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Ej %'hflABLISHED 1865.0EIFmys C... FRIDAY, AUGUST_10, 19.TIEWE,15 IA
Some Effects of Cotton Seeds and its Pro.
ducts in the Dairy Ration.
Sometime ago a bulletin was issued
from this station on this subject, but ow.
ing to the great demand for furtlher and
more general information regarding the
Iatter, a fev remarks, based on obser
valtions made in handling the milk and
churning W1hen cotton seed, inl one form
or another constitutes the entire grain rn
tion, may not be out of place at this
juncture. This food does not seem to
have any nufterial cfect on tie specific
gravity of milk, as it will be found to
vary from 8-5 to 9.5 per cent. of solids,
not fat ; a variation permissible in nor
mal. Nor, in so far as can be judged.
does it affect the keeping (1uality of the
milk, but it certainly is a remarkable
food for sustaining and stimulating the
milk flow, under the most adverse cir
cumstances. That it maintains the per
cent. of fat, is shown by the fact that
composite saimple from a heard of eighty
Cows showed from 4 to 5 per cent. of fat,
ind produced cream testing from 34 to
-6 per cent. butter fat. It may be fair
to st'ate that the milk comes from a
mixed herd of IIolsteinls, jerseys, a1d
grades of several otlier breeds.
The cream from this milk seems to be
particularly thick and viscid. Such
cream is othervise as elsy to handle as
that produced from other foods, but it
his a greater tendency to expanld, a fact
w"lhich has to be carefully considered
when it comes to churning. The churn
should never be filled more than one
third full, unless in the case of very ripe
cream, aid never more tihan hal full
inder any consideration.
Where cotton seed, or cotton seed meal
and hulls, are fed, they certainly have a
decided effect on churnii,r the cream
requiring to be raised to from 66 to 7)
degrees, as compared with 56 to 58 de
grees where other foods are used freely
in conjunction with them. The cream
may even be heated to 77 degrees and yet
produce hard granular butter.
It mms formerly told that ripened
cream, where cotton seed form the meal
portion of the ration, could not be
churned at a temperaiture of 58 degrees.
A number of trials made last autumn
showed t.he following: Tihat if the churn
were only filled one-third full, tnd when
the cream swelled anild became more vIs
cid and sticky, that if it were diluted
sufliciently w%ith water, so that it would
strike freely, churning could be success
fully done in from one to two hours; but
where the churn was filled one-half full,
or slightly more, and not s) diluted, the
operation might be carried on four or
fivye hours, or even longer, before the
butter* could b)e obtained, and then the
results were unmsat isfactory.
One thing that this wvork has fully
dlemonstrated, that no ad vant age is ob
tned from churning at a low tempera
e wvhen t u foodl is uised, its it only
icessthe labe -, lengthens the opera
tion, and prodluces o better butter. In
fact, rather the opp (site ; for btter so
chturned will be found\so crumbly it can
not be made to cohere sullikmeat ly to ad
mit of printing.
The addition of coldl omr ice water for
purposes5C of diluttion, vecry often producer
the same trouble, so that it is only in ex
t reme cases, and in the very hot weather,
thatt it is necessary to use ice, except for
wvashing the butter. In fact, where cot.
ton seed meal is fed freely it largely
takes the phitce of ice ; or, in other words,
is to the Southbern dairyman what ice i~
to the Northern.
As to the effect it has on the quality of
the butter, it lessens the oleic oils wvhich
-ive biutter its delicaute aroma andl flavor,
us dlestroying in part the dlesirable
vor' and aroma of grass and brand-fed
**tter, andi( rend(ering it waxy and greasy
fjYppeatran ce, and somewhat flat and
owto the taste. But the increase
Su;antity and the taking the platce of
pd large measure, are (qualities that
ly make up11 for these delete
t on wvor-king in this: If the
ot sufliciently ripened, or is
little to cool, or if it is chilled
y the add(ition of ice wvater,
is the buttter wvill be of the
atture previously mentioned,
ardl to wvork. On the other
stiff, waxy nature does not
it of the equal distribution of
ing often -in mottled butter,
It generally requires from two to three
times as much working as other butter
to obtain an even salting. Bit while in
one1 case it wonuld ruin the grain of th
butiter, in this it does not affect it to any
considerable degree. On account of its
springy, natuire, it is very diflicult to print
such butter satisfactorily.
And in many instinces it has been
foud impracticable to make it into
poui- bricks, oil account of its adhesive
nature, and the dificulty of pressing it
firnly enough to make a solid print. Iii
conclusion, then, we filnd the following:
. Cot ton seed increases and mait,tains
the milk flow.
2. It maintains the per cent. of fat in
3. It enables churning to be done at
high temperature, and this largely takes
the place of ice. %
I. Renders tile butter harder to color,
salt evenly, and print satisfactory.
5. It gives tile butter a more greasy
appearaice, a stily, waxy consistence, and
sollewhat tallowy taste.
These defects, hlowever, ar1e not
mazirked, and have been greatly exagger
ated by malny, and since cotton seed and
its products are so cheap and valuable as
food for dairy cattle, it is poor economy
not to use it Iore freely.
A. M. Soum..
Texas Experiment Station.
Poultry ano Cows.
Ai interesting discussion has been
going on regarding the relative profit to
Ie derived from a given number of
%ickens and a given umiber of cows.
While one fancier (kclares that fifteen
.ens ar-, more valuable than the average
cow, a s:tut vaccine partisan swears by
the bea:.1 cf the prophet that he can
make nc.ie money from one cow than
any ImI an from one hundred hlens.
The reiult (.f experiments made under
varying conditions are now useful.
One farmer made a test with fifty
chickens aid one cow, gives a result as
follows: Value of milk sold from one
cow, $1 44,10; income from fifty hens,
mostly for eggs sold, $150,8i. The cost
of keeping the cow was given at $5 t,
while the maintenance of the hens cost
$56, and it was estimated that the value
of the manure was equal for both. The
farmer was greatly in favor of the liens
inl the matter of lessened labor, of care
and attention, the cow requiring more
time, and far less agreeable labor. Nu
ierous other experiments reported, if
sunmarized, would probably result in
the ratio of fifty to one.
The chief value of the controversy has
been to show that no dairy farmer should
be without a fair ratio of poultry, anmd
no0 poultrytman should fail ini maintain
ing a proper number of cows. For small,
irrigatedl farn:s intensively cultivated,
nothing is better able to conmtribute to
the famnily needs than cows and poultry.
As many of each only should lie kept,
however, as may receiv'e the best of
care and attention, and patins should be
taken to have only those of the best
blood( and lineage.
Right here is where tihe small, well
wvatered and( well-tilled land holdmng be
comles so potent a factor in the upbuild
inig of a higher and b)etter civilization
andl citizenship. Everything on1 such a
farm must lbe of the best, and( the man
w~hio tills his fewv home acres as a chem
ist uised his laboratory to achieve the
best results which skill and science can
evoke, must necessarily climb to loftier
heights, and take his family with him,
than he who p)lodls in the fruitksi eni
deavor to cover a large farm, without
ally approach to scientific skill, either in
cultivation or mlaniagemenit. -Americani
UtIlize the Culls.
WVe of the south spend in thme aggre
gate a large sumt annually for vinegar.
Every faily should take advantage of
the full crop of fruit this season to make
vinegar enough for several years supply.
Vinegar can be mhadle fronm fruit juices in
a few weeks by rep)eatedl areation, or the
juice may be soured in full vessels in a
cool cellar and kept for years ready for
conversion into vinegar. Wheni thme vin
egar jug is emptied, fill from No. 2.
Fill No. 2 from No. 3, and fill No. 3
from the cask .in the cellar.
If the juice is allowed to drip slowly
from onie vessel to another, the exposure
to the air will rapidly convert it into
Cheap Pork Production.
Alabama station bulletin No. 93 tells
of tests of peanuilts, cowpeas anild sweet
potatoes ats ecotiomical feeds for the pro
duction of-f6rk. 'lie animals fed varied
in age from pigs just weaned to half
grown shoats, being all young, growing
stock. Utnleached hardwood aishes and
salt were kept within reaJi :md were
used by these pigs. Thie experiment
began September 8, 1891, and ein(Idd
February 16, 1898.
Following are tle results obtained
Spanish peanuts, when harvested by
young pigs, were converted into pork
worth, at 3 cents per pound, $18.34 per
acre of peanuts, when all conditions were
This piece of poor sandy hnd, which
gave it return of over $18 per acre in
peaitit pork, would not have produced
with same fertilizers over 2(X) I)otndls of
lint cotton per acre, worth $io to $12.
The expiense of cultivating these peanuts
was much less thatn the cost of a similar
acre inl cotton.
In another field, with only half a stand
of plants, the value of the pork from an
acre of Spanish )eantts wIs $10.94 and
$7.83 ill two experiments.
Under favorable conditions, pork (live
weight) wias produced at the rate of 14126
poimds per acre of peanuts, supplemented
by 38 bushels of corn.
With half a stand of plalnts an acre of
Spanish peanuts produced, unaided, pork
at the rate of 261 pounds per acre, and at
the rate of 84lo pounds per acre when the
acre of peanuts was supplemented with
35. bushels of corn.
When tile fed pigs inl pens only three
pounds of tinhulled Spanish peanits
were required to produce each poun11d of
increase in live weight. This is equal
to nine pounds of increase, worth 27
cents, as a return from each bushel of
Shoats pastured onl nearly matured cow
pens and supplied with corn made almost
three times the gain in live weight made
by similar shoats fed exclusively on
The tinfavorable effects of long contiin
ited feeding of an exclusive corn ration
to young pigs is plainly shovin. The
unthrifty appearance of the pigs eating
nothing but corn was a startling coni
mentary on the financial loss following
such a course.
The addition of corn to the peanut
ration increased the total gain, but it re
quired more of the'mixed food of peantits
to produce it pound of' increase.
The better effects 4' tlie mixed ration
may )be diue to one or all of the following
1.To tihe tundetermnltIed atmotint of lea f
2. To the more nitrogenous character
(or better qtiality) of tihe mixed ration.
3. To thle better appetites of tIhe pigs
oil a mixedl diet, resulting in the con
sulmpltion of a larger quatntity of corn
andl in more rapid fattening than oc
cuirred with tIle lot on an1 exclusive corn
diet. It is a well establishled p)rincip)le
that rapid fattening of pigs is effected
withI less food per pound of growth than
is slowv fattening.
Th'le cowv pea crop) was atbov'e the aver
alge, and1( its vatlue ini 3-cent p)ork, after
subtracting tile cost of tile corn fed, was
$a0.65 per acre.
Shoats fed in pens1 gained1 more rap
idly ill weighit on a ration of ground cowv
peaIs and( corn t h1an on grotund corni alone.
In elect five andl a q1uarter p)ounds5 of t his
mlixed1 food wats equalt to eighlt p-.m!ds of
Three pounds(1 of sweet p)otatoes proved
decidedly) inlferior to one pound1( of corn
'Tile results shmow thait tinder the condi
tions of thlis exp)eimenlt oneC pound1 of
corn was wvorth much more than11 three
poundls of sweet potatoes. These figures
(do iot einable us to p)lace an exact value
oil potautoes, but indicate that pricing
corni at 40 cents pe'r b)ushel sweet p)otat
toes were worth less than 13 cents
pe bushlel of 56 p)ounds(. (TIhe legal
wveight of a bushlel of sweet p)otautoes va
ries ini differenlt states.)
If corn wvere worthI 50 cents per bushlel
thlese results wotild give to sweet p)otatoes
a value conlsidleraly below :7 centis.
Probably 1o or' a cenlts per~ bushel wouild
b)e a closer estimate of the niutitive value
of it bushel of potatoes fed withI cow peams
ini the p)roportions employedI in this ex
Innamch na 3m huRhels of sweet no.
tatoes is not an extraordinary yield, this
crop will still easily produce more pork
per acre than corn, and inasmuch as .ic
hogs do their own harvesting and feeding
without waste, it can be readily seen
that notwithstanding their low feeding
valuies compared with corn sweet )Ot a
toes are a cheap hog food in the South.
Tiey are succulent, palatable and whole
The value of sweet potatoes will be
enhanced by feeding with them a liberal
allowance of cow peas and peanits,
which supply the nitrogenous nate
rial in which the sweet potato is defi
Cow peas fed with corn did not injl
riously affect the quality of the pork
or lard. ianuts, when fed with
corn, greatly softened the pork and
The softening effect of peanuts was
still greater when! they constitted the
This softening effect of peanuts was
not corrected by feeding exclusively on
corn for a month before the date of
Lard from exclusive peanu11t feediig
solidified only during t lie coldest 'weather
of February, at other times int Febru
ary and March becoming almost a semi
'T'lhe low melting point, or want of
firmness, of lard made from peanuts in
jures its sale. Ilowever, cooking tests
fail to reveal any real inferiority.
Hogs and Pumpkins.
While feeding my hogs their ration of
pumpkins recently, it occurred to my
mind that many of the ills with which
humanity is afflicted, particularly of a
parasitical nature, are due to our domest
ic animals. More prudence and a little
forethough might avert much disease,
not to say death. Tape\Vorms and other
parasites find the swine, sheep, etc., a
congenial breeding place. The humane
and wise course to pursue is to see that
our animals are kept in good health, es
pecially so just before slaughtering.
Pumpkin seeds are about the only vermi
fuge used in some households, and they
are among the recognized official articles
enumerated in the United States Dispen.
satory, and are held in high relute as
taeniafuges by practitioners of high re
pute, says J. C. Senger in the Rural New
Yorker. It is but reasonable to suppose
that, when fed to our animals, they will
exert a similar sanitary effect. One
thing is certain that when- hogs are fed
pumpkins in connection with their regu
lar corn ration they will lay on flesh more
rapidly, and one will get more pork from
a given amount of corn than without the
pumpkins. This may be due p)artly' to
the intrinsic feeding value of the putmpl
kins themselves, partly because succumlent
feedl renders more of the dry feed digest
ible, and p)artly because few~er worms
have fewer mouths to feed. We all know
how difficult it is to feed an animnal that
is infested with worims. The chances
are that pumpkinms have a feeding, a
medicinal , and a nmnurial v'alue. But it
is not a safe practice to leedI them ind(is.
crimninately, ad l ibitumi, to the extent
that hogs will not conisine all that mnay
begiv~en them each meal .--North western
Facts for Farmers.
Every farm has a p)lace for sheep that
no other stock can fill.
For want of suflicient moisture a tree
may starve with its roots in the midst of
Teach the young horses to walk well,
and a goodl foundation is laid for thme fast
Thorough grubbing is the sur-est way
of getting ridl of elder, sassafras andl per~
Always keep thme plow sharp; it nmakes
better work anid is easier for bothI the
team and p)lowimlan.
One adlvantalge in usiing the drill or
seedl sower is that the seedl will be (dis
tributedl more evenly.
A light. daily feed of oats canm nearly
always be given to the weaning colts at
this time with benefit.
When the tools and implements arc
storedl away, be sure that they are 1)1op)
erly cleaned and( p)ainted.
The best systems of croppinmg are iniva
riably those which call for the most
thorough p)rep)arationl of the soil.
Feeing, watering and( grooming reg
ularly will aid materially in keeping thc
horses in a good, thrifty condiion.
San Jose Scale.
This very serious pest of fruit trees
has been reported from several points in
South Carolina. Few Ire familiar with
the insect as yet, am, know when it is
present. No doubt it is doing damage
uinaware in a number of other places in
tile S(ale. 'it oyster shell scale or bark
louse and scurfy scale are frequently
fouild oi orchard trees, ats well as other
species of scale ; but the S11am1 Jose scale
is (lhe mennest of tle scale insects. In
lested tree-s it' felt alone suceculmi) inl
about three years.
In a peach orchard, not inl t his State,
however, I 8() out of 29>oo trees died
as tile resuilt of the injuries of this insect.
It is to be hoped that those in this State
)who have orchards, or even but a feNw
trees, will he on tle lookout for this
scale, and take Iielasilures promptly for
its Uistruction. In cases of doub! the
party shoultd wri to tie lAltololigist
of tile pelilIent Sation at Clemson
College wh%.lo will gladly identify speci
Iienls a1i! lur11-Iish all ecssay informIIaI
The tw igs of' trees infected with this
scale have a dul111 ashen appearanl e whlen
the insect is present in quantity. if tle
t,wig he scraped with tle fingernail there
is found a seurfy material whici is easilv
scraped off. ''ll hark underneath ( his
-urf Is a purplish appeairanice which
is very pronounced in tle case of peCl
es, alpples and pear-s at211( inidicates, be
yond a doubt , tI he presence of Sam J ose
scale. The seury scale is somiewhat
similar to lie scale first mentioned, but
does not cause this purplish discolora
t im of t wigs. The ashen appearanee
ot wig's is cautsed by two or (ibr-ee layers
of small papery scales. Whenl not So
abundant, however, the scales have tile
appearalice of small whitish discs adher
ing to the bark. These are circular in
outline, about one-t welfth of an inch in
diamet'er or smler with i a small nipple
like prominence in the center. Tliis
scale represents an excretion of tlie ini
sect-not the insed itself-tie offender
being a little soft-bodied insect tner
neatih tle papery scale. There fixed inl
position he lives sucking the juice of' tile
twigs, protected from tile weauhet by
his little house.
lBirds, no doub), are elfective agents
inl carrying tle insect from tree to Iree
upoti their feet. The original infesta
tiols m11a) come with trees purchased of
nurserymen or tree ageits or upon fruiit.
The Sai Jose scale can he sent around
the world on fruit. It would therefore
be unwise to throw peelings oin which
scale were present tioig fruit trees or
into the yard.
'Thle insect lays no eggs, but brings
forth its younig alivye cont iiously (luring
thle sum mer. Wh ile younzg it can crawl
a3bout , but soon1 loctes 0on thle bark, and
lien remiainis fix ed itn that plauce. All
thle decid uouts frmuit Itrees and1( shrzutbs of
tie r'ose family, inicluiding thle rose itself,
a'so chnis, chesttnts and1( waluts arte
liable to thle at tack of' this scale.
Treatmtetnt is limiiit ed to the winter
seatson when the foliage will not be in
jur'ed by thle sItrong washes n)ecessary.
ketrosete etmulsion used at thle trate of
otne par't of' the emnulsiotn to four 01' five
of wa2ter' hats been foittd etntirely sat is
factory for' treat inzg t rees inf1 ested with
scatle. It is utsefulI f'or ot her scale insects
also. IDi luted to one par't in fiffteen or
I wenty it mal2kes ani effect ive land cheap
spra'2y agauinst plant31 lice, umites, and1( al
miost any insect. Th'le emuizlsioni is tmade
as follows: liiartd soap j, onie-hialfI pound ;d
soft water, one gal lona ; ke&'osene, t wo)
gallonis. First slice utp the soapl intto a
gallIon of wiatetr, heat unt1il thle soap l is
all melted and1( dissolvedl, atnd while t his
solution is boiling hot add to) it t wo
galllonis of coail oil anid churani the umixturte
violently unttil it fortms a1 butter-tmilk
mass. It is ltnread(y tot' diluition and
use accordhinag to thle sI renigthI needed. if'
wvell mxade therce wvill he no ftree oil on
lie surtfazce, an<il a dtrop a pplied to glass
will show 3n0 oilIintess. 'Thle c hurn'1in g is
mtost effectiv~ely done by mneatns of a1 hand1(
sytringe or' pump111 by pumping upl the
li<utid and1( forcing thle s~ 2ta back into
lie satte vessel. Ini pla1ce of thle halfI
pound1( of hiatrd soaip a1 (ciuart of soft soap1
ma2y be utsedl. If the t wo gallons of
ker'osene canl he heated w i thout danltgetr
before beinzg adldedl to thle soap11 solution
so tmuch the belter'.
A not her I retnt tmenit conlsist s of t wo
npounds of white-oil Isoan1 dIissolved in
one gallon of watcr. This, as well as
the kerosene emulsion, requires the use
of at strong spray pump.
On the Pacific coast, what is known
as tle "lime, salt and sulpher waash," is
said to mIake the control of this scale
easv. 'The samle wasl, however, accord
itg to some auit orities lias not proved
so satisfactory inl the EAst when differ
ent climate conlditions prevail.
h'lie writer has nit yet tested this
formiula imselif. It may be wvell to give
it, lowever, unslikenl lime, 5() pounids;
sulplher. .5 pounds:-. salt, 1 poimdF;
water, Ioo pounds. Hlalf of the litte
mnd all of tie sulpher are placedl in a
vessel w it h twenty-five gallons of wa
ter. '['lie contents of the kettle are then
boiled until the sulpher is dissolved or
com11biies withl the litte. W lien finished
the resulting liquid will be dark-brown
anm perfectly liquid. The product is
sllplide of litte. 'lhe salt is now added
Sthe bii la;nce of tie lime atid the latter
slaked. The salt and slaked lime are
now added to the sulpher solution. All
are boiled together then for an hour.
Diluted now with water to make one
hiundred gallons and strained tihe wash
is ready for us,-. This wash can be used
only oil domieat trces. It would kill
foliage. ERNEsT WALKIM.
Room at the Top, but Nowhere Else.
h'lle lower rouis of tle ladder of life
are all occupied ; the lower bertlis in the
sleeping car of progress are all filled, and
ma1tny of them ire 'doibled up;" the
pit and galleries of tile theater ofl human
existence are crowded, but there is plen
ty of roomli on tle stage ; the auditorium
is full to overflowing, but tlie rostrum is
not half filled. Those who can reach
lie top of' the ldder, or the tipper berth,
the stage or the rostrmn, will find a va
cant place which they exactly fill. 'T'here
is room it tlie top, but whether there is
room there for all will never he known,
for but few will ever reach the highest
point. It is suifficient. to know that
there is room at the top for all who get
there. In every avenue of life this is
IIte. 'I'imne was whilen all positions
were neiarly oin it level : then there was
room everywhere, work for all and suc.
cess for every half an effort. But the
few onutclimbing tle masses have Created
higher levels of existence, and because
liey are few there is room there. The
man who is contented onl tle plain
where lie tarted mnay be haitppy enough,
but he is not envied. The slim rewards
of mediocrity may satisfy his simple
wants, but Conspicuous success is beyond
his reach. 'I'lie army tliat spends it%;
time on dress parade will not. challenge
the admir'at ion (of' the wvorld by its great
v'ictoiries. W\hy are D)ewey and Schley
fitmiotus andi( envied ? Becauise they knew
their business ; ittd because the imen who
built their ships and( the meni who
miannmedl t hem itfterwiards, thle mien whlo
made(1( thle gunms that sank thle Spaniishi
fleets, were all trained for t heir respec
tie task, were as thle top of the laidder'
of' efliciency ; hence thleir defeat by an
inferior enemy badly equippledl wats an
imnpossiblity. The Spaniar'ds in these
memorable engiagemienits were too igno
rant to know t heir inferiority, andi( they
wvent dowvn with their wr'ecked ships.
'Thle American oflicers and( meni were in
lie ''fighting topis." Thle Spniaxrdls
looked up itt them and sanik , t here was
room for them at the top), but they were
niot there to occupy it. lIn every call
ing, in peaice its well as wvar, men sine
ceedl or fail itccording to thiei r attain
menit s. In ia gang oif working men nine
get one dollar11 a day, while the tenth
gets its much as atll thle ofthers. IDol lar
at-day mien arte in dletmanid and1( itre scarce.
Th'lere is room foi' the latter, whileI the
ranks of the former are crowded. WVhen
all farmers were prosperous according to
lhiir efforts, it was thotighit that they
wer'e exemipt from thle law ini quest ion,
btut miodlern pr'ogr'ess extended its pro
visionis ov'er all. Th'lere is no room for a
stuccessful farmier anly wVhere near the bot -
tom. The persimmoni of success canm
only be reached by thle lonigest pole.
As in thle kingdom of' heaven, many are
called, but few chosen ; so in this world
many climb, bitt few get there. Hut
lint is ato reason w hy itny should niot
strive. Few men are wvilling to ;tiren
deCr hope, and lie who refuses to make
an effort becituse odd(s itre against him,
surrend(ers all hope, and thence forward
is (of no more consequence than a knot
on a log.-.Farmu nd Ritnch.