridesmaids were provided with *
lamps to meet the bridegroom when
he came. On his arrival, he found
the bride, bridesmaids and company
awaiting him. As soon as the actual.=
ceremony was over, the entire pti
returned to the bridegroom's house
with great . rejoicing. When they
reached the house, they partook-of ,
the wedding feast. The festivitiek
usually lasted during fourteen days.;?'
The groom not only furnished the
feast, but the robes of those who
took part in the ceremony.
Pioneer marriages in this country.
not a century ago, had some rese : '
blance to - a Hebrew wedding: Ia
those days the marriage was- the;:z
cause of great excitement,. and the
whole neighborhood was usually in
vited. As the houses of the bride
and groom were generally far apart,
the groom started early in the morn
ing on a horse as highly caparisone4
as the times would allow. -He was
attended by his groomsmen. The
marriage generally took place before
noon to enable the whole party to
return to the groom's home before. t ;
dark. The home journey was not
always without incident. If any per
sons were not invited to attend they
were not at all backward about fell
i:ig trees in the road, piling up all
kinds of hinderances and firing of ,
guns to scare the horses. Severe in- .
juries were thus frequently caused,
but bravely borne. When the-party
were within a few miles of the house
a bottle race was arranged. T o
persons were chosen for this aanger
ous ride. The most impassable road.
was selected, and the riders started' r
for the house. Pell mell they went
over all kinds of obstacles, and wl .X
the fortunate one reached the fou.
he was handed the much-prized'bli&
betty, as the whiskey bottle was then
called He then returned to the pars -
ty, and, after giving each, of. th
groomsmen and even the bridemsid
a drink, he put the bottle in.hisjagi;
et for future' reference.. When .te
house was reached a feast was reay
for the party, who were usually han
gry after the long ride. The -festiv.
ities were kept up all night, till broad
daylight, when the feast ended.
The ring which is now so common
ly used at marriage ceremonies was
originally, in England, made of;iron
adorned with adamant.. Being hard,.
it was supposed to signify the -ddn
rance and perpetuity of the contract.
The eminent Swainburn speaks
about this ring. "Howbeit," he said, ,
"it skilleth not at this day ot what
metal the ring may be made of the >
form of it being round and without ~
end doth import that their love
should circulate and flow continually.
The finger on which the ring is to be
worn is the fourth fit.ger of the left
hand, next unto the little finger, be
cause there was supposed a vein of
blood to pass from thence unto the
The iRival of the Standard Oil Comn
pany Goes Under.
CmIcaO, Oct. 22.-A special from
Detriot says : The managers of the
Alpha Oil Company. the young rival
of the Standard Oil monopoly, have
made an assignment. Its capital,
with that of branch institutions, was 4
$6,000,000. Its leading spirits are -
the most prominent men of Detroit
and Michigan, with a sprinkling of
Cleveland millionaires. Judge Isaac
Marston is secretary and treasurer of
the International Oil company.,
which has the same patents -
as the Alpha, American branch -
of the organization. He says
the International company is
not affected by the troubles of the 1
Alpiha company and that the latter
concern will be reorganized and con
tinued. Money had been so lavishly
spn htthe supply gave out. The
waeso the workmen were not paid
and law suits were commenced, rep
resenting the' claims of the laboring ~
men. The company deeded its prop
erty to Mr. Hall for $l00,000, and
Hall assigned it to Mayor Thurber,d
According to the receipts this
leaves Thurber as the practical
owner. The outcome will be a mat
ter of great financial moment in De- zK
troit an.l Michigan.. The company C
has constructed a pipe line to the..j.
Canadian oil fields, built immense
machine shops and started a bank
to conduct its finances.
When Greek ]ieets Greek.
Young IIenry Rauch, the ol.lest
son of our honored friend Mr. J. C.
IH. .Raueb, of Wyse's Ferry, has re- .~.
turned to Newberry College. We
mention him p)articularly because at
the closing exercises of the college
in June last, he took the gold medal
for proficiency in Greek. We have
not quite forgotten our school days;
and we know that he who takes a..
medal for proficiency in Greek, 7'
achieves a great feat.