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TEK SUMTER WATCHMAN, Kstabliahed April, IS50.
'Be Just and Fear not-Let ail the Ends thou Aims't at, be thy Country's, thy God's and Truth's."
Consolidated Aug. 2,1881.
SUMTER, S. C., WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 3, 1894.
THE TKCK SOUTHRON, Ketabliehad June, 1360.
New Series-Vol. XIII. No. 23.
(Tbt aolatcljman at?) ?Soutkou
Published Every Wednesday,
KT. G-. Osteen,
SUMTER, S. C.
Two Dollars per annum-in advance.
One Square first insertion.Si 00
^very subsequent insertion. 50
Contracts for three months, or longer will
be made at reduced rates.
All communications which subserve private
interests will becharged for as advertisements.
Obituaries and tributes of respect will be
Office and Mills at Junction of \V
SUMTER, S. C.
CHT AND COUNTY DEPOSITORY.
Transacts a general Banking business
A Savings Bank Department,
Deposits of Si 00 and upwards received.
Interest calculated at the rate of 4 per cent.
Der annum, pavable quarterlv.
W". F. B. HAYNSWORTH,
W. F. RBAKS, President.
THE SIMONOS NATIONAL BAN*
STATE, CITY AND COUNTY DEPOSI?
TORY. SUMTErt, S. C.
Piid up Capital.S75.000 00
Surplus Fund. 11.500 00
Liabilities of Stockholders to
depositors acccording to the
]aw governing National Banks,
in excess of their stock . . S75.00O OG
Transacts a Genera! Banking Business.
Careful attention given to collections.
Deposits of Si and upwards received. In
..errsi allowed at the rate of 4 per cent, per
annum. Payable quarterly, on h'rst d*ys o?
Jinuarv, Aoril, Jalv and October.
" R M. WALLACE,
L. S. CARSON, President.
OFFICE AND SALESROOM:
253 East Bay, Charleston, S. C.
Next door to Earle & Purdy's Law Office.
SUMTER, S. C.
IDESIRE TO INFORM the citizens of
Sumter and vicinity that I have opened
business on my own account et the above old
stand, and that with competent and polit*?
assistants, I will be pleased to serve them in
any branch of my business in the best styla
of the art.
Give me a call
A. WHITE k SON,
Fire Insurance Agency.
FIv;>resent, among other Corni ..'.'.?.s :
LIVERPOOL & LONDON & GLOBE,
V >RTH BRITISH <fe MERCANTILE,
MOMS, of New York.
UNDERWRITERS' AGENCY, N. Y.,
LANCASTER INSURANCE CO.
Capital represented $75.000,^ 0.
NEW LUMBER YARD.
1BEG Tu INFORM MY FRIENDS AND
p:j:,::.<: generally that ray Saw Mill
. >cated ou the C. S. k N R. FL, just t;ack of
soy r^sid^n'-". is now :n full uperatroo, and !
prepared to I irnish ail grades ot iellow
p.ne Lumber from unbled ;:nji>"r. at prices
according to grad-?.
Yard accessibleoQ North 3?de <? residence.
J. B. ROACH.
G. W. DICK, D. D. S.
? ?See '/Ver Levi Bros.5 Storr,
ENTRANCE '>S KAIN STREET.
sr MT ER, S. C.
Oftiie Hours- 9 to 1 ?O to 5 ?<>.
RICE MILLS. CORN MILLS,
RICE PLANTERS and RICE MILLERS can
buy a single machine, that will clean, hull ?
and polish rice ready for market for $350.
Corn miller? cnn buy. nest FRENCH BURR
MILL, in iron frame, fully guarantee-! -ca?
pacity ten bushels meal per hour for S1?5.
Saw millers can buy best variable friction
FEED MILL from 8190 up to the largest
size, also G*ne Rip Saws, Edgers' Swing
Saws. Planing Machines and ?1! other Wood
Working Machinery. Also
Talbott's Engines and Boilers.
Snecial discounts mnde to cash purchasers
j Can meet any competition, quality considered
V. C. BADHAM,
Apr ]?i-o COLUMBIA, S. C.
Contractor and Builder,
Sumter, S. C.
Rough and Planed Lumber, Doors, Blinds,
a Cypress Shingles,
Lime, Glass and General Building Supplies.
Of ail kinds made to order, such as
DOOR AND WINDOW FRAMES,
MOULDINGS AND TURNED WORK
OF EVERY DESCRIPTION.
. C. &. A.. and C. S. & N. R. R's.
The next session of the In
! stitute will begin on SEPTEM?
BER 12th, 1893.
For terms and catalogue
H. F. Wilson,
I June 21 Sumter, S. C.
OF NEW YORK, THE LARGEST Mt ?NIED
INSTITUTION IN THE WORLD.
Take vour Accident Policv in the
Insure against Fire in
THE CON Tl NEXT A L
OF NEW VuRK.
OF NEWARK, N. J.?
I THE INSURANCE CO., OF
THE QUEEN OF AMERICA.
THE PHONIX ASSURANCE
THE NORWICH UNION
G F ENGLAND.
THE MECHANICS AND
TRADERS of N. 0.
Ail First Class and represented by
1760. The Monks' Reme?y. 1845.
A ToXIC, NERVINE, BLOOD Ft"RIFLER.
Like Cures Like.
I .V- o? theSwwmp hus its Antidote th
. he Sw > top,
For Miarra, Nrrrousiess, Indigestion Dys?
entery and Bowrl Complaint, irk vourdealer
:..r 3IOXTEREY h~ does no; keep i:,
we will you * Uri:?- t?.?T?express
prep-aid, on receipt of Si .00
M< 'NT KC KV C. .
Florene-, S C , I'r?>n^. "r;.l Mfrs.
t W. WAGEXER k Co ,
'?c. lt. Charleston, State Agents.
DR. i ALVA MKS,
OVER llRitWN <fc BROWNS ST? ?RE,
E:??rn;?<;?- on Main Street
Between Brown & Brown and Durant k Sou.
9 to 1.30: - to :> o'clock.
Apr:! 9. -
ADD IF*- E? S S
GEN. J. D. KENNEDY,
Laying of the Corner Stone
New City Hall, Sumter, S. C.
DECEMBER 27th, 1893.
Mr, Mayor and Gentlemen of the Board
of Aldermen of the City of Sumter:
Notwithstanding the pressure of busi?
ness at this season of the year I could
not well refuse your complimentary in?
vitation to deliver the address on this
auspicious occasion and esteem it an
especial compliment, when I consider
the number of your own fellow citizens
so much better qualified to perform this
function. In view of this fact I am
constrained to attribute the invitation
to your personal consideration, rather
than any fitness on my part. The
compliment, however, is appreciated and
I regret, that owing to the short time
allotted for the preparation of an ad?
dress, and business engagements, I can?
not do fuller justice to the occasion.
In casting about for a subject suited
to this gathering and the ceremony per?
formed, none more appropriate has sug?
gested itself than
"THE INFLUENCE OF CITIES ON THE
DESTINIES OF NATIONS."
So comprehensive a theme can be treat?
ed only in a cursory manner, in a brief
address, and imperfectly at best. The
history of man in all ages shows, that
he is a gregarious animal, and we find
in the earliest annals, hamlets develop
iog into villages, villages into towns,
and towns into cities, and the influence
of the ancient nations of the world can
be traced to their cities. We associate
them with the progress of those nations
tn arms, arts commerce and religion.
Their cities were the centers, where
originated and from whence flowed their
power. Well oigh ail that is left of
the memory of that world, or its influ?
ence upon modern times, is connected
with its cities. The ruthless hand of
time has swept them away, and
they are but shadows of their
past grandeur, only recalled by the
antiquary or the etudent, and too often
excite interest only because of their
ruins. This busy world of ours
scarcely gives a thought to Troy, the
immortal theme of the "blind old Bard
of Scio's Rocky Isle," or Thebes
resplendent with its honored gates ; to
l?abylou, the great, beauteous in its
hanging gardens, or Palmyra, the gem
of the desert, with ?ts marble palaces
and oriental magnificence, or to Perse
polis, the glory of the lani of Darius
and of Xerxes. Desolation reigns
supreme, their places are but ruins,
and the owl and bat hold court in the
halls of all the cities of that mavelous
world, of alternate power and weak- ?
ness, civilization and depravity, with j
its mighty kingoms struggling for j
supremacy : empires, which flashed
meteors athwart its sky, only to sink
into oblivion, but three of them have
left their impress on this busy world of
uurs. Athens, Rome and Jerusalem.
Athens stands av the prototype of
modern thought ; and whether iu art,
philosophy, literature or poetry, has
left upon each the irradicable impress of
its genius. In beauty of dictatiou,
force of thought and expansiou of idea,
the Greek mind, of which Athens was
the highest type, has easily led the
world. "Immortal, though no more;
though fallen, great.'' Jerusalem is
iudellibly associated with the religious
convictions of the huudreds of millions
of i he modern world, who rule its
destinies, and are everywhere forcing
their conquest of thought and com?
merce. And amid all of the mutations
of their wondrous developement, the
Holy City will ever be connected with
the hallowed memories, which duster
io such profusion about its sacred hills
and valeys. Though the fire on tts j
Temple Altar is extinguished, its !
people scattered to the lour winds
of Heaven, and the Moslem's Mosque
Staads on the spot where the Prince of
Peace expired, yet the code of its great
law giver and the doctrines of his divine |
successor, have become incorporate into !
! the polity and religious thought of every I
! civilized people. Kefore their majes
j tic [march, thc power ot j;he Crescent is 1
: wan in 2 while the pantheism ot ?
i Brahma, the subtleties of Gautama .ind |
! the materalism of Confucius are de<- j
; tiued t<i succumb to their adaptability,
to the requirement and cravings of thc j
: human ln-art for a purer and better sys- j
tem of civil and religious lit'--, and action. I
Koine, seated on her seven hills, proud :
[mistress "f an obedient world, and;
controlling its destinies r'^r nwre than j
' seven hundred year-, presents the most
j wonderful example iu ai! history, ct
j the effects of compact organization and
j centralized unity of purp ><-. In ber
j pu wer <'f conquest, and absorption ot
', conquered countries, in ber indeutifica
tion of their interests with her '?wu, and j
j elastic adaptability!.'? their condition,
j coupled with her capacity for coloniza?
tion, she ha.? had u<? superior and pro?
bably, but one equal, in history. In |
j the change incident to her passing from j
I a Republic to an Empire, and amid !
! *.h'- mighty struggle? of her own peo- I
pie, with the varying fortunes, inci?
dent to the revolutions she was subjected
to, her foreign policy ever remained
the same, and her victorious Eagle j
waved in triumph from Britain to the
Euphrates, from the Danube to the j
Pillars of Hercules, and her armies |
whether led by Fabius or Scipio, j
Marius or Caesar beat the invaders at j
her gates, and conquered opposiug ;
legions or foreign soil. And yet, I
invincible as she was in arms,
brilliant in statecraft, literature, and ?
oratory, and magificent in her temples, j
and palaces, ber impress is most
felt in her code of laws which j
is to-day incorporate into the jurispru- j
dence and polity of all enlightened
modero nations. And remarkable to \
think, that this city with not more than j
two millions at the flood-tide of its pop?
ulation, should for centuries have con?
trolled the world. Marvellous exhibi?
tion of the power of organization and
force of idea! But internal dissensions
and eastern luxury, slowly and stealth?
ily sapped her vitality, and from the
acme of her fame and glory under Au?
gustus, her decline began. The tyran?
ny and corruption of succeeding Em- j
perors, the prostitution of elections, j
thc opeo barter aaa sale of the empire, j
the effeminacy of her soldiery culmi- |
nated in the reign of the weak and
vacillating Romulus Augustulus, A. D.,
47G, and she sank beneath the surging
waves of Barbaric corruption to rise no
more. Her fall, and decline, traced by
the matchless pen of Gibbon, affords a
melancholy instance of the mutability
of human fortune and the instability
of human institutions; while it points
the moral, tbat no people however great
or potent in resources, can withstand
internal dissensions, class legislation,
or the arrogance of wealth, and that re?
tribution awaits such arrogance, and the
prostitution of power to the selfish ends
of tyrannous domination.
A distinguished historian in sum?
ming up her case, says : Th 2 Roman
Commonwealth bad conquered the world
by the wisdom of its civil maxims, and
the rigor of its military discipline.
But under the Emperors the former
were forgotten or despised, and the lat?
ter was gradually relaxed. At the
same time that the martial spirit became
extinct, the resources of the Empire
became diminished, the taste for the
luxury of the East became increased to
such a pitch io the Imperial Court that
great sums were carried into India, from
whence in the channel of commerce
they never returned. A vast vast body
of languid and almost inanimate sol
diery became incapable of any effort to
save themselves, and were easily over- !
The Barbarian hordes carried desola?
tion in their pathway, and marked their
route with blood and ravages, and
destroyed all around them. Those ;
who first settled in the countries, they
conquered and devastated, gave place
in turn to others, who had come from
more remote regions. The most disas?
trous period in the history of Europe was
that embraced in the two hundred :
years, between the death of Theodosius
the Great, A. D. 373,/and the establish
ment of the Lombards in Italy, A. D.
571. Between these periods Rome
disappeared as a power, and modern
Europe began to emerge "lu the
obscurity, of chaos, says the same
author, occasioned by this general
wreck of nations we must search for the
seeds of order, and endeavor to find the !
fist rudimeots of the policy, and laws
now established in Europe.'' The
Saxons were masters of the southern,
and more fertile parts of Britain : the j
Franks of Gaul ; the Huns of Panno-j
nia; the Goths of Spain; and the
Lombards of Italy. "Very faint
vestiges of the Roman policy, juris?
prudence or literature remained, new
forms of government, new laws, new
manners, new dress, new language,
and new names of men, and countries,
were everywhere introduced.'' The
lands were divided, and allotted to the
favorities of conquerors, and they in
turn allotted them to their retainers and j
followers and while these favorites
acknowledged the superiority of
the monarch, they were, so to speak,
supreme each in his own bailiwick,
and often defied the monarch himself. !
Thus was inaugurate the Feudal :
System which dominated Europe from :
the 7th to the 11th century, lt was
admirably adapted as a defence against !
the assaults of a foreign power, but
extremely deficient in preserving inter?
nal order, and tranquility. IL was a
period of internecine strife, and petty ;
foray?, and destructive alike of national
peace and prosperity Says the
eli quent and profound Robertson : :
'The spirit of domination corrupted I
thc nobles, the yoke of servitude
depressed the people : the generous
sentiments inspired by the seo se of
equality were extinguished : and hardly
anything remained to be a cheek on ;
ferocity and violence.'' Rut Hume
has wisely remarked : "There is an
ultimate point of depression as well as
exaltation from which human affairs j
naturally return in a contrary progress, ;
and beyond which they never pass,
either ni their advancement, ur their
decline." This truism was illustrated
io the disorders. and degradation
attendant upon the Feudal System. !
which appears to have reached its I
utmost point of excess towards the
close of the 11th century. From this
time the pedulum of human affairs
began to swing in a contrary direction,
and the first great momentum given to :
it, is discoverable, in the formation of
cities into corporations, or bodies poli?
tic with privileges of municipal juris?
diction. The rise of this great princi?
ple is traceable, to that mighty convul?
sion which shook Kurope to its center,
knowo as the Crusades, inaugurated by
by a ?imple monk, who in humble garb,
with little educatiou and no courtly
manners, but with fanatical zeal,
intense fervor and burning eloquence, .
aroused the King on his throne, the ;
Lord in hts castle, and the peasant
io his hut, to band together to
rescue the Holy City, from vandal hands.
Down with the infidel was their rallying
cry, and into italy they poured to find
transportation to the Holy Land, and
Venice, Genoa and Pisa became their
points of embarkation and bases of
operation. Their commercial import?
ance was at once established, and as a
result, privileges aud immunities hith?
erto unknown, were granted them.
This incited other cities, to throw of the
Feudal yoke, or purchase immunities
from their Feudal Lords. The liberty
and privileges of the italian cities
spread to France and Louis le Gros to
create an influence which might check
bis powerful vassals, conferred munici?
pal privileges upon the cities of his
kingdom, under the style of "Com
rr.uoity Charters." The great cities of
Germany also caught the fever of pro?
gress and began to acquire like immu?
nities, and thus was laid the foundation
of the celebrated Hauseatic League,
which became so famous that its enmity
was dreaded and its alliance courted.
England was slow to catch the moving
spirit of commercial liberty and muni?
cipal privileges (notwithstanding Wil?
liam the Conqueror had bestowed a spe?
cial charter upon the city of London) until
Edward the III, stimulated by the ex?
ample of the League, invited some
Flemish artisans to London and by wise
laws laid the foundation of England's
ultimate manufacturing supremacy
among the industrial nations of the
world. So potent was this Hanseatic
League for upward of three centuries
in the affairs of Europe, that a brief
account of its rise and fall is not inap?
propriate. As early as the 11th century
Hamburg, Lubeck and Bremen had be?
come places of commercial importance,
and in 1-19, to resist the attack of
Pirates upon the rich cargoes which
were brought, more especially, into
the port of Hamburg, a compact was
formed between Hamburg Dit marsh' and
? H adel m, and two years later, between
Hamburg and Lubeck. In 1247
Brunswick joined the combination,
and thus was formed the German
League or Hansa. In a few years it
embraced eighty-five cirios and towns,
located between Holland and La von ia,
and dividing into faur circles, embracing
the cities of the Baltic, Westphalia and
the Netherlands, of Saxony and Bran?
denburg, of Prussia and Lavooia. It
owned hundreds of ships, with armed
forces to protect th2m, and had a
parliament, or diet to make laws and
rules for its government. Its iofinence
was almost incaluable on the polity,
trade, and finances of Europe. It was
the first systematic trade union, known
in its history, "and the high political
influence which it attained was due,
says a distinguished writer, to its
development of sounder principles of
trade, than any that had hitherto been
put into practice, while in the earlier
period of its existence, it excited a
beneficial influence on the advance of j
civilization, which can scarcely be
overrated.'' In the 16th century ic ]
reached the culmination of its power, j
and likewise its decline, and fall. It I
had become intolerant, selfish and ar?
rogant, and Queen Elizabeth, angered
because of its discrimination against
England, helped to deal it a death blow,
by sending Drake and Norris to seize j
its ships, sixty of which they destroyed.
But the chief cause of its decline was
the discovery of America, and opening
up of a new route to India. Columbus
and Yespucis rang up the curtain on
the dawn of a new epoch, and with
Magellan, and Vasca de Gama changed
the commercial destiny of Kurope. j
Great Britain. France. Spain and Hol?
land, planted their flags in tho .
western world, but after bloody
struggles, Great Britain gradually bu?
surely supplanted her rivals, and the
ITniou Jack floated in triumph over
every Ocean, and Inland Sea of!
North America. It was not British
pluck and energy alone, thar won this
triumph, but th"ir capacity for colo?
nization, which Rome in her palmiest .
days never exceeded, and lo-r cities
Highest of all in Leavening Pov
have been :he centers] from whence her
commercial and industrial power has
sprung. With their growth and pro?
gress we can trace the power of the
Mother-Country and realize the apos?
trophe of the poet "Her march o'er
rbe mountain wave " Glasgow, where
Isaac Watts in the last century, made
his memorable improvement in the
steam engine, and Henry Hell, early in
this century, demonstrated the practi?
cability of river navigation, by steam,
has in the past century quintupled its
dimensions, and in the number and
extent of its enterprises demonstrated,
the push acd pluck and brain of the
Scotch. Liverpool, the child of the
cotton plant, and the result of the
inventive genius of Whitney, Har?
graves, Arkwright and Crompton has
developed into colossal importance and
with Manchester dictates term6 to the
cotton exchanges, and dry goods marts
of the world. Belfast, the Liverpool
of Ireland, is a marvel of manufac?
turing, atd ship build enterprises,
and Edenburg, Dublin and Oxford
are seats of learning and refinement.
All of these cities have exercised, and
do exercise immense influence, on the
destiny of Great Britian, but they
pale before the influence, of her great
emporium. Io political influence, and
industrial, financial aDd benevolent
enterprises London ?6 to England,
aud through her to Great Britain, as
the heart to the human body, and not
confined to the United Kingdoms alone,
is the recognized Emporium of the
world. Her history dating from the
earliest annals of England is coex?
tensive with the Roman conquest,
the rise and fail of Danish and Saxon
monarchs, tbe?invasion of William, and
the ultimate commingling of Anglo
Saxon and Norman into the great unity
of a common race, which in the
Providence of God has done more for
the advancement of the world, than all
other people, [who have ?risen, and
flourished in its history. It has been
identified with all the political revolu?
tions, thai1, have swept over the
kingdom, and most of them have
originated in it. To estimate their
influence we need go no farther back
than the revolution of 1641, that cost
Charles the First his head, and the
still more important one of 1688, which
drove the hypocritical and fanatical
i James II from his throne, and laid the
! permanent foundation of that splendid
j system of constitutional liberty, which
j began with Magna Charter, was ratified
j by the Bill of Rights, Hebeas Corpus,
! and the act of settlement, wa? enlarged
; by the Reform Measure nf \K)'J., and
i the Tariff eri;n:':;i-n? of 1844. and
finally culminated he rise and
i development of the Great Liberal
: Parry. London has r-een the political
champion and protagonist of every
' measure promotive of the liberty, the
! witare and the advancement of Eng?
lish civilization. Lt gave rise to two
. institutions. which have exercised most
powerful influence, on the destiny of
1 Great Britain, to wit. the P*a>t India
? Company ard the Bank of Eogland.
! The former was chartered A. i). 1600
by <2,jeen Elizabeth under the name of
' the ."Governor and Company of Mer
! chants of London trading to the East
Indies.'* and renewed from time to
time, until the year 1858, when its
power was transferred to the Crown.
Under its government rose the magnifi?
cent British Empire in India, with
the establishment of which are linked
in unfading glory the names of Clive
and Wellington, of Lawrence, Have?
lock and Campbell, and in its adminis?
tration appear in alternate shadow and
sunshine, th?2 best and worst features of
English administrative ability and di?
plomacy, until at length permanent
peace and security have been establish?
ed, and sixty thousand Englishmen are
wisely ruling', and holding iu quiet sub?
jection, two hundred and fifty million
Indian subjects. With India as a base
of operation English trade has spread
until it ha* monopolized Sumatra, Java,
China and Japan and reinforced by the
naval power of the mistress of the seas,
her merchants, are indeed, the Princes
of the East. The Bauk of Eogland
projected by William Patterson, and in?
corporated in 1604, is the most influen?
tial fiscal institution of the world, and
wliile a private corporation, has been
the servant of thc government and
identified with its fortunes in all ot
these vear*. The wisdom >.? its man?
agement has been proven in every stage
ot t's existence, ami ?ike some proud
ship riding the billows has weathered
every financial st.oin. and since what
is known ?is the Charter Act of 1844.
whereby it was divided into the two
departments of "issue and Ranking,"
is on a basis which seems to defy mon
. Continued on next page.J
,-er.-Latest U. S. Gov't Report.