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eTreville & Howard
ATTORNEYS AND COUNSELLORS
OrangcbnrK ?. H., S. C.
Will practice in the various Courts
?? the State*
3. DeTreville, Jatnes S- lleyward
w. 6. treadwellT
"Will attend to patients at their residents
cither in Town or Country. Address
through Post Office or call on me at resi
dent Concr R?ssel and Treadwcl* Streets,
rompt attention will be given at satis*
W. B. TREADWELL.
ov 3 ly
owlton & Wannamaker,
' /COUNSELLORS AT LAW,
Orangeburg ?. II., S. CJ.
Aog. B. Knowlton, P. M. Wannatnaker,
Orangeburg C. II. St. Matthews,
may 5 1877 tf
THOM AS R A Y,
(Russell St Opposite Hurley's Corner.)
All manner of Smith work and Horse
shoeing properly dune.
Fancy Scroll work. Hailing (or Grave
Lot.-. A trial solicited.
pept 1 tf.
% cowpe rth w ait,
205 KINO STREET,
est sitlr, Four Doors above Wentworili,
CHARLESTON, K. C.
ARGE STOCK <l- LOW PRICES.
ltt> v iiiirgo*for Packing and Shipping,
sept 15 1S77 (im
GIN r, GEARING,
Ihaittng and bolts
THAN EVEH BEFORE
lESr CITY FOUNDRY
fJEO. R. LOMBARD & CO.,
Machinery off Kinds Made and Re
\t 27 1250] 52
fSTABLlSHED IN 1874.
GEO. B. EDWARDS,
Cotton and General Commis
Charleston, S. *?.
Prompt attention given to sale of Cotton,
Peas, Corn, Rice and Produce of all kinds.
Merchandize bought free of four mission.
Agent at Charleston for State Line Ccean
??Stcamshins between New York, tilasgow,
Liverpool, London and all parts of Europe.
References?Bank of Charleston. Jas.
Adger & Co., Charleston, S. C.
MTJSIO FOR ALL.
( Prof. ANTON BERG ?fters to instruct
n the Piano on the most reasonable terms.
Nine Lessons for $2.50.
The greatest care will he taken to give
satisfaction. Ladies who wish a finishing
touch to their MuHtcal Education have an
opportunity to go through a course of Ber
and Cromer's, Etrudes, Moztird nnd
Graduate from the Conservatory of
sept 8 tf
. The undersigned respectfully informs the
Citizens of the Town and County that he is
prepared todo up ami make Mattruwes on
the shortest notice. Also will conduct an
Upholstery business. Prices will be as low
as possible. Orders solicited.
rout sold Low Down
Application of Commercial Ferti
BY COLONEL THOMAS 1AYLOR.
The success of the farmer has been
the result of experiment, and not of
knowledge; and so long as we work
in the dark no specilied result can be
certain. It is sell-evident that all
land must be ploughed, but how it
should be ploughed depends upon the
character of the soil. Sandy soil
should be ploughed shallow iirst; it
may be subsoiied to any depth, and
the ploughing may be deepened each
I year without injury to the land or
Clay and bottom land can be
ploughed deeper, following with the
subsoil, and increasing the depth in
ploughing yearly. All land should
be ploughed in the full und winter,
and get the benefit of frost nnu ice;
laud fcCts a gl eat deal of fructifying
power from ice mid frost. We now
have exhausted hind, improved imple
ments which enable US to prepare the
land thoroughly for the seed We
need something more. We get that
in the commercial manures, which
supply to sliG plant those chemical
properties which have been exhausted
by long culture and injudicious
We now have land anil implements,
but we need something to make the
land productive to a sufficient degree
to pay the producer. We find under
lying some of the land and waters in
the lower part cf the Slate a phos
phutic deposit, which, upon being
ground and rendered soluble, forms
the basis of a mauure, which supples
to laud those properties which have
been exhausted. These mixtures,
known as commercial niunures;-ha.ve
become generally used, and have evan,
with our experimental applications,
paid the producer in some i^ytunccs
t ills vnst ""?bOirVce* oYTyWfni to liTcT
?Mute and farmer seems to be Provi
dential, and as the means by which
we will be enabled to recover our
losses in a great measure. If the
fanners hud known how to make pro
per use of this discovery, their lands
would have improved yearly, instead
of failing, after repeated applications
of fertilizers. It. is almost the uni
versal system of the farmer to apply
the cotton seed, with its increase by
the use of commercial manure, to
some other exhausted land, instead of
reiurniug the sametothelandth.it
made it. Thereby they rentier the
bin?! less productive each year, after
the fist or second application This
?system will not build up our exhaust
ed lands, but have the reverse etf.-et
The rotation of crops in some degree
removes thedifllculty, but even that
will not eilcct it entirely. You must
return all the increased production of
mi acre of laud, which is used as man
ure, to the .-ame land, ami not attainpt
to build up two pieces of bin 1 with
the production of one- No land can
stand such depletion and pay th ? pro
ducer. The best evidence of the fer
tility of our lands is that they have
been able to stand such a system of
culture and produce anything. I
have traveled over some of the best
farming lands in the Northwest, the
New England and Middle States.
The same system would and did, for
a time, render these lands very poor.
The owners, however, saw the error
of their culture, and adopted asystom
of rotation?planting apiece of land
once in three years, sowing grass and
liming. What was the result ? Their
lands increased in yield steadily until
they surpassed their virgin state. The
samo thing can be done here, with
equal success, by a rotation of crops
?Sowing peas and clover and turniug
in the same. Do not tako these from
the land because they look so fine
and you are short of rough food for
your mules and cattle. Tho natural
fertility of our lauds cannot bo dis
puted. No Stato has more natural
advantages than South Carolina. Wo
can grow all the crops that are grown
on the continent, from the olive and
banana down to the most substantial
needs of a people. Where can wo
GOO poundj? of seed cotton without the
aid of fertilizers will certainly pro
duce from one-third to one-half more
by their use. It may double the yield.
That, however, would bo too large
an estimate as n general rule. I hav e
had, with the application of 200
p?7Tnids of tVeilic g(Titiir.,Mtr ih'ci i.vmrT1
a yield of1,200 and 1 500 pounds per
acre of seed cotton, which did no t
yield mote than 500 to 000 pound
without it; 1 have u!so had theaam
result from the Etiwan, both bi ating
Peruvian guano. This land, however
seemed particularly adapted to tl
application of fertilizers, and the cr
has never fallen back in the past f.
years. These lands were clearec'
the Indian, before the white mar o
tied the country. Jl
The manner and mode r>f app' tJ
fertilizers is very uniform; it ist u
in a deep furrow and the dirt h \n
upon it?the cotton being pi ''*'"
upon the top of the b d. S<>iri 1 e.
a second application in made j(J
the cotton is tinned to a sta a'
running a furrow ohne to the c it
sowing the fertilizer and thra
furrow upon it. This second tv
. 1 . w
lion gives a new impetus to the n
and goes far to perfecting its U
there is en .ugh vitality in t'i co
to give suhstctiance to the plan
long a time. There is ver
visible in the month of Augus
the cotton plant what is call? pi
by many larmera. The leaves at
and drop oil* and the plant d 111
say it is not rust in most cos j
proceeds from the soil being i -
to supply food any longer, the I f0
zer having exhausted all th3 vi
that was in the land for thai 11
The cotton attained a good siz< j1
well fruited, all opened and [
early in September. It may b o
by some that preching and pi W
are two dillerent. things. I adtni '(
you may preach always, but I
wc practice we cannot expect to
the land of poverty. The longo!
land is without medicine and foo
the plant, the more difficult W
the task of building it up. The
no time like the present to begin v
Manure is wasted by exposure
washing rains, or by being trampk
by stock iu wet yards. It may eas'
lose three fourths of its value in tl
Indolcnoo is tho rust of tho mi
ami tho inlet of every vice,