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aOfarJCTEB WATCHMAN, Established April, 1850.
'Be Just and Fear not-Let all the Ends thou Aims't at, be thy Country's, thy God's, and Truth's."
THE TRUE SOUTHRON, Established jane, 1868.
Aug. 2, 1881.1
SUMTER, S. C TUESDAY, JULY 4, 1882.
New Series?Toi. L No; 49.
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ft?grtts Watel&zn?nd Southron, or apply at
:isS&qt?$&& & gstben,
:? Nice and Soft.
Together they sat m the parlor alone,
g S-At tjiedusfc of aSabbatiuda^;
Her shapely head close to his own,
T - ~:?? a tender, loving way.
" % Hke4o4?y my bead, dear Will,
'Gainst yoursj" she murmured low
. In tones which made bis pulses thrill,
And* his face 'with rapture glow.
'^Aodia?tbecaupejon love me, dove?
- He asked; and then she cooghed.
dear. Will, not that, bat love,
Because it's nice and soft I"
THE SECOND REGIMENT.
- A -Cbaptor iu-tbe History of Eenhaw's
-t*>^^Wfe?de^Tf)ie' TSmig Furled.
?-Me?. C. Kerriso7uJr.t w VhurUtton Weekly
^A.Vv : H
? ( A^ptai of years, almost a generation.
Ig&t&?L, aua^odw ?882. Taking a
retrospective view, of the deeds aod acts
of-Korshaw's- Brigade and the Second
" South Carolina Regiment of infantry,
the<memory of its survivors freshens,
.'aod incidents almost honed by the
lapse af time rise as a panorama 'before
ii?fe'Bnn??*;wye;, from the brigade's first
" action atthe bombardment, aod taking
of FortSumter, though at that time not
. as a> brigade proper, to its patriotic and
: immediate voianteeirng for Virginiaafter
the fai|Ti*fjSumter.In the many fields of
baHiay^ntl :Ron, Manassas, yea to
tte^n^Eer^?lg never tarnished, and
like many of her'sister brigades, from
her own and other States of the Coo fed -
- eracy her record is clear. Here and
ir^were incidents in the brigade's
:r out of the general run of the ar
ffighting or battles?deeds by sin
jiments, acta by single companies,
i circumstances required and
"which ??rcUjnatences were needed to be
accomplished by a. portion of theorgan
iaationa.<. - . -
i-i TH? SfiO?X? SOUTH CAROLINA EEG DIENT
*or^a?zed in the latter part of Novem
ber or "the early days of December.
jS^e?cttcg.i^"B. Kershaw; olf Gam
dea, coloDel : J. D. Blaading of Sum
--.ieM?feutenant colonel- and Dix H
: Barnes, of 'Lancaster; major. At that
?i<ryr|)c>tod-of the great event scarcely
anj^ realized the momentous political
Party . feeling. as we all known ran
: Jri^?^ the actual
parttcipaBta in the blflfedy drama which
followed dreamed what was. to come of
t iCf -War;' almost famine, and death to
many a gallant fellow. The initiatory
^atep'was taken in the life of the Second
Regiment in I860, and on the 6th day
ofj&pril the nueleus of the future cegi
& ment arrived .at Charleston. . A few
weeks after the fall of Sumter the call
;*?V&ginia (the dear old Common
wealth) stirred the warm blood of the
Carolina heart, and the eloquent ap
peals of Gen. Bonham and Col. Ker
shaw induced four companies of Col.
Kershaw'* Regiment to respond, viz :
? Capt. Richardson's of Sumter : Capt.
; Caper's, of Columbia, and Capt. Wal-_
lace's, ot Columbia. The other com
panies remained under Lieut. Col
Blanding and Maj. Barnes, and after
wards were organized into the Ninth
Regiment. The four companies under
Col. Kershaw, on the eve of their de
parture for Virginia, were presented
with a beautiful stand of colors by Gov
ernor Pickeus. Shortly after their ar
rival at Richmond they were joined by
six additional companies the Palmetto
" Guard, Capt. Cuthbert; the Butler
' Guard, Capt. Hoke ; Brooks Guard,
Capt7 Rhett; Secession Guard Capt.
Perryman ; Capt. McManns's company
- from Lancaster and Capt. Hail's com
: p?ny from Kershaw.
The necessary complement of the
regiment was had aod the vacancies in
the.field officers filled by the election of
E. P. Jones lieutenant colonel and A.
D. Goodwyn major. A few weeks
drilling and enjoying the hospitable
kindness of Richmond, found the regi
- me n t on its way to Manassas Juncti on,
'1 Gregg's gallant First Regiment preced
ing it by a few days. The regiments
were commanded by Gen. Bon h am.
His brigade was shortly increased by
the arrival of the Third Regiment, Col.
Williams, the Seventh, Col. Baeon,
and the Eighth, Col. Cash. The bri
gade went into camp along Bull Ran
and for weeks was engaged in throwing
??|L_earthworks from Boll Run to
Fairfax Courthouse, there remaining
and fortifying till the advance of the Fed
erals. Falling back to Bull Run the
realities of a soldier's life began. The
_ poetry to a certian and very great ex
tent was a matter of the past; the stern
reality had unsurped its place.
ON MARYLAND HEIGHTS.
Following the battle of Bull Run on
' the 18th of June, 1861, came the battle
of Manassas on the 21st. The march
to the Peninsular and the fight at Wil
liamsburg, the Seven Days' fight around
Richmond, including Savage Station
and concluding the seventh day at Mal
vern Hill. Previous to the Seven
Days' battles, the term of service hav
ing expired, the regiment volunteered
for the war. Col. Kershaw being pro
moted to brigadier-general, Capt. Ken
nedy wag elected colonel, A. D. Good
wyn lieutenant-colonel and Frank Gail
lard major. Remaining for a while in
th?: vieinity of Malvern Hill, the bri
gade marched north under Maj. Gen.
MeLaws, rejoining the main army,
crossing the Potomac near Leesburg,
marching to Frederick City through a
gap i? the mountains, entered Pleasant
Valley. Climbing up Maryland Weight
and driving a body of cavalry who were
recoDooiteriog, the brigade at length
reached the strongly fortified crest of
the mountain, driving the enemy away.
Upon the rout of the enemy on Mary
land Heights, what a grand scene lay
before us?green-covered hills and val
leys, the silvery Shenand?ah meeting
the Potomac, Harper's Ferry nestled
below. There was the enemy's line of
battle with its bellowing artillery, the
brave Jackson, with his gallant com
mand earnest m the attack, and oar
artillery, drawn by.hand from the base
of Maryland HeigifcT- pouring its de
structive fire upon the enemy below.
The surrender of the enemy followed.
Harper's Ferry, with its immense stores,
fell into the Confederate hands, suffer
ing severely for rations, the command
receiving none for two days, while on
Maryland Heights. Disappointed the
morning after the surrender of Harper's
Ferry in not receiving rations; foot
sore and starving, marching through
the town on the way to Sbarpsburg,
pausing daring the proceeding night for
only four hours' rest and then the
march renewed, passing through Shep
berdstown, crossing the bridge and
reaching the vicinity of the historic
field near daylight.
A few minutes' rest. The morning,
at first chilly and misty, cleared off
.bright and cheery for the approaching
storm of battle, Kersbaw's Brigade was
60?n in line, the old Second in her nest,
flanked on each side by her brave copa
tdbts. The charge made?Sumner's
Corps sent reeling back?the brave
[Georgians and the unparalleled Missis
sippi Brigade of our Division, (Gen.
McLaw's well and fully up to their
work, the fight ended. The dying and
the dead, the oft repeated anguish of
the living, brothers, friends, yes, in
some instances the father and son, dead
on one common field. Just here, one
episode, so striking in ita- singularity
and carious reminiscence. 'The first
sergeant of the Palmetto Guard was
missing, with others on the fearful list :
after careful search of the field, a few
hoars before the change of position, his
remains were found, with a smile
on his countenance, his head rest
ing upon his left arm, as if in sleep.
He was dead,. wounded by a shell,
las, : we found, in the foot?the spine
broken by a grapeshot. We buried him
at night by the light of impromptu tor
ches a few minutes before the command
recrossed the river. The burial of Sir
John Moore flashed across our minds ;
it was his favorite school-day poem, in
early boyhood. The Potomac recrcssed,
the command rested from its arduous
services at Bruce or Brewer" Town, some
ten miles from Winchester.
. TREDERICKSBIIRG ?
After recuperating for a time the
march was'resumed for Fredericksbarg.
Going into camp, there was plenty of
fatigue and picket duty, and cold, bitter
cold nights, then the fight. We can re
collect the signal-gun, .startling and
clear. The command in position ; brave
Barksdale, with his Mississippians, re
lieved by line of battle,.after its.-gigan*.
tic work tn yesterday's advance of the
enemy-Kershaw's Brigade, with others,
in charge, of-the historic Stonewall?in
front of Fredericksbarg, the Second in
ber place. Charge after charge by the
enemy?the old story has been told be
fore. Why dwell on it ? The efforts
of the Federals were of no avail, their
gallant persistence broken, as attested
by the brave dead of Meagher's Irish
Brigade ; their dead in many instances
lying within a few yards of the Confed
erate line. Winter quarters, irith pick
eting along the banks of the river?
bine coats and grey jackets in sight of
each other on either bank. The winter
passes, and in May came the battle of
The odds against the Confederates
were great, but the genias of Lee and
the great Jackson were equal to the
emergency. The enemy is attacked in
the rear by Jackson, and then forced
back in front. In front of the brigade
and near the line of the Second Regi
ment a battery of Napoleon guns was
rushed in advance of the infantry, by
order ol Gen. Stuart, who assumed
command of the corps after the wound
ing of Jackson. The clear, tinkling
vibration of the guns is distinctly audi
ble to the infantry. A few minutes
and the enemy is routed and Hooker is
dri?en back in dismay. Changing di
rectly to meet Sedgwick, the battle of
Salem Church is fought near night, and
then the next day Sedwick is driven
across the river to his old quarters. Re
turning to Fredericksbarg, and resting
some weeks, then came the march to
Gettysburg. The army in splendid
condition ; every soldier confident, in
- course of time the scene of that memor
able field was reached, arriving about
dusk and meeting with many of Ewell's
command enthusiastic over the prelimi
nary fight, which was to be followed
the next day by the grand effort of the
entire army. Resting on the eve, every
heart beating with hope and determina
tion, the" regiment and brigade were
ready. Marching aud counter march
ing in the vicinity of the Black Horse
Tavern, we at last get in position. The
Confederate artillery opening along the
entire Hue?the boys all ready, hopeful
yea, joyous over the prospect of success.
THE CHARGE AT GETTYSBURG.
As the order to forward is issued to
the line, the artillery ceases, a calm
comes, only to be banished by the car
nage to follow. With rifles at the 'right
shoulder shift,' the march common
time, the infantry advances in steady
column. The storm breaks. Shrieking,
crushing, tearing, comes the artillery
fire. Grape, cannister, shell and min
nies from the Federals heap their de
\ struction upon the devoted Confederates.
Yet steady, onward, without firing a
gun till the charge. Many a brave fel
low bit the dust long before the regi
ment opened. The bravery and cour*
age exhibited were almost superhuman.
Color-bearers were shot down one after
another. In one instance, which may
have been the case of many others, the
color-bearer, a gallant youthful looking
boy, when the order was given rally
on the colors, in anticipation of his death,
pushed his staff in the ground, and
when struck by the death dealing min
nie, his colors were there on which bis
battalion rallied and dressed. Charge
after charge, but impossible. Two cap
tured guns were rolled off by two mem
bers of the Second, but of no avail, for
the devastating fire soon leaves them
intact. The very dust around the feet,
from the grape and cannister, rises as
if from a Sirocco.
Pictures of battlefields may be vivid,
but what is the reality ? Many a gal
lant command swept forward only to
destruction. When the pall of night
came to close the bloody scene the army
though unsuccessful, was not defeated.
The heroic spirit, the ' confidence was
still unimpaired. One company of the
Second South Carolina entered the fight
with twenty-three men, at nighty but
five remained ; and that is the history
After Gettysburg and the recrossing
of the Potomac, the command fell back
to Culpeper, remaining nearly all sum
mer. In 'the fall, under its corps com
mander, was ordered to join Bragg's
army, participating in the battle of
Chickamauga, after which, with the de
tached command of Gen. Longstreet in
the fight at Kooxviile and Beans' Sta
tion ; after tais going into winter quar
ters till the movements of Gen. Lee
command our return to the mother
Army of Northern Virginia.
THE FIFTH OF MAT, 1864, .
found us pushing rapidly forward to join
the main army. The battle of the Wil
derness was to come. At sunrise on
the 6th we could bear the distant thun
dering of artillery. With quick step
we pushed forward and just in time.
As the head of our column strack the
Plankroad, so often spoken of by others,
we met Gen. Lee and staff. No time
to be lost. The enemy had surprised a
position of the line. Wilcox's Division
was driven back in less time than it
takes to tell it. The Second Begiment
gets into position by companies and be
gins the hot work by companies as soon
as they get to the front. Wbat a sight !
The solid blue line of the enemy flash
ed with success ; a battery of guns oi
the Confederates keeping them at bay,
with no infantry support. The name
of that battery should be historic. As
the smoke of their guns would cleat
away the colors of the near-approach
ing column of the enemy were seen.
But the scene changes. The old Sec
ond gets to work. The entire brigade
opens, and short work is made. The
enemy break. The fight continues.
The Second is detached for a time to
fill a gap in a portion of the line, some
distance from the brigade. With s
steady fire the Federals are broken and
the general rout begins. After, the
..battle, we take up the march to Spott
sylvania Courthouse, where the enemy
was again confronted. The Second
was in reserve, but the enemy " extend
ing his flanks, required all the infantrj
to be put.in line, under the immediate
eye of that gallant cavalier, Gen'.
Stuart. The Second was placed in posi
tion not a minute: too soon. Charge
after charge of the enemy was repulsed
and here occar-ed a scene worthy oi
A NOTEWORTHY SCENE.
?^Fho?enemy succe?ded in rushing
over a portion of the line protected by
James' Battalion of the brigade, bui
they were scarcely in when the bayonel
was brought to play and they were hurl
ed back, the battalion as usual meriting
its reputation as one of the best com
mands .in the brigade. Gen. Stuarl
watched the battle, expressing his ad
miration of the action. A few days
afterward the brave Stuart died for the
cause. The battle continued for sever
al days, when Grant, finding it impos
sible to b. eak our lines, moved toward
the Pamunkey, making a feint at Han
over Junction at North Anna Bridge,
where four companies of the Second
held the bridge successfully. Granl
continued moving by his left flank till
reaohieg Cold Harbor. The brigade
under the gallant Keitt, was sent ou!
to feel the enemy, striking him al
Beulah Church, strongly entrenched.
Here the brave Keitt received his mor
tal wound. Finding the enemy-, in
force and entrenched, the main army
was rejoined and sharp-shooting and
AN UNWRITTEN STORY.
One story unwritten iu the history ol
the Second South Carolina Begiment:
A very quiet afternoon at Cold Harbor,
the year 1864, the month and day Jane
oth. Two regiments in reserve, the
Second and Seventh. The Third,
Eighth, Fifteenth, Twentieth and
James' gallant little battalion on the
line. Not a sign of intention that the
enemy would attack. We, the regi
ments in reserve, bad scarce go!
through our scant Confederate dinner,
before the roll of infantry fire greeted
the ear. A second after, a courier frone
Gen. Kershaw reported with orders.
Forward the two regiments in reserve
(the Second and Seventh) with the
order to double-quick and form iu real
of a portion of the division works whici
had just been surprised and captured bj
the enemy. With his usual Scotch in
stinct (he will pardon the expression]
! and that cool grit which a series o
days of close relationship daring th<
war impressed on the writer, Col. Wil
liam Wallace of the Second, the scnioi
colonel in the command of the two reg
iments in reserve, ordered bis men for
ward. The second fell into ranks
being the first to receive orders, witl
instructions to the Seventh to follow ai
once. The Second, at quick time
reached the place of atttack. To ex
plain the position of the ground it it
j necessary to Btate that the division ii
I line of the works described a right an
! gle, so as to reach tho necessary point
I the reserve had to file left on reaching
the apex of the angle, and double
quick in rear and near the line of Con
federate works. So rapid was the mov(
of the Second that the Seventh, (as gal
lant a regiment as ever fought,) hac
not time to reach and form with us. I
was a momentous period, requiring
judgment, decision and dash. Tb<
Second formed on an elevation, aboul
two hundred yards from the captured
works, held by two regiments of tb(
enemy, Forty-eighth and One Hundred
and Twelfth New York. Pausing onlj
for a moment *c get the regiment t(
I front and into line, the order froa
the colonel came : 'Fix bayonets,
charge !' With the familiar Confeder
ate yell, forward dashed the regiment.
(without underrating numbers,) only
one hundred and twenty rifles strong,
driving the enemy pell-mell out of the
works and re-establishing the line, cap
turing the colors of the Forty-eighth
a singular spectacle. '
This is an episode in the past of the
brigade, a matter of a few minutes.
Between the captur? made by the enemy
and the retaking of the works occupied
scarce fifteen minutes. A delay of as
many minutes more would bave given
the enemy time to reinforce, and then
the result to Lee's army might have
been doubtful. Before the Second ar
rived on the field a singular spectacle
was presented. The enemy were in the
works, flanked right and left by the
Confederate troops, both standing firm
awaiting results, neither daring tojmove,
both passive, hoping for reinforcements.
In afterthought this daring act of pluck
and necessity was plain?at all hazards
to make the charge was necessary.
From report of the enemy, the inten
tion was to make an effort to capture a
portion of our line and if successful to
reinforce. The question was simply time
with both sides. The same was apprecia
ted, and hence the charge of the 'Forlorn
Hope.' When the disparity of numbers,
one small Confederate regiment against
two full Union regiments, is considered,
surely the affair has a place on record.
The action may not be ooparalled, but
for dash, gallantry and successful result
will challenge the admiration.
To write a connected story of any
brigade requires leisure and memory.
History must do that. But in . the lit
tle moments of life and oftentimes in
the night a recollection of past scenes
and comrades, who now sleep the sleep
of the brave, makes the pulse mount
high and the pen quicken. The Sec
ond was a participant in all the shifting
scenes of Cold Harbor, followed by Pe
tersburg, and then, after a time, sent
to the Yalley, under Early, participating
in the victories and defeats of his army
including that brigade fight at Charles?
town, Virginia, while on picket, and
the brigade fight a few days previous to
the Cedar Run fight, when the gallant
Gen. Connor was disabled for life,
also Berry ville and numbers of other
minor affairs. In January, 1865, the
brigade was ordered to Sooth Carolina
to resist the advance of Sherman, tak
ing part in the varions skirmishes till
the evacuation of Charleston ; then
into North Carolina; present at the
fight at Averysboro', and closiog its
record at the field of Beotonville. At
Smith ville the twentieth Regiment con
solidated with the Second, the Second
retaining its name and colors. Its offi
cers were William Wallace, colonel;
J. D. Graham, lieutenant-colonel, and
G. Leapheart major. : ^
It has been the endeavor to. conS?nse
as much as possible in this article, leav
ing, to other and abler pens to go more
into detail, for each company in the
command had an interesting and daring
experience. The names of the wound
ed and dead are omitted, for it is
impossible to remember many who fell,
and to omit one would be unintentional
injustice. Their'deeds can only be re
cited by a comrade from their imme
diate company. Also the many gal
lant personal acts of the commanders of
the Second. Gen. Eershaw, Gen. Ken
nedy and Col. Wallace; the death of
Lieut.-Col. Frank Gaillard, at the Wil
dreness, while cheering on his men ; and
the nnselfish and gallant d?votion of the
brigade Adjutant-General, C. R.
Holmes, (an officer orginally appointed
from the Second South Carolina,) and
the acts of the Palmetto Guard. Fidits
et audax. The finale had come.
Johostou had surrendered, and around
the camp fire were seated men who pos
sibly met for the last time. The con
versation was dreary and disconnected?
home thoughts mingled with the past?
a hard future was before us. The news
of the assassination of Lincoln added an
other weight to the oppressed feeling.
in a day or two the good-bye was
said?the flag furled-?and the Second
Regiment passed away.
From the Wilmington Star.
Editor Star:?Among the Southern
Items published in this morning's issue
of your valuable paper, I find the fol
lowing lines :
'President Porcher, of the South
Carolina Historical Society, claims that
Whitney did not invent the cotton gin
after all. He has found a latter-patent
granted by Gen. Washington to Hog
den Holmes of, Georgia, for a si miliar
device which he produced in 1796.'
Believing that no mao is infallible,
not even a President of a Historical
Society, and that justice should be done,
even at the expense of an officer who is
presumed to be well informed on the
topics he treats of, I submit tbat Mr.
Porcher is mistaken in his inference,
and does injustice thereby to the mem
ory of the great inventor. Because he
has found a letter-patent for a similar
device in 1796, he asserts that 'Whit
ney did not invent the cotton gin.'
But Whitney's 'saw gin' bad been in
vented prior to that year I On page 113
of the work published at Hartford,
Coon., in 1872, and entitled 'One
Hundred Years' Progress of the United
States,' one of the ablest writers of the
South, Prof. C, F. McCay, records the
fact that Whitney's 'patent was issued
in 1703,' or three years prior to the
one discovered by Mr. Porcher ! From
the same writer we learn that while
Holmes was probably engaged in invent
ing the cotton gin, Whitney carried on
several vexatious law suits against many
parties that had infringed his patent
right. M. N. Delson.
June 22, 1882.
We have examined one authority at
hand and find McCay is correct. Zell's
Cyclopedia says it was in 1793.?Edi
Poor whisky makes rich divorce
lawyers.?[Chronicle Herald. Now
tell ue what good whisky does.
?Williamsport Banner. Well, with
the other ingredients, it makes ex
cellent milk punch. It also causes
bad headaches, creates a demand for
Seltzer water and makes America
ashamed of its Congressmen.?
[Southern Cultivator and Dixie Farmer.]
A merchant or a lawyer or any out
sider who never farmed aDy has got an
idea that farming is a mighty simple
and easy innocent sort of business.
They think that there's nothing to do
but to plow and hoe and gather in the
crop, and there's no worry or complica
tion about it, except, you can't get a
rain every time you want it, and the
crop is short in consequence. I had
pretty much that sort of a notion my
self, but, I know better now. I've been
farming for five years and I like it bet
ter and better, I like the freedom of it,
its latitude and longitude and its varie
ty, but there is a power of little worries
and not a few big ones that a man has
to encounter and provide for that these
outsiders never dreamed of. When a
man is . running hired labor it takes
about half his time to watch 'cm and
keep'em from wasting things and los
ing things and doing things wrong. I
went down in the field yesterday and
stumbled on the monkey wrench in the
grass by the turn row and it had been
there for a month and I bad hunted for
it all over the premises and nobody j
could tell any thing about it but now
the darkeys 'members takin' it down
dar to screw up the taps on the cultiva
tor y not long ago I found the hatchet
in the bushes where one of the boys
bad cut poles to lay off by. I can pick
up scooters and dull plows all about the
farm, in the corners of the panels and
on the stumps where they put'em when
they change 'em. My log chain is
missing now and the little crow bar
and one of the hammers, for sometimes
I have to leave home for a few days,
and although these niggers and my
yearlin' boys do their level best to sur
prise me with doin' a power of work
while I am gone, they don't notice lit
tle things, they loBe at the bung hole
while stopping np the spigot, or vice
varoy, as the saying is. They bore
the auger bit against a nail, or dull the
saw in the same way and let the old
cow get into the orchard, or the hogs
into the ta ter patch. I've got good
workin' boys and right industrious dar
keys, but it takes a man with a head on
and his eyes arel! open to keep up with
'em and watch out for little things?
little damages that aggravate a man
and keep him in a fret, that is, if he
is but human and can't help fretting
when things go wrong. A nabor bor
rowed my brace and bit and the bit
came back with one corner off. another
one borrowed my cross cut saw and it
came back awful dull and will cost me
a new file. They don't like it if 1 don't
lend tbem my mower to cut their clover,
though they never have cleaned np the.
rocksjn it, ? darkey will work a mule
?0??????ta^ft9_h..9urs with ^e ham es
out of the collar and u%%tf see it, and
he thinks it mighty hard if^yoa. w.onlt
lend him a mule to ride to aseetin' of a.
Sunday. But I won't do that. They
beg me out of a heap of things but they
shant ride my stock of Sundays,' for I
hate to do it myself, and when a dar
key gets on a mulo and out of sight be
is like a beggar on horseback, he'll ride
him and run him as long as he can
stand up. I like the darkeys, I do,
but I havn't got much hope of 'em ever
being anything but the same old care
less, contented, thoughtless creatures
they always was. If we don't own 'cm
as we used to we bave got to act like
we do, for there is no other way to get
along with 'em. I've got one who. took
a notion he would lay up half of his
wages in spite of himself and he told
me to put it in the contract that I
wasn't to pay him but five dollars a
month and keep the other half till the
end of the year. And now he tries to
beg me out of the other five at the end
of every month, but I won't pay it, and
he goes off satisfied. They all want
guardians just like orphan children.
We board two of 'em and they eat more
than my whole family, aod they want
coffee and buttermilk, and meat and
syrup, all at the same time, and it looks
like we can't get enough for 'em, but
they can go off on a frolic and do with
out vittleg for two days and a half, and
keep fat. Nabor Freeman came home
the other day and found his nigger ten
ants right smart behind with their crops,
and that they had all been off to a three
days meeting and an excursion besides,
and so he got mad and hauled up Bob,
and says he : 'Bob what in tbe dickins
are you all goic' to so much meetin'
for ? What is the matter, is the devil
after you with a sharp stick, and a bug
on the end of it V
Well now, mas Ed, says Bob : 'I'll tell
you how it is, we niggers have been
seein' for a long time dat you white
folks done got dis world and Gen. Grant
nor nobody aiot a gwine to giv' us nig
gers any of it, and so we is gwine to
meetin' and prayin' and fixin' up to
take d? next world as soon as we can
git dar, that's all,' aod Bob stretched
his mouth and showed his pearly teeth,
and laughed loud at his own wit. Na
bor Freeman says, he couldn't abuse
him after that. Me and Mrs. Arp both
talked right seriously to our darkeys
about being vaccinated for the small
pox, and told 'em I could do it from
the children's arms and not cost 'em a
cent, but old Tom, the Patriarch of the
family, is very superstitious, and bas
got some suspicion that tbe devil has
something to do with it, and he shakes
his head, and says, he 'don't know nuf
fin about it, and if de Lord gwine to
giv' 'em de small pox, dat a man can't
keep it away, and if de Lord don't want
'em to have it, it won't come, it all de
pends on de Lord anyhow.'
It's right smart better to run a farm
with a limited amount of stock and bave
no separate carriage horses, and every
once in a while the girls say, that they
are just obleeged to pay a visit to a na
bor, or go to town after some little dry
goods, and so I bav? to stop a plow for
that, (if it is possible,) and I always
strain a point to make it possible, and
then again some of our kin write usa note
to meet them at the depot, and we have
to go after'em and take 'em back again,
crop or no crop, and on tbe bold a poor
man has to farm sorter on the strain
and it takes a smart man to do it and
make it a success, don't it. But after
all it's the best business I know of, and
the happiest. BILL ARP.
4 bald head is a fly's paradise
How Silk is; Reeled in France.
To ike Editors Scientific American :
I was glad to see in tbe Scientific
American of March 4 a correction of an
exaggerated estimate of the profits of
silk culture, which had been copied
from another paper into one of the num
bers for February. The figures given
in the article published in the number
of March 4 are in general correct, and
it seems to me, arc qnite encouraging
enongh to induce people who are so sit
uated as to carry on sericulture to ad
vantage to enter into it.
Those who ate best informed on the
subject feel thai: the time has arrived
j when this industry may properly be in
troduced into th? United States and
that with proper management it may be
made a very Important matter. A
hopeful sign of the progress being made
is that there seems to be in the discus
sions and reports published about silk
raising an absence of anything like
speculative feeling, and a desire to ob
tain and disseminate reliable and ex
act information. X hope, therefore,
that you will ki adly permit me to call
attention to an important branch of the
subjecct, concerning which the article
in the number of your paper referred
to is-not very clear, nor sufficiently ac
curate. I mean reeling.
The statement that 'skillful reeling
doubles the value of the cocoons' has.
as I find by correspondence,been made
use of at home io a manner calculated
to give rise to false impressions, and
in some cases to excite hopes which are
sure to be dissar,pointed when brought
to a practical tes s.
It is true that silk may be reeled by
tbe raisers of the cocoons io their homes
with very simple apparatus, and at
times when the reelers have no other
profitable work to do, but it is no less
true that these people might also em
ploy such time in spinning, weaving
cloth for their household use, in mak
ing their own boots and shoes, or io
carrying on any of those industries
which were formerly domestic matters,
but which because of a better organiza
tion of manufacture, it is at present
infinitely more economical to prosecute
in large establishments especially organ
ized for the work and supplied with
proper machinery and appliances.
It requires very mncb less skill to
weave cloth or to make shoes than to
reel silk properly, and I think that a
woman of average intelligence and ad
dress would find a spinning wheel or a
hand loom a much better investment
than, a silk reel, even were she provi
ded with cocoons.
Every one is aware that the spinning
wheel and domestic loom have disap
peared, and I presume that a proposal
to return to their use as a means of em
ploying the unoccupied time of Ameri
can women of tbe middle rural classes
would be looked upon as simply fantas
tic and absurd.
Tha^the/iSca ofrecYfng s?lVI?jTtiTe
raisers ofihe cocoons is not regarded at
home in the saune light is simply be
cause of want of irifttavvstion^
In Europe large and well or^o.jzed
filatures for silk have displaced domes-"
tic reeling to at least as great an ex
tent as cotton, woolen, and linen facto
ries have superseded the domestic pro
duction of cloth.
Tbe following figures concerning
silk reeling may be relied upon as accu
rate, and I trust will be found of ser
vice in showing with some degree of
clearness what are itbc facts in the case.
At present quotations a pouud of yellow
French cocoons, (dry) is worth $1.20
in tbe markets of Marseilles and Milan.
To produce a pound of raw silk requir
es on average 3 6-10 pounds of such
cocoons, thus making the cost of the
raw material for a pound of silk ?4.32.
There is also produced in reeling a
by-product called 'frison,' coming from
the silk upon the cocoons, which is
not transformed into thread. This is
I worth about seventy cents for each
pound of silk -produced. Deducting
this amount.from tbe total cost of co
coons, there remains $3 62 as the cost
of the silk in the cocoons which is to be
transformed into a pound of raw silk.
The value of the pound of raw silk,
when produced, depends very largely
upon the skill of the reeler, and tbe
more or less favorable -circumstances
under which tbe reeling is performed.
Badly reeled silk, produced from
good cocoons, is worth at present
about 40 francs a kilo, or, say a little
less than $3-40 a pound, somewhat
less, in fact, than the market price of
the cocoons necessary to produce it.
On tbe contrary, silk produced by tbe
best filatures, and exceptionally well
reeled, sells for fromi 68 to 70 francs a
kilo ; say, on an average of present
prices, $6 a pound. In ooint of fact,
it has become impossible tor women to
gain anything by reeling at home.
Those of tbe country women whose ne
cessities compel them to become reelers,
and who possess the requisite skill, are
obliged to become employees in large
These establishments are usually in
country districts, and the workwomen,
besides working from twelve to fourteen
hours a day, often walk long distances
to and from the filature. As a recom
pense for a long day's labor, for the
skill which it has required years of
practice to obtain, and for a labor which
requires unremitting attention, a cramp
ed and never changing position, confine
ment in an atmosphere impregnated
with steam and acrid vapors, and the
constant dipping of the hands in scald
ing water to an extent which often pro
duces special diseases, they receive very
In France the average pay of a reel
cr is from twenty to twenty-eight cents
a day, according to the locality aud the
degree of skill which she may possess.
An Italy women are paid from twelve
cents (for basseuses) to nineteeu cents
a day for the best rcclcrs.
It must be understood that for this pit
tance the women arc obliged to feed
themselves and provide for all their
Even while paying these frightfully
low wages, a filature can only be made
profitable by the exercise of constant
supervision and care, and the uniform
production of a really good article.
Tbe reason is that it requires so much
work to reel so little silk.
Up to within a very short time it has
been considered quite impossible to re
gulate the reeling mechanically, aod
although the details of the filature have
been much improved, euough so as to
render competition by the old fashioned
hand reels out of tbe question, the prin
ciple has always remained the same,
and it is still necessary for a skillful
woman to watch the unreeling of near
ly 1,500 miles of cocoon filament for
each pound of silk obtained.
This, as has become well established
is the reason why silk culture and reel
ing have never been successful in
America, and every one possessed of
the least humanity must hope that tbe
day is far distant when it will be possi
ble to compel any one in bur country
to do so much work for so little pay.
I do not claim tbe merit of any origi
nality or remarkable insight in this
matter. Zhe facts above stated are
thoroughly well koowp and familiar to
all who have properly investigated the
As has become well known,the ques
tion of raising silk in our country is re
duced to a question of the possible in
j vention of machinery for transforming
I the raw material (cocoons) into a mer
[ chantable and useful pre j net (rawsilk,)
and attention bas often been called to
the analogy of the case to that of cotton
raising at the time of the invention of
the cotton gin.
I am greatly in hopes that the auto
matic silk reel of Mr. Serrellis destined
to solve thr? important question for us,
as the Whitney cotton gin solved the
question of cotton raising.
Tbe automatic reel is just now creat
ing a great deal of excitement even in
Southern France and Italy, countries
which are possessed of very cheap and
skillful labor, aod much afflicted by the
spirit of routine. Should it prove as
successful as it bids fair to do, there
will be no question of tbe success of
silk raising in America, but unless
either it or some similiar invention can
be made to answer, silk culture in
America must be abandoned or so or
ganized as to permit of the exportation
I Lave had much pleasure in aiding
to arrange for tbe sending to America
of some of tbese machines as an experi
ment, and am sure that were tho im
portance of tbe affair' properly under
stood, everybody would share my anxi
ety as to the result.
Please pardon this demand upon
your attention. I am sure that the
spirit which has always been manifested
in your yaper will cause you to agree
with me in the feeling that every means
should be taken to present clearly all
matters relating to a new industry in
our country which must be undertaken
by people too little organized, too scat
tered, and too remote to collect the in
formation for themselves.
F. C. Peixotto.
Lyons, France, April 25, 1882.
Mark Twain and the Lady
Mark Twain says : I got into the
cars and took a seat in juxtaposition
to a female. That female's face was
J a perfect insurance company?it in
sured, her against ever getting mar
ried to any?-6\#^^ut a blind man.
Her mouth lookedT??th^-Srack in a
dried lemom and there was nfcvjQiore
expression in her face than there is in'
a cup of cold cu3tard. She appeared
as though, she had been through one
famine and had get about two-thirds
through another. She was old enough
to be great grandmother to Mary that
bad the Jittle lamb. She was chew
ing pnze popcorn, and carried a yel
low rose, while a bandbox and a cot
ton umbre"a nestled sweetly by her
side. I couldn't guess whether she
was on a mission of charity or going
West to 6tart a sawmill. I was full
of curiosity to hear her speak, so I
"Tho exigencies of the times re
quire great circumspection in a per*
son who is travelling." '
Says she, "What?"
Says I, "The orb of day shines
resplendent in the vault above."
She hitched around uneasy-like ;
then she raised her umbrella and said,
"I don't want any of your sass?get
out !" And I got out.
The Parrot Wondered,
Two sailors went with a tame parrot
to a show in Tokio, where a Japanese
was giving an exhibition of a sleight-of
hand, interspersed with acrobatic feats.
At tbe eud of each trick the sailors
would say: 'Now, isn't that clever!
Wonder what he'll do next ?'
With each act of tbe performance
their astonishment increased, and they
kept muttering : 'Wonder what he'll
do next ?'
The parrot heard this exclamation so
often that he picked it up off band, as it
Presently the Japanese undertook to
keep in the air a number of bamboo
sticks ignited at both ends, but having
his attention distracted by a movement
in the audience, he allowed one of the
sticks to drop. Unfortunately it fell
upon a heap of firecrackers, bombs, etc.,
which exploded, blew out the walls,
blew off the roof, scattered tbe audience
in all directions, and sent the parrot,
minus its tail-feathers and one eye,
about 400 yards.
As the bird came down with a flop, it
shrieked : 'Wasn't that clever ! Won
der what he'll do next V
Scene?A small lawn on Seneca
street. Time?Noon. Personages?
A parrot sunning itself on a perch be
side its opened cage-door : and a
strange dog wandering upon the lawn.
The parrot speaks first, 'Siek ! sick !
sick him !' Tbe dog with ears and tail
erect looks about for something upon
which to charge ; he espies the parrot,
and an exciting scene ensues. From
out the confused mass of dog-hair and
parrot feathers come the shrill cry,
'Get out ! D?n you, get out !' Dog
breaks for the street. Parrot after look
ing at herself from head to foot, gravely
exclaims : 'Polly, you talk too much V
'Do you play croquet ?' 'No, I don't
play croquet, but my Sister May, who
is very gay, plays croquet every fiue
day, in a most charming way, and is
quite au fait/
raise tue rapers.
Why don't rou take the papers?
They're the life of my delight
Except about election time,
And then I read for spite.
Subscribe I yon cannot lose a cent,
Why should you be afraid?
For each penny thus speot is money lent
At iaterest four-fold paid. ^
Go, then, and take the papers ;
And pay to-day, nor pay delay,
And my word heard, it is inferred
You'll lite until you're gray*
Mr. Factandfancy had noticed :
That the boy who is most afraid of
the girls is the first to be corraled into
That the little boys prefer boys to -
That they toon change, never to g?
back to theii early love.
That the little girls love the girls
That tbey don't get over their prefc
erence as soon as the boys do?some of
them never. ?~~
That the women love the men because
they love everything tbey have to take
That men love women because they
can't help it.
That the wife loves bet husband so
well that she has no thoughts for other
That the husband so loves his wife
that he loves aH-women for her sake.
That the married man is apt to think
himself all-killing among the fair sex
simply because ife has found one woman
fool enough to marry him. " "
That homily husbands are the best.
They never forget the compliment paid
them by their wives io accepting them.
That homely wives are tbe truest*.
They know how to make the mosl-of
what they have.
That the man who marries late io lite
That the man who marries young does
That the man who never marries is to
That the woman who marries doer
That the woman who does not marry
does better nine times cut of ten.?
Folks to Keep Away From.
'Dar am sartin folkses I want to keep
away from,' began the old man as the/ -
voices of the club died away on the last
strains of 'Sarah Jane's Baby.' X
mean that class of people who groan-?
ober de wickedness of de world, an' who
have heartaches anvsorrows^ to" nj&Uc
aroun' de kentry at do reg'lar twfcct
rates. Dax am de oie man Tanner. Ho
^ fc/eTober tb~seb^ue now an' den, but
he can't sot still case -somebody stole
his dog, or hit him wid a brick-baT,~?r?;
beat him out of seventy-five cents. lie
fully believes dat de world am g wine to
smash at de rate of fifteen miles an
hour, an' it would eanemost kill him to
lose his old wallet an' find a man honest .
'miff to return it.
'De Widder Plomscll comes ober to
borry some butter for supper, an' she
raps down on a cha'r an' heaves a sigh
ag^Dlrgs^sa barn doah an* goes
dis am a^ioTan^unTteim^ll^^
din? to her tell all men am als
all women extravagant, an' all chill'en
just ready to come down wid de measles.
Tears run down her cheeks as she tells
how she has to .work an' plan while
everybody else has money to frow intct
Lake Erie, an' she wipes her nose on
her apron as she asserts dat dis wicked
world can't stan' more dan fo* weeks
'Deacon Stripes draps in to eat pop*
corn wid me of a Friday ebenin' an' he
hardly gits out from under his hat befo'
be begins to tell what his first wife died
of; how bis second run away; how his
third broke her leg by fallin' off a fence
au' cost him $28 14 fo' doctor's bill, an'
befo' he gits frew you couldn't make
him believe but what de bull world was
dead agin him. He predicts a-late
spring, a hot summer, poor ?rops," high
prices, a bloody war, an' goes home
feel in' dat he am stoppin' on earth only
to accomodate somebody.
'I bave no sorrow ob my own. I've
been robbed, but that was kase I left a
winder up. I've been swindled, but
dat was kase I thought fo' queens would
beat fo' aces. I've bought lottery tick
ets which didn't draw ; I've bio sick
unto death, an' I've bin shot in de back
wid a hoir brick-yard, but I do not sor
row an' I do not ask for sympathy. De
world am plenty good 'nuff far de class
ob people livin' in it. Honeet men am
uot lonesome fur company, an' honest
women am sartin to be appreciated.
De janitor will now open fo* winders an'
we will proceed to bizness.'
'Well, brethren,' said a Maine minis*
ter to some of his fellow-evangelats, *I
never was guilty of laughing in the pnt
pit but once. Some years ago I had in
my congregation an old man wbo uni
versally went to sleep in church and
snored loudly throughout the entire
service. One Sabbath morning, glanc
ing in his direction, I saw him as usual,
with his head back enjoying a nap, and
right above him, in the gallery, a young
man was rolling a large quid of tobacco
around in bis mouth. As I looked he
took it out and pressing it into a ball
poised it carefully over tbe open mouth
below. I became so interested in the
proceeding that I forgot to continue *hc
sermon, but stood watching the young
man. With a wicked smile he took
careful aim and dropped it squarely into
the old man's mouth. With a gulp-lp
ly the sleeper started up and with face
red as a beet rushed from the house.
The people no doubt were horrified,
but' I could not have kept from laugh'
ing if a sword had bung over my bead
ready to fall. Tbe old man did not
come back for several Sabbaths, and
when he did he changed his seat and
remained wide awake.'
Now, my boy, take those eggs, to
the store, and if you can't get a quar
ter a dozen, bring tbcm back.' The
boy went as directed, and came back, ^
saying : 'Father, it takes me to makj
trade. They all tried to
forty cents, but I scrcwj