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"Agriculture is the General Pursuit of Man; it
is th* Basis of all others, and there
fore, the most Useful and
. MOON'S PHASES.
1 h, 17 m. 14th
4 h. 32 m.
12 h, 2 in.
5 h, 23 m.
Sun Rises. .Sun Sets
?-Seo notice in another column to
shareholders of the Joint Slock Company
just formed,-which will have charge of |
the County Agricultural Fairs.
?Remember the meeting of the State
Agricultural Society on the 29th inst.
Let Orangeburg be well represented!
Col. Paul S. Felder is to open the discus
sion upon one of the subjects appointed
?Having published in a late issue an
admirable letter from David Dickson, of
Ga. We give below the answer of Dr.
E. M. Peudleton, of Athens, who takes
issue with Mr. Dickson on several points.
Both letters are taken from the Rural
?We take the following extract from
a recent work on Agriculture,?"How
Crops Grow"?which professes to teach
the ordinary farmer the usefulness of a
knowledge of chemistry combined with
actual experience in the field. It shows
a radical defect, which exists in a ma
jority of books for farmers, nowadays, in
not recognizing that Agriculturists, as a
class, arc not scholars.
"Red Oxide of Manganese, M 2, O 3,
or Mno, Mn 2. This oxide remains
when Manganese or any of its other exides
are subjected to a high temperature with
access of air. The melal and the pro
toxide gain oxygen by this treatment,
the higher oxides lose oxygen until this
compound oxide is formed, which as its
symbol shows, corresponds io tlie mag
netic oxide of iron, &c, &c."?exactly!
Reply to David Dickson, of Sparta.
In your last number, Mr. Dickson
takes issue with me on several points,
which I desire briefly to notice.
I stand corrected as to his consulting
a chemist about plaster aud potash, (not
salt aud plaster ns he says). I remem
ber the fact that Mr. Dickson wished to
use potash on his lauds, and was in
formed by chemists, or learned it by his
own experience, or from reading that it
would not do to mix it with Peruvian
Guano- He then had a mixture of plas
ter and potash, (10 per cent, of the lat
ter to 90 of the former,) which he ap
plied on his lands. I tested this mix
ture on red land near Sparta. The first
year it paid nothing. The second year
it did much better, owing, no doubt, to
the fact that it had by this time formed
a union with carbonic acid and thus be
In reference to this experiment, Mr.
Dickson said it was worth i00,000 dol
lars to the planting interest, as it showed
fdnarlv nmnnrr ntbor things, that good
guanos would pay a good per cent, the
The great difference between M.
Villo's formula and Mr. Dickson's is,
that former used the neutral phosphafe
of lime, and the latter the bi-pbospbate,
(dissolved bones.) As, however, M.
Ville has recently changed his formula
to the acid phosphate, we have nothing
to say on that point, only that with this
change, (as Dr. Smith's experiment shows)
there is a vast improvement in results.
The old formula, (the only one which I
evev opposed,) utterly failed in my own
hands, on cotton, because the phosphate
of lime was in an insoluble condition.
Mr. Dickson says thai "a heavy load
of bolls early, will make cotton rust on
thin snndy lands from exhaustion, if not
w<sll sustained with a good fertilizing
My experience and observation leads
me to change this proposition thus : "A
good fertilizing compound will produce
a heavy load of bolls early, and if there
is not plenty of vegetable matter in the
soil will make it rust, especially on thin
I agree with Mr. Dickson. that guano
is suitable for cotton on gray land if it
has a ciny foundation. Much oi his
land has-this important principlo, but I
wrote of the great mass of lauds in South
eastern and Southwestern Georgia, wheu
tho clay is absent, and guano has gene
rally proved a failure, at least does not
act as favorably- as on red lands. 1
know the fact, that farmers in the white
lands of Georgia have, to a large extent,
abandoned the more stimulating fertili
sers*, and I venture that the commission
merchants of Macon will bear me out in
the assertion,-that they do not sell one
fourth U3 much guano to the farmers who
cultivate that class of lands a* they did
three years ago, while in tho red land
section the trade, was greatly incresed.
Mr. Dickson Bays "there is no suoh
thing as stimulating plants," and yet he
admits that they will dio from exhaus
tion er rust. Has he never seen a plant
hang its head under a burning sun and
lack of moisture, and yet a cloudy day
would rovivo it, "stimulate" it, or a
shower would make it hold up its head,
before it bad time to receive a particle of
nourishment from tho effects of the rain.
If a plant can become faint and exhaus
ted, and be revived again, then it can be
stimulated, and this may be done either
by food, (for food stimulates sometimes
as well as nourishes,) or by stimulants
that do not nourish them in the least.
What causes a man who is hungry and
depressed to feel so strengthened and re
vived after .eating ? It is the stimulous
of food, not its nourishing qualities, be
cause it never performs this function
until after digestion takes place, and the
chyle is separated from tho chyme, which
is a slow process, and plans are stimu
lated, I doubt not, by fertilizers, warmth,
moisture and genial sunshine, just in tho
Plants perspire, or have a system of
exhalation going on, water exuding from
their pores like man.- And Boussingault
found, by an actuul experiment, that
whenever this transpiration ceased the
plant cearcd to grow ;. where it was most
active, it grew most rapidly. It h clear
to my mind that certain conditions o'
the atmosphere, as low temperature pro
duces this unhealthy state, and ammonia
not only feeds a sickly cotton plant dur
ing such weather in tho spring, but gives
it vigor to brave the season, and grow in
spite of the weather.
The great difference between M. Ville's
formula and Mr. Dicksou's, is that the
fjrmcr used the neutral phosphato of
lime, and the latter the bi-phosphate,
(dissolved bones.) As however M. Ville
has lately changed his formula to the
acid phosphate, wo havo nothing to say
on that point, only that with this change,
(as Dr. Smith's experiment shows,) there
is a vast improvement in results. The old
daily absorbed and worked up iucreases,
etc. If plants can be quickened, made
more active, they certainly ctfn be stimu
In an experiment made by Bousain
gault, the weight of the plants produced
was nearly three and a half times greater
than that of the soeds sown, but the
quantity of nitrogenous matter was the
same as in the seeds sown, but the quanti
ty of nitrogenous matter ?was the same as
in the seeds. Liebig says that this ex
periment is well adapted to remove all
doubt about the very important power
possessed by the nitrbgeneous matter,
(ammonia,) of maintaining tho vital pro
cess in the plant, eveu where tho mass of*
the plant itself roceives*ho**in crease." If
this be true, ammonia "maintains the
vital force" without nourishment under
certain circumstances, then it must be by
E. M. PENDLETON.
Atuens, March 11, 1873,
Ciiufas for Sheep, Hogs and Poul
try.?A writer in the Southern Cul
tivator, says that tho Chufa will yield
on impoverished, worn out land more
nutritious food for sheep, swine and farm
stock generally than nny grain, grass
or root crop we grow under the most fa.
vorable conditions of soil and seasons.?
"In April last I planted a half bushel
of seed, costing $5.00, on one acre of the
poorest laud on my place?a bare, bald
knoll, so barren of fertility that it would
scarcely "sprout cow peas"?and al
though the crop received but one work
ing and the seed were planted three by |
two feet, double tliG distance required,
the yield was over 100 bushels. The
grass will grow two four feet high, unin
jured by drought or heat, and is im
proved by pasturing with sheep ; afford
ing nn abundance of rich, tender, sweet
herbage until frost and an increased
yield of roots. Tho roots are trouble
some to gather for market, especially in
gravelly or rocky soil, but turn in the
hogs and poultry any from September
till spring and they will gather all the
crop and moro fatness too than they
could get from ten acres of corn.
Attorneys At Law,
Orangeburo, C. H., S. C,
Malcolm I. Brownino. A. F. Brownifo
F. H. W, BRIGGMANN
HAS just received n fuii supply of NEW -SPRING GOODS,
CONSTANTLY ON HAND a full lino of Dry GoodS of all kind* He of?ra
Needed by everybody, at low rates, consisting of BOOTS AND SHOES,- GROCERIES,
HARDWARE, HATS, Ac, Ac. ALSO,
The BUTTON-HOLE SEWING MACHINE, (which took first Premium at last County
Fair,) for which he is Agent
Call and See for Yourselves.
ALSO AGENT FOR THE
A. Portable PUMP and SPRINKLER I
April 10, 1873 8 tf
ML ESTATE AGENCY!
The undersigned having formed a co-partnership under the name ofiFOWLES &
GLOVER, offer their services to thn community, as Agents for the Sale or purchase
of Real Estate, and for collection of Rents, &c JAS. H. FOWLES,
JULIUS GLOVER, At Citizens' Savings Bank.
At Law Office of Glover & Glover.
We offer for sale:
A new and bountiful residence In Or
nncreburg, on East sido of Railroad, with
fine outbuildings, garden, &c.
A plantation1 near Fort Motte, 500 acres,
with dwelling and outhouses in good con
dition-?water power on the place.
100 acre farm (unimproved) on Bell
ville Road, 1} miles from Orangeburg;
60 acres each, of open and wood land.
ALSO, a*, a- Bargain, 340 acres CL5?
cleared) within } mile of Rowe's Bridge;
1J miles from Rowe's Pump Depot.
IN MEDICINES QUALITY IS OF THE FIRST IMPORTANCE.
E. J. OLIVEROS, M. D,
Dealer in Drugs, Medicines, Paints, Oils, Var
nish, Mon-IS x plosive Lamps, Gaarden
Seeds, &c. &c. &o.
PRESCIPTTONS prepared with accuracy and fidelity, for which purpose a full and com
plete assortment of PURE CHEMICALS and GENUINE DRUGS will be cofistalitly
t ONG Experience?a successful businere career of more than eight years in Orangeburg.
JLj and a good knowledge of the DRUG MARKET, at Home and Abroad, will afford
a sufficient guarantee that all goods sold or dispensed at my Establishment will be GENU
INE and RELIABLE.
Appreciating the success whieh, in the past, lip-s attended my efforts, I have deter
mined to spare no pains to merit a continuance of the patronage so liberally bestowed.
* E. J. OLIVEROS,
No. 100, Russell Street,
Orangeburg C. H., S. C.
Feb. 27, 1873, 2* lj
DR. A. C. DUKES,
Drugs, Medicines, Chemicals, fine Toilet Soaps,
FANCY HAIR AND TOOTH BRUSHES.
PERFUMERY AND fAKCY
TRUSSES AJSTD SHOULDER BRACES,
GRASS AND GARDEN SEEDS, PURE WINES AND LIQUORS,
FOR MEDICINAL PURPOSES, PAINTS, OII?, VAR
NISHES AND DYE STUFFS, LETTER-PAPER,
PENS. INK, ENVELOPES, GLASS,
OIL LAMPS, &c, &e,
wgb- Physicians Prescriptions accurately compounded.
FIRE INSURANCE AGENCY?
Insure your Dwelling, Store or Stock of Goods in the
LI V JLlir^OU, UOi\L?01N AINU ULUDL ll^OUIV/ll^Ori KjO
Capital, $20,500,000 in Gold,
This company paid over three (3) millions nl Chicago fire, and over one (1)
million at recent fire in Boston. JAS. H. FOWLES, Agent.
GOODS GIVEN AWAY
Almost, or sold so cheap that the buyer receives a gTeat advantage, at the
welll-known stand of C. D. KORTJOHN,
OofFee, Sngar, Teas, Tobacco, Segars, Flour, Bacon, Lard, Butter, Clreese
Crackers, Canned Goods, and, in fact, everything wated for tho family.
You do not wish to buy, come and look at my stock of Groceries und Liquors of all
grades. ESPECIAL ATTENTION is called to my pure Cognac Braudy and
Holland Gin, for?Medicinal purposes.
As I am beyond the necessity of selling inferior articles. I have a well-selected
and first-class stock which I am anxious should be examined
By my friends and customers, and by the public generally.
fitW* Satisfaction guaranteed, by
Nov. 20-ly O. D. KORTJOHN,
? M APES' ? ?? i j, in
OF UMS, AND
H. PRESTON & SONS?
Amrnoniated Bone Superphosphate of LIME. iTi
OA8H, SSO; TIj\C3E, &60.
THE OLDEST; SUPERPHOSPHATE MANUFACTURED in" rajas
Above Fertilizers are made from the best and finest material obtainable
The proportions of each of th'e' ingredients are such as to produce powerful and ie-- !
tive Fertilizers. ?? , r.. j,., .
ItilVSMAN, & HOWELL.
General Agents for South Carolina.
No. 128, East Bay, Charleston, s. C.
J. A. HAMILTON, Agent at Orangeburg C. H., S.O.'
January 20, 1873 50** tf
WILLIAM M. BIRD & 0
IMPORTERS AND MANUFACTURERS OF
OILS, WEITE LEADS,
proprietors favorite brand bri1/liant pev
Marvin's Safes, and Howe's Scales,
201, East Bay Street, (Sign of the Whale,)
Charleston, &.' Cv
March 27, 1873 6 3nr
GEN. J. B. GORDON, President. , W. C MORRIS, Secretary.
GEN. A. H. C0LQU1T, Vice-President C- F- McCAY, Consulting Actuary:
BR^^CBE OFFICE OF
A-SSETS, January 1st., i?V?', $1*241,947 40.
BLACK & WARING, J. A. HAMILTON,
General Agent.' Agent at Orangeburg, S. C
MOSELEY & CROOK,
HAVING Formed a copartnership under the Firm Name anu style as ab?. v?, we v.oult'
respectfully call the attention of the public to the f ame.
Constantly on AS Particular nttcn
hand a full supply ^YFi ?P^T ^ given to the
of DRY GOODS, P J- CT- T O purdiSse oi RICE'
Groceries Hardware a^O u N Mo C??\?e*V &c' .
I Afb, Cats, Boots HAVING B O V Ii II T Call and examin?
and*and Shoes, Tin- OUR STO<lK WITI?_ TII IS_ o u r well - selected
all very cheap. wfT?W^RICEST AT* AND INDUC J>
Come and see us E. EZEKIKI/S YOU TO CALZ/
once and you will OLDSTAND AGAIN,
calll again. ?8ITP
come AND see COME AND Ott?
. W. MOSELEY. THE POST OFFICE. W. K. CRO?fc.
Feb. 13, 1873 52 ? ly .
The Citizens' Savings Bank
OF SOUTH CAROLINA
Will pay 7 PER CENT INTEREST on SPECIALPEPOSITS and 6 PER CENT on SAV
INGS DEPOSITS compounded Send-annually. * .
[Local U'ina-iico Committee.
Hon. THOS. W. GLOVER,
Col. PAUL S. FELDER.
Capt. JOHN A. HAMILTON,
JAS. H. FOWLES,
mch 19-ly Assistant Cashier.
BULL, SCOVILL & PIKE
EAPIDLY HET)XJCIlSra their LAJRGkEJ
INDUCEMENTS ARE OFFERED. GOOD STYLES AND DF?IRABI^
GOODS ARE ALWAYS FOUND AT
BULL, SCOVIIA & PIKE'S,
Who are agents for First class
l.ife and fire insurance companies.
Also Agents for the IMPROVED WINSHIP COTTON GIN, tmdeV
?*r?ned 150 Ids. seed cottar to each saw in 5 hours and 50 minutes. Thus, ?rfiftf*.
Saw Gin can turn out about 6 bales, 400 lbs. each, in about ?-hours, if rua *?*y
high rate of speed. Purchase the "VYinship Gin. ' s ? j. , i^?j^l
* ^ BULL, SCOVILL & PIKK, Agentfe
yld?1872?18?tf , .s ;