Newspaper Page Text
no up line, pre.pt upo.k pre-!
copt, here a little and there a littlo."
We trust our readers will pardon -our
persistence in urging upon their atten
tion the importance of this crop. The
Southern farmer, and especially he who
cultivates impoverished soil, has no
better friend than the cow pea. Whether
used as a soil improver or a forage
4lent, it should find a place upon every
orm. It may, however, be used for
ay and still improve the soil upon
which it is grown.
How IT 8rnovIC Tru 1son..
The field pen befongs to the class of
plants known as leguminous, and later
as nitrogen collectors. It has the power
of appropriating nitrogen from the at
moRnhere through the agency of mi
crobes, the presence of which is indi
cated by little tubercles or wart-like ex
cressences upon the roots. According
to the reports of the Alabama and South
Carolina experiment stations, a good
crop of pea vines will contribute as
much nitrogen to the acre of land upon
which it is grown Its twenty tolls of or
dinary stable manure.
A horse, if fed in his stall Hnd kept
there at night, will produce, with a
moderate supply of litter, about 3,ooo
pounds of stable manure in twelve
months, or i ton. A good crop of
peas will therefore supply to an acre as
mucb nitrogen as the manure saved from
thirteen head of horses or mules, with
the difference in favor of the peas, that
they shade the land during the summer
and are already evenly distributed,
while the stable nanure nust be forked
and hauled to the field. Stating it a
little differently, it will require all of
the stable manure made upon a thirteen
mule farm, to supply as much nitrogen
as one acre of peas will furnish.
Growing nitrogen collectors upon the
land is the only practicable and econom
ical way of improving it upon a large
Peas and other leguminous plants not
only accumulate nitrogen in the soil and
subsoil, but by their deeply penetrating
tap roots organize mineral plant food
from the subsoil, store it up in their
roots, stems and leaves, and tltus supply
it to the soil in available forms. There
are vast stores of phosphoric acid, pot
ash and other mineral elements of plant
tood in the subsoil, in insoluble condi
ion and out of te reach of fibrous
rooted plants, which get their support
entirely from the soil. The tap-rooted
plants perform two important offices for
the crops which follow them. They
collect and st ore nitrogen (the most
costly element of' plant food) from the
air and organize other substances into
their structure and thbus render them
available to plants which have no such
collecting, storing and organizing pow
er. In all departments of life, animal.
as well as vegetable, we find that one
species organizes and stores food for the
other. The lion has no powver of ap
propriating to its nourishment, dlirect ly,
the vegetable products of the earth, bit
takes its grass second hand, after the
lamb, pig or calf has organized them in
to flesh. So the grain aind grass subsist
upon the carcasses of leguminous plants,
appropriating from them the nitrogen
which they organized from the air and
the potash and phosphoric acid, w hich
they have rendered assimilable, from the
The impoverishment of soil by con
tinued exposure in summer and its im
provement by shade, are well established
facts. Peas improv'e the land in this
way in no small degree.
If we were asked, "W~hat is the great.
est need of Southern soils?" we would
unhesitatingly answer, "lIlus."' Sev
eral camuses have conspired to denude
our solis of this imp)ortant substance.
Among tjhese are :
(a). Continued clean culture wvithout
rotation iin humus-supplying crops, such
as grain, clover and grass.
(b). Exposure of the uncovered suir
face during the winter, and consequent
surfa~ce washing and waste of plant
food, there being no growing crop to
(c). The long period of high tem-.
perature in which decomposition con
In colder climates in which the soil is
.frozen for some months each year, this
loss is prevented. The legutminous
'plants afford the best sources of supply,
for the reasons already discussed, and
beens, owing to their large. contents
*of ttogenous compounds, they prompt
7 J~decompose and yield up for the
- benefit of their seccessors their accumu
ltion of plant food, and the pea espe
elully, because of its quick growth and
kc'Abilty hlie the old flield pine, to
torlr 4pon sols of very limited
pr9vemept In our agrlculture, er 41 per.
qvOry orto who.til,s tkq roil is brought to
appreciate the value of legurninous
plants as Roil improvers, and the abso
lute necessity of re.itoring, through
them, the humus that has been wasted
from our soils.
One need only compare the product
iveness of the old hedgerow from which
a fence has been removed with that of
the adjacent soil that has been exposed
to a wasteful system of cultivation to be
convinced of the importance of shade
and a supply of vegetable matter, since
these two alone must account for the
contrast so much in favor of the hedge
Farm and Garden Calendar.
Keep the scrapes going in the cotton
and corn, using them in such manner as
to leave as little work as possible to be
done by the hoes. Avoid cutting any
roots deeper than two inches.
Plant peas either between the rows or
between the hills of corn. We prefer
the former, because the work can be
more cheaply and expeditiously done,
and the cultivation can be done entirely
with the plow. Some plant a row of
peas between the corn rows and also be
tweenl the hills, in the same field. Se
lect the plan that is liked best, but don't
fail to plant them. Plant or sow peas
on the wheat and oats stubble, instead
of leaving them to grow up in crab-grass
and rag weed, See editorial on "Field
Peas'' in this issue.
Sweet Potatoes.-Continue to plant
slips and cuttings from the vines of the
early planting. These may be planted
throughout this month. Keep the sur
face among the vines free from grass
and weeds and mulched vith loose
Cut hay whenever there is sufficient
grass and house it as soon as cured. We
often see shocks of hay left standing in
the weather uintil it is hardly worth
hauling to the barn.
Keep the stalls well li(tered with
leaves or pine straw. If they become
moist, sprinkle land plaster over them
to prevent the escape of ammonia, in
volving the loss of the most costly in
gredient of the manure, accompimied
with the risk of injury to the eyes and
hoofs of the horses.
Gather up the cow manure into a
large heap under shelter.
Prepare a pen for the reception of the
waste from vegetables, sweepings of
yard and garden, ashes, bones, etc., and
pour over the heap daily the slops from
the house, soapulds, etc. Quite an ac
cumulation of valuable comp lost mayv be
collected in this way. An occasional
load of mold from the woodls added to
this heap will improve its value.
Clean out the droppings fromi the fowl
house not less than once a week, and
store in barrels or boxes under shelter,
unless it can be p)rofitably usedl as fast as
Ruta baga turnips may now be plant
ed for the main crop. Sow thickly to
secure a stand, and thin to one plant
every eight inches as soon as the first
true leaf appears. The additional out
lay for seed for the thick sowing will
bring ample compensation in the satis
faction of having a pierfect stand.
Sow cabbage and collard seed for the
early fall crop. If the weather is hot
and dry when the seed begin to sprout,
give partial shade until the plants are
Sow more tomato seed for late fall
crop, and as soon as the early crop
ripens, make cuttings from plants hav
ing the finest specimens. Save seed
from the finest and most perfect of the
Thin the okra to a single stalk to the
hill. It does not fruit well if crowded.
Keep the squashes and cucumbers
closely gathered to perpetuate fruiting.
Mash the eggs of the squash bug,
which will be found in clusters upon or
under the leaves of the most vigorous
If the Colorado beetle is at work
upon the late Irish potato vines, sprinkle
them with Paris green mixed with flour,
one heaping tablespoonful of Paris green
to two quarts of flour. Sprinkle from
a flour sack fastened to' the end of a
stick four feet long.
Continue to plant corn and beans for
As soon as the necks of the onions
weaken and the tops fall, pull up the
bulb~s and spread in the sun until the
outside leaves dry, then tie in bunches
and hang in a cool loft, or spread upon
shelves having slatted bottoms.
Apply a thin coat of w''tewaush to
the glass of the pit or plant house to
prevent injury to the plants by the ex
tessive, heat of the sun. If it-washes off
reapplytntilltowards fall, when it mn;y
be allowed to wash off entirely prepara
tory to winter work.
How to Reep the Boym on th' Farma
If it takeq a ifetime to make a ge44,
experienced farmer-and I. am of thaj
opinion--why do not farners give their
Sos a ihaice, to become personally in
terested in the farm?
Very few boys will take or' feel -that
interest in the farm work that they
would if they were directly interested in
the result of the crops. Many boys are
disgusted with farm life and leave h
cause they do not directly share in any
of the crops, and all they get is their
board and clothes. Let them have their
own fowls, i few pigs, a cow or a. colt,
and an acre or two to cultivate in mel
Ons, potatoes, strawberries, grapes, corn
or anything they desire to plunt. Give
them the team and time to work the
land. Let the condition be that their
crops must furnish them pocket change,
and they must do stheir duty to their
father's crops. In this way a boy will
be directly interested, and will feel more
There is hardly any community where
good fruit will not sell. Good pigs are
always in demand ; also improved fowls
Let me tell the boys what I heard
from the lips of a Northern man last
summer, who paid me a visit. I had
made a sleigh, so that I could hitch a
mule to it, and put in at molasses barrel
crosswise, with an opening cut in the
side. In the ends I had bored many
holes, and stopped each with plugs.
With this I had been hauling liquid ma
nure and spreading it on the land. My
friend asked me what the barrel was
for, and when I told him he said it re
minded him of an occurrence that hap.
pened in Pennsylvania. An old farmer
got tired of giving his son John money,
so one day he said to him that he was
going to make a change. .iIe would
give him an acre of his best land to put
in corn, and he must make his pocket
money from that acre. John said, "What
am I going to do for Imoney while the
corn is growning?" The old man took
in the situation, and remembered the
time when he was a boy, and he agreed
to lend John money until his crop came
in. The bargain was made, and the
father said :
"1John, that acre of land ought to
make lifty bushels of corn. It has done
it. If you make sixty I will give you
five more bushels."
That so stimulated the boy that he
'"Father, suppose I make seventy
The boy's face brightened and the
old nm1an's, too.
"'If you make seventy bushels I will
give you ten more.'"
New life and ambition sprang uap in
that boy. IIe said, again:
'Suppose, father, I make -eighty
bushels. Will you give me ten more
and make it ninety bushels ?"
So muc~h as eighty bushels of corn per
acre had never heen made around there
and the old man, thoroughly aroused at
the thought of his land making eighty
bushels of corn per acre, said:
"If.you make ioo bushels per acre I
will give you all my crop of corn."
John rose early and worked late, and
took more interest, and was better sat
isfied on the farm than ever, and the re
sult now is that he is one of the best
farmers in that State.
But you will say, how much corn did
John make ? HIe got his land in thor
ough order, plowed it deep, wvorked it
wecll, and watered it well, and that is
the only thing I have got against John.
He practiced a little deception on.his
good old1 father.
In his father's stable lot was a large
bank of manure, and on the lower side
of the pile wvas an abundance of liquid
manure. After the old man was asleep
John and his younger brother would
steal out and get the buckets and would
water every hill of th.is acre of corn
every time at needed water, andl in that.
way he made 12a5 bushels of corn and
won the crop of his father; and though
the old man had corn, he went about
boasting that John had beaten him out
of his crop, and that his land had made
i25 bushels of corn per acre.
Now, boys, by all means act fair ; be
honest and truthful; deal fairly and
squarely with all men,' but show the
energy and pluck of John, and you wvill
surely succeed on the farm.--John 0.
Otey in Southern Planter.
Bilious and Intermittent Fevers
which prevail in miasmatic dis
tricts are invariably accompan
ied by derangements of the.
Stomach Liver and Bowels.
The Secret of Health.
The liver is the great "driving
wheel" .in the mechanism of
man, and when it is out of order,
the whole system becomes de
ranged and disease is the result.
Tutt's LUver Pills
Cure afl Liver Troublast
- Inependenae of-the Farmer,
The farmer, by virtue of fact'dnd' pogl
tion, attains his hndependence rather
more positively than does average hu
manity. There is a difference between1
!tlieoretical and practical independence.
"The unalienable rights" of liberty are
no more the farmer's than they are the
heritage of any other man. But when
translated into the - every-day experi
ences of life, when the dividends from
the great fund ire commuted into their
practical purchasing power, it is easy to
see how the farmer pockets a larger
share than any. other class of men. He
Ahares in the general social independ
ence. He is under the obligations of
law and custom and usage. He iN sub
ject to the restraints of public opinion,
and must contribute his to the written
and unwritten law of the common weal.
From all these lie neither claims nor de
But by virtue of his position and pro
fession he is absolutely free from a large
measure of subjection to conditions be
yond his control, which involve all line
of ordinary pursuit. He is not entati
gled in the complications which affect
the merchant and the manufacturer.
Merchants of whatever line of wares
stand in a line with one another. They
are subject to general prevailing condi
tions which their individual strength
and standing do not render assured.
Their values of stock and capital are
fluctuating, and their basis of independ
ence is often their occasion of suspend
ence. It is not so with the farmer. In
this respect he is absolutely independ
ent. The success of his farm does not
rest upon the success of other farms. It
represents an actual value which lies at
the basis of all security.. The farm is
absolute capital, and is its own guaran
The farmer who owns 'his farm is no
under vassalage to bank officials. He is
not obliged to stand with his hut in his
hand before some autocrat, and await
his imperial decision as to whether the
proposed note shall be discounted or
not. He has to work and often make
long days, but he is master of his own
time. The twenty-four hours of the
clay are all his own, and are not included
in either salary stipulation or official
censorship. Less than any other man,
the farmer is under subjection to the
whims and caprices of his fellow-mortals.
The minister, high as his calling is, is
yet in a measure dependent on the
moods and notions of parishioners. He
must look out for tender toes, and keep
a list of sensitive points, if lie would
a9oid a diet of cold shoulder or a request
to resign. The doctor must listen pa
tiently and sympathetically to the in
numerable details of pains and aches and
qualms, and be in Rio hurry to send in
his bill, if lie does niot wish to see his
rival installed oyer his head. The store
keeper must not only keep his temper,
but his good humor, and traiRn his facial
muscles to a perpetual smile as lie adapts
himself to all his customners' idiosyncrasies.
But the farmer is independent of all
these provocations and vexations. Pro
fessionally lhe finds no cause to conju
gate the varying moods and tenses of
human nature. H is moodl is inidica
tive ai.d Iimparative rather than subj unc
In the corps of public providers, the
farmer leads rather than followvs. He
does not have to accept, from the butch
er's wagon what other customers have
refused, and take what is left when the
butcher gets around to him. To a very
large exteRnt lie is- his owvn commissary.
He commands ORn his own premises a
large measure of the staples of life.
Poultry yard, and pen, and stall, and
garden and orchard enable him to resist
a siege, when quantity or quality of
price is opposed to his desire and choice.
What ever.y due else has to pay for, lhe
receives pay. for, and to a certain ex
tent, at least, can control "the corner."'
We do not claim that all conditions and
experiences of the farm are paradisiacal.
Bnt for practical every-dlay indepenid
ence, who can equal the farmer?- Isaac
L. Kipp in Weekly Tribune.,.
THIN THE FRUIT.
There is in most localittes a full crop
of fruit set. If all of this is allowved to
remain on the trees the specimens will
be inferior ini size and quality. If one
half to three-fourths of the specimens
are removed, those left will'all produce
marketable specimens aRid probably
more ip weight or bushels than wvould
have been produced without the th't
ning. This should be attended to at
once b)efore mrore of the vital energy of
the tree is expend(ed ini the production
of surplus anid inferior fruit.
Flowering and seed-making aire very
exhausting processes. Upon, plants that.
are dlesired to continue bloomngn the
flower," should be remioved as sooni as
theyhergln to fadae-.
Sweet Potato oulture.
. F. Turner, of Georgia, writing to
the grdTirie Varsner, says:
I agree with the writer that narrow
rows do better than wide ones. North
Carolina and Georgia are celebrated
States for growing fine yams and all va
rieties of: $weet potatoes.. One of the
most succe4sful potatt growers of. Geor
gia made it a rule not to break the first
rootlets. The rootlets make the best po
tatoes. His plan was, after preparing
the land well, to throw two furrows to
gether with a haimon plow, which is
smaller than the plows you use in the
West. This makes a narrow ridge. Do
not throw out the middle furrow before
setting out the plants. During a favor
able season a man walks down on the
top of this ridge, making his steps only
fifteen to eighteen inches apart, and on
these tracks drops the plants. The ad
vantage in planting in the tracks is that
the soil is packed-it retains the mois
ture longer and a much better stand is
obtained than when the plants are set
out in a soft, open soil. When the
plants are well rooted, throw out the
middle with a small plow; this will
throw soft dirt to the plants and cover
up all weeds and grass. Potatoes should
never be allowed to become grassy.
When the vines are long, and you wish
to plough them, go between the rows
and.. with a sOck throw the vines over in
the next row. Do this with the vines
oC each row. This will have the
vines of two rows thrown iogether.
Tlen we plough out the rows that are
naked, and when we get over the field
we go back and turn the vines back on
the side of the rows that are ploughed.
In North Carolina and Georgia potatoes
are grown for hogs; they are not dug.
A farmer will fence off one acre for
table use and turn the hogs in to eat the
other part of the field. In some cases
the farmers dig or plough up their pota
toes and put them in hills and sell them
to cities during the winter and spring
months. People are divided in opinion
as to the best way to keep sweet pota
toes. Many take unnecessary pains.
Some put then in hills and leave the top
of the hills open to let the air pass off,
but this is not necessary. I never lose
any potatoes if tey are in good order
when I dig them. It makes no differ
ence about the potatoes being dry when
put up, for they go through a sweat any
way. I have put them tip in hills when
they were wet with rain and have never
lost any potatoes. The place to keep
potatoes well is in the earth. Hills are
much better than cellars and boxes.
What causes potatoes to rot is having
them alter-nately warmi and cold. Keep
the potatoes at one temperature all the
time and they will alw'ays keep wvhenu
covered up with earth. Somue growers in
the South put only five or six inches of
dirt on their hills; this is a bad plan,
as wve have warm spells; and the potatoes
get wtarm from the heat of the sun; then,
perhaps, it turns cold and they get chilled.
This getting alternately cold and warm
rots them. When the potatoes are dug
in the fall put them ui' at once in hi.lls
of twenty-five to thirty bushels each.
Cover with straw and then set up around
the bills boards two or three feet long
this leaves thuem in the shape of a pyra
mid-then put at least one foot of dirt on
the boards-muore is better-and the po
tatoes wvill neither get wvarmn nor cold
during the winter, and in the spring you
will not have two dozen rotten potatoes
to the lill.
Dr. Miles' Heart Cure
oures a Prominent Attorney.
MR. R,. 0. PrIELPS, the leading pension
attorney of Dolfast, N. Y., writees
"I Was discharged from the army on
account of ill health, and suffered fromt
heart trouble over since. I froquently had
fainting and smothering spells. My form
was bent as a man of 80. I constantly wore
an overcoat, oven in summer, for fear of
takcing c'old. I could not attend to my bust
noess. My rest was brokena by severe pains
about the hoart and loft shoulder. Three.
years ego I commenced using Drw. Miles'
Heart Cure, notwithstanding I had used so
much patent ruedicine atid taken drugs from
doctors for years ythout being helped. Dr.
Miles' Heart Curie restored me to health. It
*is truly a WOnderful medicine and it affords.
me muqh pleast&e to recomend this rem.
*edy to everyone."
ato sold by all dru
.guuts under a positive
guarantee, first bottle j+--1CI~
benefa or money r ~ ~ -
innded. hook on d[ -
eases of the harand
P01100PUG C0 N.
A4 soqn a the -sed lestes a fepe
expand-d,and. all of the seed havoi.o
tated,the'cotton should be sided with.4
nkirrow sc'rape a? closely aS practioabl
sifting enough 'fine soil amongst the
plants to cover the young grass withqut'
covering the cotton plants. Wait tinil
this soil smothers the young grass'Ahd
then as rapidly as possible ''chop'the
cotton "to a stand.11
This is the most important work done
to the crop, and it should be thoroughly
and carefully done. No sprig of grass
should be lcft and the plants left to
grow should not be injured. As fast as,
the cotton is thinned the scrapes should
follow, throwing 'enough soil to the
young plants to support them in erect
Many pla.ters make the mistake of
allowing their. cotton to become very
grassy, and the plants to be stunted in
their growtl. before employing extra
labor. While the plants and the grass
are small the- work can be more cheaply,
nore rapidly and more thoroughly done.
A man who will hoe an acre while the
grass is very small and leave the cotton
plants uninjured will hoe not more thAit
half an acre after the crop has become
foul, leave the plants crippled and
charge more per day for his work.
There are thousands of acres of good
dry bottom land in the Southern States
which may be irrigated by simply di
verting the water from the creeks and
conducting it through the fields in
ditches cut for the purpose with a grade
of two to four inches to the hundred
feet. From these ditches the water is
easily distributed between alternate rows
until the soil is saturated. Try a few
acres and remedy the evils of the pres
ent drouth. One acre well fertilized
nd irrigated will produce as much as
I ilf dozen- left at the mercy of the
Even if the water must be pumped to
the land it will be a very profitable in
Vitalize Your Blood. Overcome That
Tired Feeling. Get a bottle of
Hood's Sarsaparilla and begIn to
take it TODAY, and realize the great'
good It Is sure to do you.
Is America's Greatest Medicin.. AlU drugtst.
SDo you know about those
4pulling, tearing crushing,
4Is there soreness throu igh
the bodJ, and can y'ou haar-4
S We can promise you the
4' most pleasant and prompt
4relief. It is
You simply rub it over the
4skin and its own wonderfui
4penetrating power carries itI
4down deep to the very seat
Fernoline Balsam is a con-4
4centrated extract of all the
4curative properties of the
4 rent Yellow Pine of the
SSprains, strains bruises,
4and burns are reli eved ina
4single minute. It cures neu
4ral Ia, rheumatism, sciatica,
an snre less in techest. 4 -
'PFor sale by all druggists.
4 r'trmollic Cbeili Works,
4Charleston, S. C.