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EST f ABL ISHi EDII85
ESTABLISHE) IN 8 NEWBERRY, S. C., THURSDAY, NOVE MBER1718.PIE$5AYA
BURST HIS [EAD BY A BOM B.
THE CHARACTERISTIC DEATH OF
A Shocking Suicide in the Chicago Jail
-The Condemned Man Prefers any
Death to the Gallows.
CHICAGO, November 10.-All day
yesterday it was thought that Lin i
acted differently from usual. On
Tuesday night he gave out his "fare
well ad;dres-." which was written for
the Alarm, Parson's o,d paper. In
it he recited at length his grievances
and closed as follows:
"Now, with a last and earnest
farewell to all friends and cowrad-s,
and with flnal wishes for their pros
perity, I close, in view of the certain
ty that I shall never have a chance
of seeing you again, my beloved
comrades. With an earnest and
hearty wish for your future success
in lite, your comrade, hoch die ar.
archie ! -Louis LINGG."
Yesterday, when one of the guards
told him that the papers had pub
lished his letter to D. D. Lum, the
young bomb manufacturer, expressed
a strong desire to ",read it in Eng
lish." Jailer Folz consented and
Lingg slowly plodded through the
translation. Englehardt speaks Ger
man, and when appealed to, gave
Lingg the meaning of the English
words in German.
The doomed man said that the let
ter was an admirable translation
from the original. Turning to an
other page of the paper, his eye
caught the line. "Lingg will sn.rely
hang." Calling Englehart he aahed:
"What is the meaning of this word
s-u-r e-l-y in German." Englehardt
told him and Lingg laughingly ob
served, "So, so; I will s u-r-e-l y
hang." His manner was such that
Englehart joined in the laugh.
'-Say," said he to the reporter,
"did you see my maenschen?" He
was told that Ida Mueller had not
been seen. His next query was:
"Has schatz, (sweetheart) gone to
Springfield?' This question was an
swered in the affirmative. He seem
ed pleased and remarked that if he
could have seen her, he wouid have
told her to stay at home. O'Neill,
one of the two guards who remained
on. duty before Lingg's cell through
out the day, declared that Lingg was
the coolest man in Cook County jail.
He was very pale. but his appetite
was good and he slept well.
This morning a loud explosion was
heard in Lingg's cell.- Immediately
after the explosion. Deputy O'Neill
rushed into Lingg's cell, which was
completely enyeloped in smoke.
There he found the young Anarchist
lying on his back with great holes
in his head, from which the blood
was rushing in torrents. He was at
once carried into the jail office and
placed on a table. lie was still
breathing faintly, and while Dr.
Gray was examining him be coughed
slightly and the blood poured forth
again from his terrible wounds arnd
from his mouth and nose. Hie did
not die until 3 25 p. m.
After awhile Jailer Folz made an
examination of the cell. On the
floor he found the shell of a fulmi
nating cap. The sheriff said there
had undoubtedly been dynam te in
it. The supposition that the man
put the shell in his mouth and delib
erately applied a candle flame is un
doubtedly correct. The explosion
was terrific. It startled the ofliciais,
who thought it was a bomb, the noise
was so great. Thue shell was so
small as to have allowed the smug
gling of it into the jail without any
EXCITEMIENT IN THlE JAIL.
The explosion in Lingg's cell cre
ated a decided sensation in the jail.
All the prisoners, over two hundred,
heard the report. Jailer Folz was
the one who carried the news to the
other Anarchists. The jailer ap
proached Parson's cell. "-Lingg has
killed himself," said Mr. F'olz.
"Great God ! is that so?" exclaim
ers,it's a fact," was the repuly.
"Well, my God !" exclaimed Par
August Spies was then intorceo
of the tragedy.
"I expected nothing else," said
-Spies quietly. -'Ever since the find
ing of' the bombs in his cell last Sun
day I was satisfied that if it was pos
sible he would make away with him
self. For my own and my comrades'
sakes I am glad he is out of the way."
According to Folz all the remain
4 ing Anarchists are completely down.
They look on the suicide of Lingg as
placing him in the category of ex
treme Anarchists, which place they
do not wish to occupy themselves.
Schwab became deeply d"pressed.
HIe walked up and down his cell with
his head on his breast. Engel and
Fisher refused to talk to their ke eper,
but were evidently almost over
whelmed by the tragedy.
While it is generally thought
u~ ~ nd the jail now that Lingg had
all along dletermnined on ending his
own life in some tragic way, it is al
so believed that for some cause or
other he commliittedl the act soonelr
than he at first intended.
LI1NGG's DEsIRE TO DIE CLEAN.
On Tuesday. when Capt. Black
was leaving the jail, on his way to
Springfield. Lingg called him to the
-.- grating opposite his cell, and in bro
ken English asked him to see that he
had some clean lineni sent him. and
be was also very particular that it
should be arranged that the messen
ger who brought him his clean clothes
should arrange to take away his
soiled tuings. "-All right. i'll attendc
to it," saidi Capt. Black. --W hat
es.nl I do fr- you at Springfield?'
L,in~r shook his head and said: "o
not tirget the clothes.
SOw T1 ANA"CUISTS BEuAVED.
When the explosion o,currtl all
the Anarchist prisoners were on their
feet at an instant and every one of
them looked staacuned and frightened.
Jailer ?Aulz at oces gave orders to
have every one of the other cells
searched, and 1 rson's cell was the
first on which a descent was made.
The depu:ies entered his cell, took
him by the wrists and shoulders and
led hiuu to F'olzs private office.
t'here he was detained until his cell
was thoroughiy searched and nothing
was found. The ex.editor of the
Alurn shivered with excitement, fear
and curiosity. His face was white
and his eyes looked ready to start
from their sockets. IIe was in his
shi. t and trousers, and a wide felt
hat shatded his face. It is believed
by some of the reporters that some
thing was found on Parsons, although
the jail oticials deny this. Parsons
was given a new suit of clothes to
put on and was taken to another cell,
whore he now is with two deputies
standing guard over him. One of
them stands at the back of the cell
and the other at the door. The other
men and their ceils were also search.
ed, but noth:ng fotnd. When Engel
was being searched be completely
broke down and cried like a child.
HoW LINGG SECRETED HIS FATAL CAPS.
Jailer Folz was asked this evening
to explain the way in which Lingg
kept his dynamite from the eyes of
his keepers: Said he: "You know
Ling had a very bushy head of hair.
It is not without the hounds of possi
bility that he placed the cap in his
locks and kept it there w'ile we
searched him last Sunday. At that
time he was stripped completely and
my deputies searched all his clothing
and could find nothing of a suspi
HOW LINGG KILLED HIMSELF.
Jailer Foiz thus explains the man
ner in which Lingg took his life. He
said: "Lingg in some way iecame
possessed of a dynamite cap. This
cap is between one inch and one and
a half inches lon!. It is made of
copper, a-nl the outer end is plugged
up vith a piece of lead. The copper
for at least half an inch is filled with
dynamite. Then a small portion is
filled with fulminating powder. Into
this powder runs a fuse made of
braided cloth. In my opinion Lingg,
while lying in bed, reached out his
hand, took from his tal}e a lighted
candle, then placed the explosive in
his mouth, with the fuse outward.
This he placed to the candle, and his
nortal wound followed.
THE SCENE IN THE CELL.
The scene in Lingg's cell after the
explosion was ghastly. feeth, bits
of jawbone, shreds of flesh and blood
were scattered all over the narrow
compartment. A little trail of blood
marked its way over the stone flag
ging to the room: where Lingg was
carried. Within fifteen minutes after
the explosi-.n Fiseber Parsons and
Engel were taken from their cells and
sarcheud in the jailer's private offieg.
All their clothing was taken from
thema and new suits, made by the
sheriff's~ orders, were given themi.
Sherifl Matson says that Lingg was
strippedl and carefully searched yes
terday andl the (day before.
LINGG's HORRIBLE APPEARANCE.
Lingg presented a tmost horrible
sight with the lower part of his jaw
compl)etely torn off and his thick au
burn hair still matted with blood.
His cheeks were torn out and hung
down in jagged pieces upon his neck.
His teeth i were knocked out, gums
torn away and but a small stump of
tongue appeared protru ling from his
mangled throat. In the upper part
of the throat, immediately under the
lower p)art of the jawboue, a terrible
gap had been torn out from the in
THEI FATAL EXPLOSIvE.
Turnkey O'N~eill discovered the
little agent which had served Lingg
to accomplish his terrible work. It
vas small fulminating cap a little
over an inc'h I>ng It had been filled
with fulmninato of mercury, and ca
small fuse which is usually attached
to these instruments of death, had
lighting a cigar. W hen Lingg comn
mittedl the deed he was lying on his
cot. After the affair, when his cell
was searched, another candle was
found. At the top of it, barely con
caled by the ends of the wick, a
secondl fulminating cap was found,
so it is supposedl that Lingg's at
tempted suicide was committed with
one similarly hidden. The condles
were furnished by the jail, so that
the caps mnst have been pat in by
THEl' woRK oF TILE SURGEONs)
As soon as tihe surgeon arrived he
oreredI Lings taken to anothier
rown. T'he one selected was the
hath room of. the jail. The (dying
man was carried to this apartment
and placed on a hastily improvised
table. By this time three other phy
sicians hadl arrived. One dressed
the torn flash, arother ga.ve attention
to the tongue of the miortally
wounded man. A portion of the
tongue was left and was attached to
the palaste. This fell back into the
throat stopping Lingg's breathing.
TheI physicians pulled this back and
a string was attached which was held
by a deputy, thus allowing respira
tion. WhXile this was going~ on
anotheir surgeon o)perated( a deode
rizr, another had a syringe in his
and and frequently injected por
tions of brandy anid again doses ot
salt. Morphine inijections we're also
A SKETCHI OF LINGs CAREER.
TL'ngm'sact to-day was in keeping
with his past life. In 1883 he was i
forced to leave his native town in I
Germany. After a good deal of
wandering about Germany be finally
landed in Switzerland. There he
continued to fight the "Blues," as so.
cial Democrats are called by the red
followers of Most. It was then that
the Social Democrat, the official or
gan of of the German Socialists, pub
lished a notice declaring Lingg to be
an informer and spy of the German
Government. In 1885 he came to
A merica. In New York he stayed
only a few days, and then proceeded
farther West to Chicago. There be
joined the North Side group of In
ternationals, and soon began the
manufacture of bombs, one of which
was used at Haymarket. When two
policemen went to arrest him next i
day one of them entered his room
while the other stayed outside the
house. The latter soon heard shouts
for help, and running into Lingg's
room found the Anarchist had thrown 1
his partner on the floor, and was only
prevented from shooting him by the
policeman, who had a grip on the
pistol which Lingg was endeavoring
to use. The second officer, after a
desperate struggle, succeded in plac
ing handcuffs on Lingg's wrists. f
Placing a pistol to his head the po
liceman ordered him to come on.
but Lingg refused to move and said :
"Shoot me! Shoot me !" "It's a
pity I did not accommodate him,"
said the officer who was at the jail
this morning, as he stood looking at
Lingg. "It might have saved all this
ONE MORE DESPERATE DODGE.
The following dispatch was re- 1
ceived by Capt. Black to-night: 1
"NEW YORK, November 10. 1
"Capt. Black, Chicago: I hold
proofs showing the sentenced Anar- <
chists to be innocent. Guilty man 1
in New York, located. Have tele- I
graphed to Governor Oglesby. i
Proof is under oath. How shall I i
communicate it ?
"AUGCSTA P. WAGENER,
59 Third avenue, "Counsellor at i
Capt. Black left at 9 o'clock to.
night for Springfield, after wiring the
New York lawyer to leave there at 4
once for the same poist.
NEW YoRK, November 10.-The
Freiheit to-day publishes a farewell
letter from Adolph Fischer, dated
Cook County Jail, Illinois, November
5, and addressed to Anarchist John
Most.' He glories in the cause and
says "We must show our enemies
thai' Anarchists are ready and will
ing to die for the cause. I have en
orsed and praised our true prin
ciples and am ready to go to the
scaffold for them."
SPIES PLAYS AT SELF-SACRIFICE.
SPRINGFIELD, ILL., November 10.
-Governor Oglesby has received
the following letter, written by Au
"CliICAGO, November 6.
"To Governor Oglesb.-Sir: The
fact that some of us have appealed
to you for justice under the pardon
ing prorogative. While others have
not, should not enter into considera
ion in the decision of our case.
Some of my friends have asked you
for absolutele pardon. They feel
the injustice done them so intensely
that they cannot reconcile the idea
of commutation of sentence with con
sciousness of innocence. Others,
among them myself, while possessed
o' the same feeling of indignation,
can perhaps more calmly and dispas
sioately look upon the matter as it
stands. They do not regard the
fact that through a.systematic course
of lying, distorting, inventing and
slandering, the press has succeeded
in creating a sentiment of bitterness
and hatred among a great portion of
the populace, so that one man, no
matter how powerful, how courageous,
how just he be, can not possibly over
come it. Tihey hold that to overcome
that sentiment or the influence there.
of would almost be an impossibpit~y.
Not wishing, therefore, to plae~ your
Excellency in a still m9re~mbarass
ing position between.tfe blind fanat
icismn of the wisinformed public on
the one hand and justice on the other,
they c9ncluded to submit the case to
ysu.rnconditionally. I implore you
'iot to let this difference of action
have any weight with you in determi
ning our fate. During our trial the
desire of' the prosecutor to slaughter
me and let my co-defendants off with
a milder punishment was quite ap
parent and manifest. It seemed to
me, and a great many others, that
the prosecutor would be satisfied
with one life. State Attorney Grin
nell in his argument intimated this
very plainly. I care not to protest
my innocence of any crime, and of
the oue Ilam accused of in particular.
I have done that, and leave the rest
to the judgment of history. But it is
you 1 wish to address myself now, as
the alleged arch conspirator,, (leaving
the fact that I never have belonged
to any kind of conspiracy out of
question altogether ) If sacrifice of
life there must be, will not my life
sufce ? She State's attorney of
Cook Countyasked for no more. Take
this, then, take my life. I offer it to
you, that you may satisfy the fury of
a semi barbaric mob, and save those
of' my comrades. I know that every
one of my comrades is as willing- to
die, and perhaps more so than I am.
It is not for their sake that I make
this prffger, but in the name of hu
manity and progress, in the interest
of the peaceable, if possible, develop
ment of social forces that are des
tined to lift our race upon a higher
Iand better plane of civilization. In
the name of the traditions of our
country, I beg you to prevent a
seven-fold murder of mun whose on
ycrime is that they are idealists;
that they1a long fo ahbtter future for
til. If legal murder there must be
et mine suffice. A. SPIEs.
OFF TO THE PENITENTIARY.
CHICAGo, November 10.-The she
-iff has decided to take Schwab and
ielden to the penitentiary at once.
1'hey will be removed to Joilet to.
iight strongly guarded by a force of
[-H2 SENTENCES OF FEILDEN AND
SCHWAB COMMUTED TO IMPRIS
ON3IENT FOR LIFE.
SPRINGFIELD, ILL., November 10.
-The following is the Governor's
lecision in full in the Anarchists'
SPRINGFIELD. November 10.
On the 20th day of August, 1886,
u the Cook County Criminal Court,
august Spies, Albert R. Parsons,
3amuel Fielden, Michael Schwab,
Adolph Fischer, George Engel and
Louis Lingg were found guilty by
;be verdict of a jury, and afterward
;entenced to be hanged for the mur
ler of Matthias J. Degan. An ap
eal was taken from such finding and
;entence to the Supreme Court of the
state. That Court upon final hear.
ng and after mature deliberation af
irmed the judgment of the Court
)elow. The case now comes before
ne by the petition of the defendants
'or consideration as Governor of the
tate. If the letters of Albert Par
sons, Adolph Fischer, George Engel
mnd Louis Lingg, demanding "un
,onditional release," or, as they ex
>ress it, "liberty or death," and pro
esting in the strongest language
Igainst mercy or commutation of sen.
ence pronounced against them, can
>e considered petit!ons, pardon, could
t be granted, which might imply any
;uilc whatever upon the part of either
)t them, would not be such vindica
,ion as they demand. Executive in
ervention uponthe grounds insisted
ipon by the four above named per
ions could in no proper sense be
leemed an exercise of the constitu
ional power to grant reprieves, com
nutations and pardons, unless based
ipon the belief on my part of their
ntire innocence of the crime of
which they stand convicted. Careful
onsideration of the evidence in the
-ecord of the trial of the parties, as
ell as of all alleged and claimed for
hem outside of the record, has failed
o produce upon my mind any im
)ression tending to impeach the ver
lict of the judgment of the trial
Jourt. or of the Supreme Court af
irming. the guilt of all these parties.
satisfied, therefore, as I am precluded
rom considering the question of
ommutation of the sentences of A.
R. Parsons. Adolph Fischer, George
Engel and Louis Lingg to imprison
net in the penitentiary, as they
emphatically declare they will not
iccept such commutation.
Samuel Fielden, Michael Schwab
nd August Spies unite in a petition
or "Executive clemency." Fielden
nd Schwab in addition present sep
rate and supplementary petitions
or commutation of their sentences.
While, as said above, I am satisfied
f the guilt of all the parties, as found
>y the verdict of the jury, which was
mustained by the judgments of the
Jourts, the most careful consideration
f the whole subject leads me to the
>onclusion that the sentence of law
is to Samuel Fielden and Michael
Scwab may be modified as to each
f them in the interest of humenity
nd without doing violence to public
ustice, and as to said Samuel Fielden
nd Michael Schwab the sentences
ire commuted to imprisonment in the
penitentiary for life. As to all the
>ther above named 'defendants I
lo not feel justified in interfering
with the sentence of the Court.
While I would gladly have come to a
different conclusion in regard to the
sentence of defendants August Spies,
Adolph Fischer, George Engel, Al
bert R. Parsons and Louis Lingg, I
regret to say that under a solemn
e,nse of my obligations of office I
ave been unable to do so.
RICHARD J. OGLESBY,
PARSONS, FISCHER, ENGEL AND sPIEs,
PAY THE PENALTY OF 'iUIEIPR
CRIE -THEIR LAsT NIGHT
ON EARTH-HOW THEY
MET THEIR DEATH!.
COOK COUNTY JAIL, CHi CAGO, Nov.
11.-The Anarchists Parsons, Fis
cher, Engel and Spies, the convicted
Haymarket murderers, have been
throttled by the law-the self same
law that they had hoped to throttle.
Their scaffold drop fell at 11.54 a. m.
THEIR LAST NIGHT ON EARTH.
COOK COUNTY JAIL, CHIICAGo,NOv.
11-2 a. m.-At 1 o'clock a change
was made in the death watch. Dep
uty Hlartke had been guarding Spies
since 8 o'clock. He reported that he
had quit6 a long talk with'the Anar
chist. Spies declared that he had
no reason to be afraid, and then
launched forth in a tirade against the
courts. He asserted that all the
judges who had any connection with
the case had reason to tremble,
w ile the Anarchists could hold up
their heads and walk to death with
steady footsteps. The deputy also
related the manner in which the Rev.
Dr. Bolton was received by Spies.
The divine asked him if he would not
accept spiritual consolation. Spies,
with a haughty shake of his head, de
cared that he had no use for any
clergyman. "I'll pray for you all
night," cried the Doctor. "Pray for
yourself," returned Spies; "you need
it more than I." At 11 o'clock Spies
lay down on his cot and closed his
eyes, but he did not sleep. Several
times he got up for a drink of water;
but his every movement betokened a
irmness which was astounding.
So it was with the rest of the An
archists. Parsons had the nerve to
entertain his guard with a song. His
selection was "Annie Laurie." le
sang the sweet song entirely through,
and when be finished rested his bead
on his hands for a few moments and
then repeated the song. His forti
tude was the wonder of all who heard
Between 1 and 2 o'clock the Sheriff
and his assistants tested the gallows.
Heavy bags of sand were attached to
the ropes and the traps were sprung.
The machine worked to perfection
and in all respects was satisfactory
to the authorities. Then the usual
quiet prevailed in the jail. The only
noise in the cell room was the low
voices of the few deputies, the turn
ing of a key in a lock and the rapid
ticking of the telegraph instrument
which was telling the world of the
last hours of the four Anarchists.
TILE MARCH TO DEATH.
COOK COUNTY JAIL, CHICAGO,
Nov. 11.-It lacked just seven min
utes and a half of the hour of high
noon when a single white shrouded
figure, above which was a face of
yellowish pallor-the face of August
Spies-passed the first post of the
gallows. The gaping crowd ten feet
below half rose involuntarily from
their chairs at the first glimpse of the
apparition advancit g across the
scaffold. Spies looked calm and
glanced at the reporters with a trace
of his old time cynical smile. Fol
lowing close came Fischer, close
enough to touch Spies' shroud, had
his hand not been pinioned under
the white muslin. Fischer's coun
tenance had a peculiar glisten,
totally unlike the ashiness of Engel's
heavy features. The moment his
feet touched the scaffold, Parsons
seemed to completely lose his identi
ty and to feel that his spirit. was no
longer part of his body. He had
wrought himself up to an ecstacy of
calm self glorification. He, the one
American, seemed to realize fully
that be must die in a manner to im
press, if possible, on all future gen
erations the thought that he was a
martyr. The quiet form of Engel
alongside, with his stupid, wide-jawed
face, made a hideous contract to Par
sons' assumption of the halo of a
martyr. Fischer was a head and
shoulders taller than the other three,
making his occasional looks of too
evident bravado more noticeable than
they might otherwise be, and at a
sorry disadvantage compared with
the steady co'lness of Spies. The
latter's exhibition of quiet, thorough
nerve far surpassed, as a wonder, tae
demeanor of any of his comrades.
THE FINAL PnEPARATIONS.
The four deputies standing to the
rear of the four condemened men be
gan without delay to adjust the ropes,
Spies' noose being the one first
placed. Ile did not appear to regard
it of any more consequence than a
new linen collar. The knot was
slipped down the cord close against
his neck. Spies did not show a tre
mor, but when the same process was
being carried out with Fischer, he
turned and quietly whispered to the
bailbff some suggestion concerning
Fischer's occasional ardor was
quits' noticeable less when lhe felt the
hempen strand, and Engel bit his
under lip hard when his turn came.
Just then Dr. Murphy, a young phy
sician. whispered a joke at Engel's
ear. Incredible as it may seem, the
low browed Anarchist laughed out
right, with the rope around his neck
and-while another was being fastened
on Parsons by his side. But the
grotesque laugh stopped in a single
instant, and Parsons, meekly as a
saint, turned his eyes upward at the
dangling line above him.
Before the four Anarchists had an
inkling of what was to be done, the
white caps were deftly slipped upon
their heads and drawn quickly down
to their necks, shutting off the view
of each as completely and with less
warning than does the camera cloth
of the photographer.
LAsT WORDS OF TIIE CONDEMNED MEN.
August Spies was the first of the
four doomed men to make use of' his
wits while he could. In a tone of
inte;nse bitterness of spirit, lie, the
ran who wrote the infamous revenge
circular, hissed out between his
tightly clenched teeth, "There will
coJme a time when our silence will be
more powerful than the voices they
are strangling to death."
The last syllable of Spies' con
cluding words, hoarse with suppressed
passion, had not reached the end
when Engel, raising his voice, wildly
cried, "Hurrah for Anarchy !"
Fischer caught the fire of utter
ance, and still more loudly exclaim
ed, "Heirrah for Anarchy !l' adding.
"This is the happiest moment of my
There was a silence like the grave,
broken abruptly by the slow, meas'
ured intonation of Parsons. like a
white-robed priest before the altar of
sacrifice. Not a dying request, but
rather like a command or a warniug,
he sounded forth, "May I be allowed
to speak?'' Then, with slow entreaty,
came, "Will you let me speak, Sheriff
Matson?" There was another ago
nizing pause. Muffed through the
shroud, broke out in unnatural, hol
low accents: "Let the voice of the
people be heard !"
THE LAST AcT.
A crash as of a falling house thun
dered through the corridors; the
slender ropes were taut. In full view
of 200 men in front were four white
writhing shrouds. The ropes could
be seen slowly tightening about the
necks. Nine minutes passed. Then
it was known to a certainty that not
a neck had been broken. The four
Haymarket murderers had been liter
ally throttled and strangled by the
law which they had defied.
FACTS ABOUT TOBACCO.
SINE HUNDRED MILLION PERSONS
USE THE WEED.
fremendous Fortunes Invested in Its
Manufacture-Nearly a Half Million
Dollars a Day Burned Up In Ci
gars in this Country.
W. L. Smith in the Baltimore American.
Tobacco, introduced into Europe
,y Gonzalo Hernandez de Oviedo
xbout 325 years ago, has now become
in important article of commerce.
[n this country its cultivation, man
ufacture and sale haye so rapidly in
,reased as to have already attained
At least 1,200,000,000 pounds of
obacco are annually produced to
iutpply the demand of 900,000,000 of
he earth's population addicted to its
ise. It would seem that out of ev
ry 100 persons in England, France
rnd Russia 5 are habitual users of to
>acco, in Italy 7, in Cuba 11, in Au
tria 14, in Germany and North
America 15, in Belgium 24, and in
[lolland 28. In Mexico nearly ev
ry one smokes. There school chil
ren who have done best in their
studies are frequently rewarded by
>eing allowed to smoke a cigar du
-ing school hours.
In the year 1877 the area under to
>acco in the United States was 745,
)00 acres. The crop that year
imounted to 580,000,000 pounds. val
ied at $40,000,000. In 1885 the
area under tobacco cultivation was
52,720 acres. The crop that year
inounted to 562.736,000 pounds, val
ied at $43,265,598. The yield varies
ll the way up from 471 pounds in
North Carolina to 1,620 pounds per
ere in Connecticut, where fertilizers
re largely used. The State of Ken
;ucky grows 35 per cent. of the entire
obacco crop of the country.
The manufacture of tobacco in this
-ountry increased in value from $13,
)00,000 in 1850 to $117,000,000 in
1880. There are at present in the
Jnited States 477 factories where
,hewing and smoking tobacco and
snuff are mauufactured, and 7,145 for
,he manufacture of cigars and cigar
ttes. The capital invested in the
atter is $21,698,549, and in the for
ner, $17,207,401. There are em
)loyed in these cigar and cigarette
actories 49.207 persons over 15 years.
)f age, and 4.090 under 15; and in
he other tobacco works 25,661 per
ions over 15 years of age, and 7,094
inder 15. The total annual value of
he products of the cigar and cigar
tt factories is $63,989,565, and of
he other tobacco establishments
52,793,056. San Francisco has 147
;obacco works, with a capital invest
;d of $1,687,603, with 3,320 persons
)ver 15 years of age, and 198 under
15, employed. The value of the pro
lucts of these factories is $3,720,813.
[n Chicago there are 290 tobacco
vorks, the value of the products
eing $3,500,000. In New York
;here are 761 cigar and cigarette fac
;ories, and 17 other tobacco estab
.is)menlts, with a capital invested of
6,800000. 15,574 persons over 15
fears of age, and 524 under 15, are
amployed. Thbe value of the products
>f the cigar and cigarette works
uounts to $18,347j08, and of the
ther works to $4,320,972.
In Baltimore there are 339 facto
les for the manufacture of chewing
and smoking tobacco and snuff, with
a capital invested of $1,17 0,882. The
value of the products equals $3,082,.
138. In these establishments are
amployed 2,092 persons over 15 years
f age and 212 under 15. Fo~r the
manfacture of cigars and cigarettes
n the same city there are 329 facto
ries, with a capital invested of $568,.
282. Thue value of the products
amounts to $1,551,014. In these
works are employed 1,165 persons
aver 15 years of age, and 84 under 15.
The factories of the Lorillard to.
bacco works, erected in 1875 in Jer
sey City, and covering two large
blocks, are said to be the largest of
the kind in the world. Here 2,500
men, women and children are kept
constantly employed. A few years
after the erection of the great build
ings the sale of the Lorillard plug to
bacco exceeded 10,000,000 pounds,
while the sales of the snuff and other
manufactured tobacco aggregated
over 14,000,000 pounds. The firm
paid revenue to the Government
amounting to $3,500.000. No State
in the Union, save Virginia only,
manufactured so much, or paid so
large a tax.
The value ot the exports of tobacco
for two years, ended June 30, 1886,
was $30,424,908. Thirty-four per
cent. of our internal revenue has been
paid by the tobacco tax. The tobac
co crop is one that rapidly exhausts
the land. For every 1,000 pounds
o~ he plant grown, 102 pounds of the
most valuable constituents of the soil
are carried away. For this reason.
while at present a fruitful source of
revenue to the Government, it will
prove before many years to be great
ly detri,nental to our national pros
Cigar consumption has increased
since 1874 at the rate of nearly 60,
000,000 a year. During the year
1879 2.082,356,362 cigars were con
sumed in the United States-an av
erage of 40 for the inhabitant. It is
estimated that 4,8C9,000 of our pop
ulation now consume 3,510.898.488
cigars, or an average per smoker of
730 a year. The cost of cigars
amounts to two-fifths of the value of
the entire consumption of wheat.
The average smoker is content with
a cigar that retails for five cents.
On that basis there is burnt up in
this country $480,945 a day, or $14,.
628,727 a monib, or $185.544,724 .a
year. In addition to this enormous
sum, boys and young men spend for
cigarettes $6,500,000; those who pre
fer a pipe further sum of $20,000,000,
nd those who nse chewing tobacco
and snun ou,uuu,uuu more. ao Lnai
it is but a moderate estimate to place
the annual cost of tobacco to the peo
ple of the United States at $252,000,
Chewing tobacco is sometimes
prepared by soaking the leaf in cheap
rum and molasses, with the addition
of ammonia and nitre. Some un
principled manufacturers, it has been
said, first soak the leaf in urine, and
afterwards in molasses water, &c. A
kind of brown wrapping paper, made
especially for the purpose in New
York, is largely used for cigar wrap
pers. After coming from the mill
the paper is saturated with juice
pressed from tobacco stems and other
offal. Then it is rolled through a
machine which gives to it the ap
pearance of the tobacco leaf, the pe
culiar spots being printed on it as on
calico. When this paper is so pre
pared is interlapped with broken
leaves of tobacco, detection is almost
impossible. Havana cigarmakers
use this paper in great quantities.
Some cargoes from New York con
signed to Havana figure up 5,000
reams, and some as high as 30,000
reams of these -prepared cigar wrap
It is a well-known fact that cigar
ettes are adulterated to a fearful ex
tent. Comparatively harmlesa
drugs, such as- columba and gentian,
are sometimes used in their manufac
ture; but' frequently opium and vale
rian are to be found in them, forming.
with the nicotine of the tobacco, a
highly poisonous and dangerous com
pound. It is no uncommon practice
for young men who habitually smoke
cigarettes to consume from eight to
twelve an hour, and to keep this up
for four or five hours daily. If
strong drink is slaying its thousands
every year, are not these abominable
cigarettes sowing seeds of disease
and premature death, and undermin
ing the constitutions, and lowering
the moral tone of tens of thousands
of the boys and youth of our land?
Tobacco contains from two to eight
per cent. of nicotine, and is the
great antagonist of the nervous sys
tem. In rare instances tobacco may
be useful, as in poultices, as a reme
dy for toothache, &c. By the habit
ual use of tobacco, however, the teeth
are destroyed both by chemical and
mechanical action. Smoking accel
erates the pulse and slightly elevates
the temperature. To the inebriate it
would seem that-the use of tobacco is
a prolific source of delirium tremens,
as previous to' the discovery of the
plant, in the year 1560, thbe records
show no case of mania potu. The
habitual use of tobacco tends to pro
duce depression of spirits, melan
choly and despondency, the reaction
after the over excitement of. the ner
vous system; while heartburn, dys
pepsia, a" disposition to diarrhcea or
costiveness, palpitation of the heart,
irritability, and loss of memory usu
Thirty-eight boys, from nine to
fifteen years of age, in the habit of
using tobacco, were placed in charge
of Dr. G. Decaisne. From his re
port it appears that 27 cases out of
the 38 cases the effects were very
marked; 22 suffered from disturb
ance of the blood, palpitation of the
heart, deficiencies of the digestion,
sluggishness of intellect, and a crav
ing more or less for alcoholic stimu
lants. In 13 cases there was an in
termittent pulse; 12 suffered from
frequent bleeding from the nose; 10
complained of agitated sleep and
nightmare, -and 4 had ulcerated
months. Out of 11 induced to stop
6 were completely restored to natu
ral health afer six months, the oth
ers suffering. slightly for a year.
Treatmet with -iron and quinine gave
no satisfactory results. The fact was
clearly demonstrated that, in order
to the enjoyment of normal health,
tobacco must be let alone.
That the effects of tobacco on the
human system, especially during the
growing and developing period of
life, are injurious, physicians, with
few exceptions, a're perfectly agreed.
Dr. Hardwicke, after a long observa
tion, says he thinks no one who
smokes is perfectly healthy. The
late Dr. Twitchell, of New Hamp
shire, expressed the opinion that to
bacco is doing worse injury to the
physical character of the present
generation than alcohol. Dr. Na
than Allen, a distinguished medical
writer, sums up the evil effects of to
bacco as follows: "Having made for
many years a specialty of the study
of the laws of health and disease, I
consider this (tobacco) one of the
greatest evils of the present day.
Language cannot describe the terri
ble effects which tobacco produces
upon body and mind. It perverts
the taste, impairs mental capacity,
corrupts moral sense and stimulates
the animal nature. But its perni
cious effects are not confined to the
present generation, nor to this life.
Its dreadful evils, through the laws
of inheritance, extend to offspring,
even to the second, third and fourth
generation." Numerous other au
thorities might be cited to the same
effect, were it necessary.
Benjamin Franklin once said: "I
never saw a well man, in the exercise
of common sense, who would say
that tobacco did him any good."
He might well have added that it is
almost an impossibility to find a to
bacco user who will acknowledge
that he receives any injury from in
dulgence in the habit, though the fact
that he is injured by it is patent to
all with whom he is threwn in con
if high license be right with regard
to the liqnor interest, the same prin
ciple holds good with regard to the
tobacco interest. If total abstinence
be the safe and best rule to follow
with regard to strong drink, the same
rule will be safest and best to follow
with regard to tobacco.
A TALK WITH TILLEA.1
Disclaims Certain Expressions At
tributed to him.
Speci.,l to the News and Courier.
AUGUSTA. November 10.-Capt.
B. R. Tillman was in Augusta to-day.
While .here your correspondent met.
him and obtained the following short
interview. He is just from Colum
bia, where he went to attend a meet
ing of the executive committee of _X
t,he Farmers' Association last night.
He complained of the injustice done
him in reporting his speeches, and
also .laughingly remarked that it '=
seemed that if a rabbit were jumped
in Oconee or sny county of the State .
he had to run by Columbia and give
the "Annex" and the agricultural
department of South Carolina a
"But," he said, "the facts are on my
side and they cannot disprove the
:harges of extravagance and incom
petence in the management of the
He disclaimed any personal feel
ing in the matt,er, and said he was -
)nly criticising the act of public of&'
:ials handling public money.
I asked him if he wanted to cor
rect any statements of fact made in
the report of his speeches ?
He replied : "Yes. In the report of -
my speech at Kingstree I said the.
agricultural department has cost,
P200,000, not the State Agricul- E
tural Society. Then I said 33 per ~
:ent of the samples of guano analy
sed tell below ehe guarantee, not
that guano is 33 per cent be
Low the standard. Again, I
said the farmers have sold their
votes for a ;how-d'ye do" to candi
sates, and farmer politicians have
sold our rights for the same base
:ause while pondering for office and.
propitiating the powers that be."
"Do you expect to get the agri
:ultural college this coming session
)f the Legislature?"
"No; but we expect to press this
matter to vote, and will know how
o spot our enemies in the next elec
tion. We will meet them at the
Democratic primaries-at Philippi."
"What about the tariff? You are
3upposed to be a Protectionist!"
"I am nothing of the kind. I onlv
mentioned the tariff to show what -
[ believe to be the real sourck of our -
poverty and lack of progress and eo
3how teat tariff reduction, or even
free trade, cannot cure the disease.
[ am in favor of getting all the.biirt
dens removed that we can, ?
tariff levied by ignorance, laziness
and extravagance keeps aepoor=and
will continue to do so till a depar
tare be had and our people be
taught to diversity their pursuits
and our farmers learn to live at home;
and the seed must be sown in the -
"I see the Columbia Register says.
you met a Waterloo at Marion in
in your debate with Ex-Chancellor
"I don't thinK so, inasmuch as at -
the close of the meeting when Col.''
Stackliouse desired to offer a reso
ltion to test the sense qf the meet
ing, Chancellor Johnson and his
friends objected, claiming that it was
not fair, I then told Col. Stacki-~
house to call a meeting on salesday
in December and give them fair
play." ' E. W. B.
A Reporter Jailed.
Atlanta Evening Journal, Nov. 8.
Mr. Ed. C. Bruffey, the well known
reporter or the Const itut ion, was be
fore the grand jury this morniing, and
refused to give information leading
to the detection of a grand juror
who divulge1 certain secrets of the
jury roo'm, which was published in
the Constitution, about two mouths -
Judge Marshall J. Clarke told Mr.
Bruffey he would have to go to jail if
he did not answer the questions of
the jury. Mr. Bruffey stood firm
and he was arrested and put in
charge of B.ailiff W. G. Bryant, who
was instructed to keep the prisoner
under guard until two o'clock this
afternoon and bring him before the
grand jury again.
Mr. Bruffey was allowed to eat his
dinner and was then carried back to
the court house. He said to a Jour
a reporter that be would not give
away his information under any con- 2
sideration, and the probability is that
he will be sent to jail this after.
Later in the day, by the efforts of
Capt. E. P. Howell, of the Consti
tution, Mr. Bruffey was released un
til a hearing could be given him
A correspondent of the Atlanta
Contitution, who is touring through
Alabama, furnishes some suggestive
figures. In ten years Alabama bas
increased her taxable property from
$125,000,000 to $215,000,000.- In
the past year Jefferson County alone
-of which Birmingham is the coun
ty seut-increased $26,000,000 tax
values. a larver increase than was- .
made by the entire State of Georgia
for the same year. The total in
crease in the State for the year was
In the settlement for damages by
by the Chatsworth disaster, the at
torneys concerned seem to have fixed -
up the following scale of payment:
Husband killed, $2,000; wife killed,
$1,400; son injured, $2,600; loss of -
eye, $500, etc. Human life is appa
rently cheap in that section, and
judging from the scale it is more
economical to the railroad company
to kill a passenger c'etright than it is
to maim him,