The Watchman and
SUMTER, S. C., WEDNESDAY, OCTOBER 2, 1901.
^p?iies? G0M Factor?
^^??^^^;^j?llio&; Dollars Invested
: "fe - ?v ,Gxeat Enterprise-One
^^^^|^j^.Qj^i?tii^:2ff<we than :
BP%^_ :. 10P,000 Spindler - The
jSJ-'"- ' >-l?nsk?led and Un
jpcrvv- . trained Help.
^?^K^:'v,^ >and .?ojnfoit
Pfi?-Jered Mill Help-A Happy .
|Sp&? and Contented Family.
^M^&^chm^:"of ..cotton* m?t development
?^Bg?I^?^&^ ??rthe -c?nrtay jost 'closed
BB^^feachedin the<Hympia'-Cottoh Mili. It
^Kt^^s.VT?nov^ce? hy competen; m?l peo
^^g^.t?>:"?)e the most complete, up-to-date and
^^p^^isizig:, cotton manufacturing- plant in
Mg^-coutrtry. It represents the type of
Ijpkaley mills, all of- which are successful.
^H|3t^s" without doubt' the largest cotton
?toua^rader a single roof -in the entire Sou th
Kern-States, and competent judges axmouace
K|fcat it is, the. most complete m?l plant ia
?Jais; country; -^nd no rxatioa is ahead <?
^B^?s,-coun?sy^In the cotton mill, business.
le heari and isnot?^ . that the Olympia
^Se^iar^est?m -the South, "but . they
5^ot lenow; nor cte liney thinly of what
^^|K^^ons^g? *fo-m-akg this magnificent
whaj it is.' . .- "
;?if- a-isins?e?-cotton^ consuming
?es: of; cotton.
^temploy;-whenj^ is in
gs^j?tcr^pirafibn, more than 1,200
AN AVENUE OF OPE
^Str' has the most, modern, and improved j
tchinery and, with the new and up-to-j
pfl?^ rnachinery, operatives can readily
P?fe more than ihey woxild in old plants
the 'best class and most up-to-date
or'rcs operatives. - .
H is, on the- direct line- of the Columbia
Electric Street Railway, and within a few
? ride of the heart of the city,
is near enough to the- city to give all
"advantages and pleasures of the city
.will -build a $20,000 school building for
chi?dren of its operatives and support
>" school roi its own accord and out of its
Silt oilers the nest school and church op
rportanities to its help.
f' It is a mill operated, owned and man
iiaged roy South Carolinians, who have the
?same sentiments, purposes and feelings as
gib?se who do the work.
C it has lavished money in installing the
ost ; thorough sanitary arrangements in
ithe mill and its village.
It employs a mill physician, whose ser?
vices are at the call of employees without
-:3?he~wages are full and the piece work as
-other classes permit better incomes
Fthan Esual, because of the improved fa ell?
and new machinery
The plant ls operated throughout with
. electricity." The expectation is to soon offer
electric lights to all of the operatives for
The pictures indicate the neat^.and at-,
tractive homes that are provided, for the
. ABOUT THE MTT/Ti BUHjSlNG. -,
? ? .. J ? . ? ^ - -, ,
Something of the giant min itself: The,
min building of the Olympia Mill is ; S3
feet 2 inches long and 151 feet 2 inches
wide, and contains four floors and a oase^
ment, each: story being 18 feet high.
There are" two'towers about 24 by 22 feet
and -139 feet ? Inches high, containing,the
stairways and the tanks for the .sprinkler
Adjouung the rear wall of the mill at the
middle is a machine shop and-in the rear'
of this is the engine and'boiler, rooms. The
engine room being 320 by 50 feet, and the
.boiler house 140 by 40 feet in?plan..In the
rear of the latter is the building for the
mechanical draft plant. The nrsr floor of
the building is devoted to opening, bales
and weaving; the second floor to weaving, j
slashing, spooling and warpingr th? third ;
to carding, drawing and lapping, and the j
fourth floor to spinning. Communication
between the floors is also afforded by two
Otis electric elevators driven by alternat?
The mill will operate 104,000 spindles and
the latest Draper looms have been put into
the mill. The total number of looms to be
operated will be 2,400 40-inch loom^f
The electric equipment at the mill com-'
poses everything;that has been construct
?d by electrical or mill engineers. It is by .
odds the mos: thorough that has yet been
By using electricity the cost of the mill
buildings was reduced by 10 per cent on
account of the. absence of heavy transverse
walls through the mill, necessary for the
head shafts at the beltway, with the belt
and shafting system. Sixty-one per cent
of the shafting cost was saved by the use
of electricly. Three-inch shafting is the
largest in the building. Sixty-six per cent
of the cost of the belts and ropes - was
saved with the electrical system. The sav?
ing due- to these three items was sufficient,
it is said, to more than pay for the cost
of the electrical equipment of the mill.
Part of the electrical generating plant is
used to light the town and also to run a
street railway. The maximum power re?
quired by the mill is about 3,600-horse
The generating plant consists of three1
McIntosh & Seymour engines, each of a
normal rating-of 1600-horse power, capable
"of developing a r?flT?Tnum of 2,000-horse
power, idirectly connected to alternating
The engines are of the vertical cross
compound condensing type, with cylinders
20 and 48 inches\in diameter, and a stroke
of 42. inches. The cylinders are steam
'jacketed; and a reheating receiver is placed
PLENTY OF PURE WATER.
The water supply for the mill comes
from a spring-fed reservoir of some 800,000
? gallons* capacity, which also supplies the
mill village with its drinking water.
The mill is heated by two 14-foot electri?
cally driven Sturtevant fans, blowing^ ah;
through horizontal ducts along the front
and-rear walls of the mill, as shown in the
half plan and section of- the mill -build?
. The, mill architecture is imposing and
the structure is beautiful. Considerable
moneys was expended in beautifying the
building, and every possible convenience is
provided in and around the mil. The
. closets and wash rooms are finished in
marble and mosaics, and elevators are
at hand for the operatives. A 5,000-pound
Schane bell is in one of - the towers and
with beautiful tone strikes" the hours, and
in the second tower there is a standard
The officers of the mill company are:
President W. B. -Smith Whaley.
Vice president. W. A. Clark.
... General manager, J. S. Moore.
Secretary and treasurer, W. H. Rose.
-Superintendent, F. S. Barnes.
A SUBJECT" OF PRIDE.
The mill was constructed on the plans
of W. -J3. Smith Whaley & Co, the most
successful mill engineers in the South.
This firm has left its deep imprint on the
industrial development of the South, and
especially in South Carolina. In a recent
article it was stated that: "The record
of the firm is that of 539,676 spindles, 14,560
looms and $8,500^000 capital in a working
period of seven years, unapproached by
any mill engineering firm in the South,
and should be a subject of pride to South
Carolina and to Columbia, as well as to
the members of the firm."
When we consider that in 18S0 the entire
-.State- of South Carolina contained only
2S cotton mills, with 181,743 spindles, 13.41S
looms' and $4,084,000 capital, against this
aggregate for one young South Carolina
firm".of 539,676 spindles, 14,560 looms and
S OLYMPIA COTTON MILL, COLUMBIA,
$8,500,000 ? capital, the ?. extent of its con?
structive ? achievements' may . oe- better
THE GENIUS OF W. B. SMITH
lit Columbia alone-it has planted 197,000
spindles.and 4,840 looms, or more than the
whole* State' had twenty years ago, and
the capital employed in these mills-$3,100,
OOCKis, -only 'less, thah 'that required- for -
the smaller number of looms and spindles
in 1SS0,, because, of the greater economy
possible -no w in building the best mills.
It is proper to add rthat Mr .Whaley is
the president of all but the smallest of
j these four '. Columbia phills which he Tias
j planned, and which,, with 191,000 spindles,
! 4,620' looms and $3,000,000 capital, represents
j, the largest cotton .manufacturing invest
I ment in the South , and one of the largest
I in the United States.
An example of his far-sightedness and
quick business perception may be noted
in connection with the electrical installa
' tion- of the- Olympia Mills. As soon as the
I electrical transmission of power had been
I definitely determined upon for that, mill
j and its. location, determined, he at once
; purchased the "existing- electric car lines
.'of the city; also the..electrical lighting
business, and .will-fufnish the power and
current-from the Olympia; also provide
electricity; for the other mills. The re
! suitant; economies will not only be factors
in the. net earnings of the railway and
lighting systems, - but ;will .also add an
appreciable ; net income to credit of the
OLYMPIA'S " GREATNESS ACK?OWL
Last April, when the great Olympia Mill
was. started . up, it . was examined by a
' number ct the' leading1 cotton mill officers
in the country, men who lead in the cotton
industrial movement. / One of these was
Capt Manning, of the Amoskeag Company,
. who said: "The Olympia was the finest
structure of the sort he had ever seen.
He was glad the Olympia was not a com?
petitor of the/Amoskeag Company."
j Mr -Richardson, of Massachusetts, said
I that the Olympia Mill was, In his opinion,
j the. finest cotton, mill in the world-the
. finest in architecture and equipment-and
he-said this-with a. full "realization of what
he was saying, as he was connected with
New. England mills.
Not long ago Mr H. E. C. Bryant
made a trip through the mill territory
and made disinterested and impartial in
! quiries and wrote a series of articles on
the result of his inquiries in the various
I mills in this State and North Carolina,
ONE OF THE OLYMPL* HOMES*
and here is an interesting summary in
one of his letters:
"In.passing through a mill settlement
some weeks ago I stoj>ped at the home of
a middle-aged man who had^flv? children
working in the mill. He l^yes in a six
room, two-story house. I "met him some
distance from his house; I said: 'I want
to see how you people; live. I would like
to go In some home where several children
live.' He started in a jiffy-and said as
he walked: , 'Come and go in my house."
I have five children, but ; they are in . the
mill/ Entering the house from the rear
we went through the dining room into a
. bed room, and then into the parlor. The
old gentleman was proud of the parlor.
He threw back the window curtains and
pointed to the large pictures on the wall.1
They were paintings from, photographs of
his children* The floor of the room was
carpeted and In one corner was an organ.
From kitchen to garret the house was
clean. When mine host had seen me. to
( the door he saide *I farmed on. ranted land
J before I came here, -but I could not feed
. my family there, now. I like ' the , Iii?
! here. I like my employers.' They treat
? us well if we behave ia-'like manner to
j ward them. If we misbehave they turn
us out and get others in our stead.'' When
I moved here the\ superintendent warned
me against drinking. . He. said that he
would . have none but ^sober ? help. He
meant what he said, for i have hot- seen
a drunken man on the'hill since I came
here two years ago. My children are in
good health and seem, satisfied. We are
all contented. All of us belong to the
Church and attend regularly,*"
. "I went from house to house and\h'eard
the same story. Indeed, there is no prob-;
lem at the best mills between capital and
labor, for the mill owners and operatives
dwell in harmony.
The various religious jdenbminations in
the mill sections are doing ? great deal for
J the factory element in the South. Preachers
Icall on the operatives and their families
at their homes. Churches are built "-and
. preaching and Sunday-school conducted at
j nearly every mill. Within, the last five
years in the South much has been done
for the betterment of the condition of the
cotton mill help. The work is till going
ou. ? '
"No one who knows the- facts, as any
one can learn by going to the mills, can
doubt that the people who work in the
coton mills of the South are far better off
in every way than ever before.
"Such are the conditions in all the Caro?
Mr E. G. Dunnell, an experienced news
' paper man on the editorial staff of the
New York Times, visited the South and_ j
made a careful study of the mill situation,
and in one of his letters- recently to his
paper this New York writer had this.tb j
say, among other things:
"While the owners and stockholders are
.'making money they are conferring per-,j
manent blessings upon the people. Ais in
, other towns where hew mills have de*'
rnanded increasing numbers of operatives.
shops have started to supply the needs of
operatives or those who were employed in
new industries, called forth because bf the
I -coming of a laboring population. Stores^
haye been obliged to carry large and. more
varied stocks. There is- more travelling
by rail. It is a matter o"f daily occurrence'
that among, the passengers who overcrowd
|;the trains of the Southern Railway there
are inquirers arriving at various pohits
to look over the land with the view of set?
tling, either as persons already concerned
in cotton manufacturing or hoping to be,
or tradesmen seeking a'new'market.'
. "The country is beautiful. It is chaxztt
I ing to the eye: it is naturally healthful',,
j and in the towns will be more healthful..
with a little criticism and sanitation: The j
summers are long and the. winters brief
and unusually mild. :
HOME OFFERED (
"But it Is not alone in the coming of the
trolley, the expansion of the shops, the
paving of streets in towns, the sanitation
of all places of large population, the sen?
sation of earning money with a regularity
and certainty never before enjoyed in the
ecrion, that occasion for rejoicing is
-?ound in South Carolina. Attention was
directed by a thoughtful and observant
citizen to a sociological phase of the In?
dustrial development that Is most satis?
factory, and that it seems a pity could not
be extended in some way to the State of
"When Columbia began to build mills,
and the operation of the mills had made a
perceptible drain upon the most conven?
ient and willing class of the population
that was fitted to work in the mills, that
drain was felt a little at points more or
less remote from Columbia. Men and wo?
men who had yearned Toi opportunity to;
get money without digging or hoeing for,
it- moved from the foothills into town,-'
first into places vacated by the people who j
moved earliest, and afterward, as the j
mills began to risc nearer to the hills, into ?
the manufactories elsewhere.
EFFECT OF PROSPERITY.
"Most of these people were of the real
hardy mountaineer sort, with the same
soft, deliberate courteous address that Is
characteristic of all the mountaineers in
the Virginias, the Carolinas. Tennessee or
Kentucky. They brought with them stal?
wart frames, simple appetites and igno?
rance of letters. But they were no: al-]
together at fault for that. They had not
been treated as wards of the State. There
was a moving down from the mountain
districts Into a region where there were
schools and stores and churches of a
proud but earnest and ambitious multi-,
trade that .had gotten along without these
things, simply, because all their neighbors
:had; don?fii?ewise for years. But the
pride that-had been satisfied in , the moun?
tains and: back country made them ambi?
tious -tc ?e>p'up with, the order pt; things'
inv the regi?n to which they had- migrated.
'.The -children must be clothed .like other
;CMldren;; the wife must not. be compelled
t?- lrver ih^ sun bonnet.
.^SC^OOLS FOR ALL.
--^The^pubhc, schools were at once patron?
ized .^y-^ehirdren who might" have devei
fpped^??te:their parents If it had not ' beea
:ifbr^the^b^Sng ot new7 cotton mills. New ,
heeds de^nanded money to gratify them.
5The-s?n of?civi'li2a;tion was rising.
' :<Th: many~Yespects this is the very best
' resultv?f'.^?k'e industrial awakening vin.
^uth-'<^rolfna.- The mill towns areN bound
to become5 cintres of intelligence, taste, 3e
"ye?oping^?ijp?tite for necessary and luxu?
rious surrbundingsv and, with the passing
ot; year^^a^d : theaccumulation of means,
groups?ofj?j&e- ownedPhonies :of thousand* .
who carnet the; towns penniless and igho- :
rant, ah'd^y?;'bee? by industry and thrift
converte&Tfato law-abiding, temperate, iii
Airthat.?tfr Dimnel?.hai to sa
but:mOTerS^ere)'as the mill owners real?
ize ii^rth<c^bcs"t:help is that which is best
paid- aii^^^en;.th.e .greatest of. home com
forts^iaha ^a> is the purpose of the Olym?
pia^ management. '.
WOR^^LL; THE YEAR. ROUND. -
; ?p?ra?v^ ?n the South can and do. work
a?l.t??'^a^'^ they wish io^,a^;it:;:^r>>
is; hot^he^J?-r?t^is up in the New England .
;Siates^;.^ha?: the cold weather tot?r?eres
wi?h.w?rk^r*.several months in each year.
TB3frBEST OF OFFICERS.
. Th^;?^Siit;-C?tton*3?ilIv lia^coHect?d
all/.th'e;,^^^?ngs> that are to be had. ^?t
'chinery^^^latesfc--looms, sprndles- and
ha? b??n^^?;??s - "to"/.'-put the most expe^
rien^c^?me3^-atithe;bead of the various de
parteent^President W. B.. Smith "Whaley.
lat?^ the ground
floor upi;"He worked'his'w^ty from th^bot
li^^lSb^o'^mo^-tva^ of" the ladder,
rad'so.G^ \ ,
*heeh bf^^ ;
knows fe on down-the
line,' :and??t?ta*.^ why. its management is
anxious vt?'?secure; unskilled help and trato
" the -workers- with* the skilled and compe
>t?ni':j^p^^>i?sed.--; -It is a matter pt but ,
:&shot?iiiiu?'. .^iv?gry-'short .f?me^bef<??'ljie
new ih^pj:icah : a?d does earn as much a?
any in the?nHis. .At Olympia, there wili be
' 'THB^BEST FEOFLE . AT WORK.
?.-..->.-?.-? - ? .. - .?.''..*..;'-?'
pet-p?e-toLSbuth: Carolina: ;who are working ; r
hr the hal^and who;:" are;-delighted that
they , ch? had been :
mer?rtofiersi?ai eked^outan existence; axe
ties; :theh^chUdren have;the. best bf school
facafties?t3ey*have the^h?st ;of church op-.
p?rtunfri?s;>| and : . when.', pay-day ' come?
ofVe- -thefepay and can. and do -putv aside
mpney4 . Families who worked'nuder the
lien^ systen^^and were' constantly to.dsbft,
ing an??;?iii^ wehr into tho
en^oyedicomfortable^arid. regular incomes.
. It Ss.the^iastant amvbf such" corpora
tic^:. a^:/fhe; Olympia to have, competent
and /happy^eljfc;arid to have a;fcealthy and r
satisfied^ccjnmuiity,^and, to that: 'end ev
erything-^ and is 'being,
done -?^fi^fceaita and pleasure, of ; the ;
'.operative^^--^;--'^ ' ' ' h
- .-Ther^-iaS-iio healthier.- community- than
has' ah-e??^Rtional sewerage and dralnago
? syetem;r:a^parbage .fe carted away by. the
garb^??^ m?L -The
known, phy^cia??'.. whose business, and
)LYMP?AF S HELP.
pleasure it 43 40 attend to>very medical ,
want of tfie.-cperatives at the expense of
The ma?a^emeht is des?rious of having
the very- besii??ss or operatives to live-in
-their \iUage?ai;d to work in the mill. As
the mill' is . just, starting up this enormous
plant, the:'company ' w?l require several
hundred f gullies "to give it the full nuin*
b?r of operatives. The mill, therefore,-ia
offering to receive "green" help and to
teach them^o'-wprk in the factory.
Anyone ?d&ir?fg to mvesagate with a
view of accepting th?? ofter, can get all' the
informatioar'such as regards to wages of'
the different kinds of work, etc, by writ?
ing to the'rsuperintendent of the Olympia
MiHs, or ahjs?f the mill officials, at Colum
Columbia offers a great many advantages
.io people moving into the city. Its fine
churches and:; fine schools give to those
. persons living in CoIumbia\ advantages, not
possessed, by-a-good many other localities;
The mills are all located on the street
car line, making them very accessible to
any part of Vne^c?ty. ?BDHM?HEt^H|
A good many families in the past have
moved in frbm their farms to work in the
factories here. They seem to be perfectly
satisfied and in many instances have-bet?
tered their condition considerably^
The milL.officials will ^e glad to commu?
nicate with any parties desiring to come to
the mais for the purpose of working in
them, and afr? satisfied that the opportuni?
ties are such as to satisfy them.
The story of the 0;ympia Cotton Mill is
one of intense intsrest to every Carolinian,
and when one thinks. it will be realized
how very intimately the cotton mills of
the State ?area?%>ciated with the industrial
developmental -Jae State.
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