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ESTABLISHED 1865. NEWBERRY,S. C., TUESDAY, MARCH 1, 1898. TWICE A WEEk, SLI5O A YEAH
TURE AND,RENDERS'PLANT FOOD
IN THE SOIL AVAILABLE.
At this seatson when all who purpos4
farming or gardening are engaged it
preparing the land for tho reception o:
the seed, it may be interesting to recui
to the theories of Jethro Iull, whicl
though unsucces-ful in practice becausi
of his mistake in not combining manur<
with his methods of tillage, marked at
cra in agricultural progress.
IIis work, entitled, "New Horse
Hoeing Husbandry," though publishec
165 years ago, may be read with proli
by most farmers of today. Too muel
importance cannot be attached to th<
deep and thorough pulverization of th<
soil previous to planting. Not - onl3
does a deeply prepared and pulverize(
soil hold and conserve more moistur(
than one poorly prepared, but the rooti
of plants penetrate more deeply and con,
sequently resist the influence of droutl
which proves fatal to their shallow.
By repeated and thorough stirring ol
the soil the manures are incorporate&
with the lower strata, where even dur.
ing drouth there will be moisture to dis.
solve tihe plant food which they contair
and convey it into the circulation of th(
plants. Some thirty years ago we culti.
vated a garden which had bccn trenchee
to the depth of two feet. On a fall crol:
of Irish potatoes oat straw and chafi
were used as a mulch. After the potat(
vines matured or were killed by frosl
oats grew from the chaff and were al
lowed to remain until the followint
spring. After the oats were cut and th<
land plowed, finding it diflicult to pre
pare the land for planting on account o
the mass of roots and stubble, we dug
holes two feet~ deep for melons. XV
found the soil, as deep as it had beer
trenched, completely occupied by th<
roots of the oats which instead of th(
usual four inches of loose soil derivec
their food from six times this area besidei
the accompanying advantage of iaviin
a large root surface beyond the reach o
an ordinary drouth. This difference be
tween the condition, texture and color o
the soil and subsoil is due principally t<
the fact that the soil has been acte<
upon by the air while the subsoil ha:
'he greater quantity of humus in th<
-cil contributes to this difference, bu
the most active corroding agent in na
ture is oxygen. Thorough tillage ad
mits a free circulation of air to whicl
the particles of soil and stone are thu:
exposed and decomposed or rather dis
integrated. The geologist speaks of th<
"weathering'' of the surface rock h'
wvhich lie means that the work of disin
tegrat ion has commenced in consequec<
of its exposure to atmosp)heric ifl
If wec plant poorly prepared soil, w<
deprive ourselves of the use of the plan
food which is locked lip in the clods
which the roots of the plants are unabl<
to penetrate. WVe ask our readers t<
compare t wo acres this season--one sub
soiled and thoroughly pulverized by re
peated plowvings and harrowving and thi
other pirepared in the usual slipshod wa'
and rep)ort results next fall, Quite
number of farmers have adopted the in
tensive systemm in recent years and havy
thus dlemonstratedl that this, in conjunc
tion with diversified farming, enab)le
them to grow cotton profitably, even a
T'he following extract from a recen
issue of the News and Courier illustrate
Mr. Fletcher cultivates only sixty
eight acres of his land himself, arnd rent
forty acres to tenants. The followini
statements showv in condensed form th
results of his successful intensive-exten
sivye-Marlboro-Fletcher style of busi nes
Ru icICIPT'S 1'ROM sI xTV-E%IonT AcREs.
13 acres cottoni, 24 bales, 555 pounds(1
each, equal to 13,320 pounlds at 5)4
cents a pound.............. ~-$ 732 6
35 acres corni, 25 bushels per acre,
equal to 875 bushels, at 50 cents. 437 5
Boo bushels peas fromi corn land, at 50
m, ioo pounmds fodder, fromn corni land,
at 90 cents per hunidredweight.. 99 0
20 acres in oats, 8oo bushels, at 40
cents per bushel'-------~.......-.-.-.320 C
20 touis hay, from land planted ini oats 200 C
3,700 pounds pork at 6 cenits per 1)0und( 222 0
Total........... ... .
COST OFt PARTI1,ZINO, CULTIVA','i!No AND KAR
Fertilizers used on 13 acres of cotton, $6
per acre .........................................$ 78 00
-'arvesting 13 acres of cotton,' $io per
acre.............-.......... 130 00
Fertilizing 35 acres of corn, $1.50 per
acre.................................. .......... 157 50
Harvesting 35 acres of;cort, $t per acre. 35 00
Fertilizing 20 acres of cats, $4-50: per
acre.........,...................................... 90 00
ItertiliZinUg 20 acres of oat land*. for hay
crop........ ....................................... 26 oo
Paid two hirelings $13 per month each,
for six months .............................. 56 oo
Total.......... ...............................$672 50
Net profit from 68 acres, $1,738.60.
These figures show an average yield
of $35.46 per acre and they show an
average net profit of $25-56 per acre
The difference between the receipts and
expenditures is almoA four to one in ac
tual figures, and the real difference it
even greater. The proceeds from the
dairy, poultry, garden, fruit and other
sources is not included, nor is the large
increase in the amount of cotton sced
and corn on hand now and at this time
last year. Cotton seed from the previ
ous year were used in fertilizing 11his
crop and corn from 1896 was used also,
but the quantity of both of these now on
hand is very much larger than for the
corresponding period last year. A little
more figuring here may be of interest to
some who like others to do this work for
PICcIINTAGIt OF PROItrT PlIR AcRit.
13 acres cotton, yield 13,320 pounds, at
5Y2 qents .. ......................$732 00
Fertilizing $78, harvesting $130 and one
third cost of labor $S2....................... 260 o
Balance oi hand........ ......... ........ $472 co
35 acres corn yielded corn, peas and fod
Fertilizing $157, harvesting $35 and one.
third cost of labor $52 ....................... 244 50
Balance on hand ................. ........$692 00
20 acres of oats, 8oo bushels oats and
twenty tons hay .----.................$520 00
Fertilizing $r16, and one-third cost of
labor $52......................................... 168 00
Balance on hand ............... ...... . .$352 00
Net profit per acre on cotton, $36-31;
net profit per acre on corn and peas,
$19.77 ; net profit per acre on oats ar.d
This recapitulation shows, at the first
glance, that cotton is still king, but a
careful study of the hay figures may
prove insttuc.ve. After having made
So bushels of oats from ao acres, Mr.
Fletcher put fertilizers, valued at $1-30
per acre on this same land, ploughed in
this application and did no more work
on it until he harvested 20 tons of hay,
- which he values at $aoo, and which cost
him iess than $3o.
A New and Cheap Spraying Mixture.
Prof. Kedsie, of the Michigan Expe
riment Station, gives the following di
,rections for its preparation. Hie is
good authority on such subjects:
> Boil two pounds of white arsenic and
four pounds of salsoda for fifteen mini
- utes in two gallons ot water. Put into
Sa jng and label "'poison," and lock it up.
r WVhen you wvishi to spray slake two
i pounds of lime and stir it into forty gall
- Ions of water, adding a pint of the mix
ture fromi the jug.
- The mixture ini the jug will cost 45
S cents, and this is enough for 8oo gallo .
t or twenty barrels of spray. These tweni
ty barrels will require forty pounds of
t lime, which will cost twenty cents
a more, maiking the total cost 65 cents
for twenty barrels, or 34 cents peCr b)ar
Its ad vantages over Paris green are as
follows: it is cheaper, and the ingredi
ents cani be found in alny village drug
-store ; it is easily prepared and easily
s kept ready ; it will keep for any length
of time ; it is uniform in strength ; it
does not injure the leaves of trees or
plants; it colors the leaves white, show
ing howv evenly it is dlistribuited.
Prune, apple, pear and p)lum trees and
grape vines now. It is better to dlefer
ojpruning peach trees until the bloom buds(1
are well dlevelopedI. Early pruning
causes early growth and increased risk
o of frost. After the bloom buds are well
odefined, cut b)ack half~ to two-thirds of
the blooming surface. This is the cheap
- est and most effectual way of thinning
o the fruit.
Spraying for Protection.
Under this head Mr. Van Demuan
gives in Southern Planter the following
Before beginning, the matter should
be carefully considered as to what, when
and how the work should be done. There
are two main lines of action to be fol
lowed-use atsenic for insects and sul
pliate of copper for fungi. The comner
cial arsenic known as Paris green is
about the most effective insect destroyer
known, and combines with fungicides
better than London purple. It costs
about seventeen cents pc* pound, and
this amount will poison 200 or 300 gallons
of water sufficiently to kill nearly all in
sects. If used stronger, the solution is
apt to injure the foliage of most plants
and trees. It should be applied whein
ever insects of anykind are known to
eat the foliage. For codling inoth in
the apple and pear. the first application
should be made as soon as the bossom
leaves fa"l and the fruit'beginis to grow.
There should be two more sprayings
about ten and twenty days:,after the
Sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) costs
4% to 5 cents per pound and is used to
best advantage combined ,with lime,
making what is known as Bordeaux
mixture. Four pounds of sulphate'of
copper should be tied in cheese cloth and
suspenided in a three-gallon bucket of
water until it dissolves. Slack three
pounds of lime in a'separate vessel in'the
same aniount of,water. Fill a barrel
with water (40 to So gallons) and pour in
the copper solution through a burlap
strainer; then do the same with the dis
solved lime, and after stirring it is ready
for use on almost anything that is sub
ject to the attacks of fungous diseases.
It is a preventive rather than a remedy;
hence it should be applied before there
are any signs of disease. It lis better to
begin the spi aying before the leaves start
on trees and vines, as there are erms
lurking about then. After the frt has
set there should be three more sprayitngs
at intervals of about fifteen d.s. Just
after a rainy spell is an opportune time,
as the mixture will then dry and remain
on the leaves for a long time. The Paris
green mixture can be put in with this,
gallon fo- gallon, and the two applied at
once, thr.s doing double work, if desired.
In all cases, frequent stirring is highly
important, whether both or only one is
used, as the ingredients are constantly
settling to the botton. Do not be afraid
to use a little cheap liquid, but get it on
every part of the suspected tree or
Ammoniacal solution of copper is also
a most excell nt fungous poison, and has
the advantage of not staining the fruit or
vegetabces, as does Bordleaux mixture,
and for this reason is preferable for late
use when gathering time is near. It is
made by putting one quart of the strong
est ammonia in a gallon jug or large hot
tie, add three ounces of carbonate of
copper, and keep"well corked. This is
enough for 25 gallons of water, andc can
be used a little at a time in this pro)por
tion, or all at on1ce, as may b)e needed.
The -Anchor' Hillside Plow.
Ilave you ever usedl the Anchor Ilill
side Plow, sold by J. C. Bucher & Co.,
Atlanta, Ga. ? If so, pleaset give me
your opinion about thme plow. Will it
do good, satisfactory work ? I would
like to try the plow if it wvill (1o goodl
work and give satisfaction. Tell me all
about the plow and oblige.
.J. C. Hi.
I have used the Anchor Hillside Plow
for three years with great advantage and
It is all iron except the handles. The
beam is formed of a piece of iron pipe.
The feet are attached to an iron cuffi
which revolves around the beam. This
cufT has two slots in the rear- end, into
which a spring catches when the p)lows
are changed from right to left hand, or
If it is desired to uise it simplly as a
hillside plowv, a right hand turn llow is
attached to oneC foot and1( a left-ha~ndl to
the other. It is then readly to turn ev
ery furrow dowvn hill. If it is to be uased
as a combination turn plo0w andl sub
soiler, a turn low hoe is p)ut on one
foot and a narrow scooter or bull1 tongue
on the ot her. A furrow is thrown down
the hill wvit.h one side anid the scooter
returns in the same furrow as a subsoiler.
Eivery one horse f rmner houil hnve it
Tho Proportion of Fortilizors.
I have tweity acres of red clay land I
wish to plant in cotton. I want to put
200 pounds of fertilizey to each acre,
composed of cotton seed meal, acid
(13%) and kainit. The land will make
6oo pounds to the acre. What propor
tion of above would you advise for a
Also, I have forty acres sandy land
(white) with clay subsoil. I wish to
plant it also in cotton and use same
[imount of fertilizer It will make 500
pounds of seed colton. G i ve me also a
formula for complete fertilizer for it,
composed of cotton secd meal, acid (13%)
Would muriate of potash be better than
kaiiit ? if so, use in formula.
Is cotton seed meal the best form fol
basis of ammonia? If not, what ?
What proportion of cotton seed, kai
nit and acid should I use on sandy land ?
R. G. 13.
The formulas for fertilizing your dif
ferent classes of soil should depend some
what. upon the treatment. they have
received in recent years as regards sup
plying humus through nitrogen collect ing
plants, such as peas, etc. In the ab
;ence of such0 itniormation anid~guided by
yourdescription, I suggest for (lhe clay
Cotton seed meal - - - - Soo lhs.
Acid Phosphate, 3r% - - 1,xoo lbs.
Kainit - - - - - - -- - aoo lbs.
For the sandv soil
Cotton seed meal - -800 lbs.
Acid phosphate, 13% - o- lbs.
Kainit - - - - - - - - o00 lbs.
Muriate contains four times as much
potash as kainit, and according to results
obtained .in our experiments, a pound of
potash from iuriate will produce as
much cotton or corn as vill a pound
from kainit or ashes. As ioo pounds of
muriate may be substituted for loo
pounds of kainit, 300 pounds more of
acid phosphate may be used in its place
in the formula.
For tubers and root crops kainit is
considered better than mnuriate.
For corn on your sandy land use
Cotton seed, 30 bus., or --900 fs,
Acid phosphate goo----- 900 lbs.
Kainit . - - - - - - - 200 lbs.
If your lands bore heavy crops of peas
last year you can with propriety reduce
the quantity of cotton seed meal a mnd in
crease the p)hosphate and kainit.
Kalnlt or Murlate?
Have you ever experimenteCd wih kai..
nit and muriate of potash in mixt urme of
bone and meal ? And if so, please let
me knowv your conclusions as to their rel
ative merits as a source of plotalsh.
J1. E. WN.
Yes, we experimented with equal
quantities of potash from kainit, muri
ate andl cotton hull ashes upon corn, cot
ton, Irish potatoes and turnips. So far
as the p)rodumction was concerned(, all of
these p)lants resp)ondedl to the qumest ion
as to their p)reference, that it was a mat
ter of indifference to them. For corn or
cotton one is as good as the other, b)ut
the muriate is considleredl objectiona ble
undeCr root crops in which the formation
of starch is important. It is claimed
that thle muriate produces a claummny po..
tato, and that the chlorine which it coni
tains dliminishes the burning qu ialities of
tobacco. Since the mutriate contin s
more t han four times as much p)otash as
the kainit, it is to the advant age of manm
* ipulautorM of high grado commercial f'er
tilizers to use it.
Concentrate the manmure and work on
a small area. D)eep and( thorough p)rep
arat ion <A< the soil, mixing tIhe ma nure
completely to the depfth of tIhe broken
soil wvill protect the crop from injumrious~
effects of bo0th d routh andc excessivye ratin.
fall. This is especially im portant in theu
garden. 'Without thIoroutgh titag the
crops cannot utilize thme p)lant food ini the
A Cotton Formula.
If you were planting a crop of cotton
what change would you make in the fol
Cotton seed meal - - - - - 200 lbs.
Blood - - - - - - - 2oo
Nitrate of Soda - - - - - 200
Potash -- 200
Acid phosphate - - - - 1,2oo "
On account of the nitrate of soda it
would have to be a dry mixture.
J. A. P.
Your' formula gives about 3.6% of
amiail ; assumig i3o available for
the acid phosphate, you have 8% avail
able phosphoric acid aId 1.5% of pot
ash. This is hardly enough potfash or
sandy soil, while the percentage of am
monia is high if the soil is wvell supplied
with humus. This formula will cost
about $16 or $T7 per ton. There is some
advantage in the use of the nitrate of'
soda to start the plant otT promptly, but
fihe same effect can be obtained from tie
cotton seed meal by ptting it into the
ground several weeks before plaitiling
the seed. There is some risk of having
the nitrate of soda washed out by lieaNy
Cotton seed Imleal is our clieapest coi
Iercial source of iirogenl, and being
organic, its nitroge.n is,not iimieldiatelv
available, but becomes so as thle ival
'lhe following formula Vould be
cheaper and equally as good :
Cotton seed meall - - - - - o bs
Acid phosphate - - - - 200
Kainit -u -- . m
Tllis would cost about $i.j Per toll
and analyze : ammonia 3.4%. a1cid 8%,
and potash 1.4%.
Plant Shade Trees.
This is the proper season for trans.
planting deciduous shade trees. Ever
greens do better planted later in the
The preparation of the tree for trans
planting is of as much'importance as tie
preparation of the soil for its reception.
Care should be used to mutilate tit
roots as little as possible in removing tL
tree. It is not necessary that the root
be very long buti they should not b
bruised and broken, but smoothly cut
and protected from cold drying winds
and the direct rays of the sun until re
turned to the soil.
Cut off all mashed, broken and bruis.
edl roots andl all r'agged ends.
Cut off all large limbs anld head back
the body to the height at which it is ide.
sired to. branch. If there are smiall twige
near the top after heading back, leavt
them to furnish early leaves. Th'les<
will aid the vegetating fuinctioiis of' th<n
tree and esp)ecially promlote root formia.
tion, wvhile advientitious hudls are b.eing~
The holes should be dutg lar'ge eniougli
to admlit the roots ill their natural posi
tion andl deep -enough to admit of oic
foot of rich top soil mnixedl with thor
oughly rotted mianiue below the roots.
Sift fine soil amongst the roots, prless i
firmly tolthem, pour a p)ail full of' watei
in to settle the soil natur'ally ar'ounid th
rotstadfill onyas hihas the soil
stoodI around1 the tr'ee in its nat ura
Leave a slight basin aroundl the triet
andi mulch with any coarse, deadl vege
tation available to r'etain mnoistur'e. Ii
dry spells water fr'eely.
Long liv~ed trees should be selected
such as the varieties of elii, water' oak
willow oak, white oak or' variet ies o
Treces are usually plantted so close that
syniinetiical growvth is inupossibile. The'
are planted thick withl the idea that:
mole dense shade will thius lbe secured
but the object sought is defeated by thiecl
planting. Thle most dentse shade is af
forded by trees whtichi have suiflicien
space to br'ainch natuirally and thus forni
a thick canopy of leaves all over theil
If trees ar'e taken from the for'est wher<
thir' bodies have been shaded, thle:
shiouldl he boxed to keep off thle dIiiree
rays oif the Sunl.
If nlot prtotect)d the bark wvill b o laste<
01n the southwest sde.e
Co-operation Among Farmers.
No farmier, no matter what are 'his
circunustances can afford to confine him
self to common stock. A common cow
that will give less than two gallons of in
ferior milk per day will require the same
food and attention as a grade that will
yield three to five gallons of milk of bet
ter <puality. The former is fed and milk
ed without profit while the same labor
and expense bestowed upon the improv
ed cow returns as profit all that she
yields above that of the common animal.
We u is,t learn to regari our animals
as the nanuifacturer does his machinery.
They are prolitable jist in proportion
to their capacity to convert cheap raw
material into ml ore valuable products.
If the piroduct of milk and butter does
not exceed in valte by an aniount, con
sidered a reasonable rofit upon the cost
of the food consumed and the labor ex
penided utpon her, she had better be con
verteCd ilto l)eef and a better machine
Substittuted in her stead.
There are some connon cows that are
exceptions. Ifthere are no thorough
bred btills, stallions or boars in the leigh
borhood to which resort can be had at
reasollable cost, let half a dozenl or a doz
ei neighbors comibiie and purchase thor
ouighbr-eds vith which to breed up their
stock. The expense will thus he reduc
ed to a ininimuni and better stock can
be purchased by such co-operation than
anl individual Could afford.
Better care will niaturally be bestowed
upon illlproved stock thaln upon scrubs
as they inspire Iore iiterest on the part
of their owner. After securing enough
good Imlilel cows in a neighborhood the
next step ill co-operation should he the
establishmuent of a creamery or a cheese
factory to furnish a home market for all
surl)lus after supplying the faiily.
The first creallery ill tile United States
had its origin in co-operation amongst
nieighbors. U11pon the ordinary farm
there are usually io appliances for hand
ling imilk to the best advataklge and con
seriielntly 'Colultry butter" sells below
dairy and Ccamery b1tter al even be
low the price of Oleollargerilne.
If the milk from all tile farms of the
neighborhood is carried to the creamery
wheic all of the ilodern appliances for
handling it are supplied and an expert
ellployed, there will be 1no illiforillity ill
the outplt and this will be uniiformly
good. The wok will he done m11ore thor
oughly and muore skillfully at the creaim
ery than 'on tile farm11-1 adl tile cost of pro
(ItIctioll will b)e less.
As to improved hogs, tile increased
yieli of mi k of superior (mality from a
sinogle h al1f-b reedl will pay t he inidividuanl
farmler's share oIf the cost of a thlorough
b)red boar purchlased by co-operationl.
Ally oneC, whod 'wil experimlenlt, as we
have dione1, byV givinig imp1lrov'ed pigs and
thICet commonltIl stock idettica ly thle samel
treat Inenlt and obsecrve thle '1ifferenlce in
wveight at nline mlonIths of age, will at
onlce decide that hIe canniot affordh to keep
thle connnl1on stock.
A pair. of lllatchled horses will often
sell for fifty per cenit. more(2 thian tile same
hlorses wvill bIrinig if soldi sep)arately. If
thle farmIers ill tile neighblorhloodl combIine
inl thle 1)u1rchase of a first class stallion,
the iy wil not only1 have the Lir service alt
less co st 1buIt p)rofitaly co-op)erating in
theC sie of(I thle youngl stock. A hads a
youIng hlorse thlat mal:tches oneC ownled hby
lH, they trainI thIese tw.o to wo(rk togethler
ill dIoule hlarness awdl ob,taian fancy pric
es for thleml ini the nlearest City.
Black Rot In the Cabbages.
Mr . l*;dwin I-. Sith I of tile Divisionl
of \'cgetable P athlology of thle U. S. D)e
pairtment11 of Agrieulture hlas p)repalred ai
bullet21inI known as Farmers' Ibilletin No.
68 'i whi is t reatledl this~ dlisease of thie
TEru ck farm e rs or oth eras growing this
c'rolp 4n large scale should ask the. Secre
tarv', of Agricuiltureo for this bulletinl
which is dlistribut11ed free.
A nlothe(r mlan has inivenlted a process for
m IakI:ii~in milk 1by comb111illng chem icalis.
l ie is a Chicago lma; but nlot thle same
Clica go manll wh~lo illvenllted art ificial eggs
whIeb 1 ( o ld' el ptonl tile maldrket at half
therce o dC(f gennlinell hlen herries, and(
(climedI that hie w~'ould soon1 have ani egg
t perfectedi that w\old( haitchl. Theli fool
k'iller '->t the egg mianl, andit is su1pposedl
to be aftt- the mlilk maker nlow. Hie
Imlighlt also g;ive some attenltionl to people
who1 believe suchl fakes.