PESDAY, MAY 21, 1902.
Wate timan was tona dea
and fcae True Southron in 1866.
ie ['Watchman and Southron now has
combined circulation and influence
both of thc old papers, and is mani?
the best, advertising medium in
CHILD LABOR IN FACTORIES.
|g||^e:-State of Friday contained a
^Pengthy editorial, with a number of
^^^|ca<^from a New York magazine,
^p^ihe above subject. We have not
^^|^:^or the: entire artiele, but copy j
BS|he' main port?oi? of the editorial
||p??hsome of the extracts to show our
Sjpp??is^-what'.is being said of us by
^^^kne of the British cotton manufac
??pBxco?s]who have been visiting Ameri
^;": factories, and especially
^ in thersouth; said to a reporter
S^^?Q^^Stet?' af ?er going through Co
^^^mbi?'s splendid mills that in time
^^^l^ut?iern people would come to
^^^M?^the evil of the child labor sys
^^???. "It is pernicious in the. ex
B|cenM^r>said he, "and wiil surely
Epbad to a general physical and mental
^^B?ening of the people from whose
jgp?-nVq come the mill operatives. You
?||?i? eventually have among you asa
^^?^iof your population a race of .-pee-.
^^feanaemiCy dull-witted and not over
HEpfoet, 6 inches in height "
g -J As- these manufacturers admitted
^el?t;under any conditions the south
??/conld lead the world in cotton manu
^feburing, and as we all fully expect
^^^*itf :can hardly be asserted that
^scKih outside criticism is prompted by
^^i^^re to handicap' the southern
^t?stale industry in the race for inter
^^?ttipnal markets. It is well known,
^^TOreovvery \that despite child labor
|||laws and the strength of trade unions
^>3n the British textile milis, and their
Hg&tanee from the sources of cotton
^^^^y, they have held their- own in
^competition with the United States
iig??aferthan alrnost any other class of
^SraSsh;^ l?anufactories. Our exports
^^af cotton goods are quite insignificant
|^p|ic^p?r?s6n with England's.
g|ef Re words bf the British manufac
J^rner are quoted merely as prelimi
^?ary to a far fuller and more severe
po^cism from the pen of a New
^?rok?n ; Two correspondents in dis-;
^?nt: States haye written us asking
?; tha? we should give attention to an
^aaticJe in the May number of the
^^a?ist?ne, by its editor, Elbert Hub
?&?,\'-on "White Slavery in The
f??nith," such slavery being the
?working of infant children in the cot?
ton mills. -, We comply with their sug
srestion for more than one reason : In
Eirst place it will be well for us
^our * * peculiar institution' *-as it
d have been well for us to have
another and an earlier such insti?
gation-through the eyes of the outside
|p|forld; ia the second place, because
gt^The Philistine, "a periodical of pro
|^*es,r* holds a unique position in
J*:-American journalism and has a circu
S?5ation of over 100,000 copies among cul
: tared people the country over, being
^t&erefore a not inconsiderable factor
in making public opinion.
ML Hubbard's article is strenuous
H?ind sweeping-too sweeping in its ex
Ivjsressions to be wholly just. He feels
jp; strongly regarding this evil of child
P??abor and has fallen into error ingene
lj-:raKzing too freely. We do not quote
S ^?nm because we approve of all he says
ip) bot because it is expedient for South
^Carolinians to know what he says and,
?p by putting themselves in the place of
^outsiders, conceive how they would
lll??e? if the like words were addressed
|t to them regarding abuses here. We
^pyent them to reach the outside view?
point ; that is the first essential to
reform at home.
? We do not need to point out to the
people of South Carolina the many
: exaggerators of speech and the various
inaccuracies which this article con?
lans. The evil of child labor is, as
% weall know, a considerable and a
growing one, but, thank God ! it is
not as bad as the Roy crofter avers,
?ior is it half as strongly entrenched
as he and others in the north imagine.
A bill prohibiting: the employment of
. young children in the textile mills of
South Carolina passed the senate and
was defeated in the house of repre?
sentatives last winter by only two
votes-and this after but ?8 months
agitation for reform.
South Carolina is taken by Mr.
Hubbard as a type of the southern
child-working State. We do not know
just how he got his information, but
he visited Columbia on a lecture tour
last winter and doubtless made his in?
quiries then. Some extracts follow :
Next to Massachusetts, South Caro?
lina manufactures more cotton cloth
than any other State in the union.
- The cotton mills of South Carolina
are mostly owned and operated by
New England capitaL * * *
Heartless cupidity has joined hands
with brutal ignorance, and the result
is child labor of so terrible a type
that African slavery was a paradise
compared with it.
Many of the black slaves lived to a
good old age, and they cot hearty
enjoyment from life.
The infant factory slaves of South
?Jaroli*-a can never develop, into men
and women. There are no mortality
statistics; the mill owners baffle all
attempts of the outside public to get
at the facts, but my opinion is that
in many mills death sets the .little
prisoner free inside of four years.
Beyond that he cannot hope to live,
and this opinion is derived from care?
ful observation and interviews with
several skilled and experienced physir
cians who practice in the vicinity of
Boys and girls from the age of 6
years and upwards are employed.
They generally work from 6 in the
morning until 7 at night. For four
I months of the year they go to work
before daylight and they work until
At noon I saw them squat on the
floor and. devour their food, which
consisted mostly of corn bread and
bacon. These weazened pigmies
munched in silence, and then toppled
[ over in sleep on the floor in all the
abandon of babyhood. Very few wore
shoes and stockings ; dozens of little
girls of, say, 7 years of age wore only
one garment, a linsey-woolsey dress.
When it came time to go to work the
foreman marched through the groups,
shaking the sleepers, shouting in
their ears, liftingjthem to their feet
and in a few instancs kicking the de?
linquent into wakefulness.
The long afternoon had begun-from
a quarter to 1 until 7 o'clock they
worked without respite or rest.
These toddlers, I saw, for the most
part did'but one thing-they watched
the flying spindles on a frame 20 feet
long, and tied the broken threads.
They could not sit at their tasks ; back
and , forward they paced, watching
with inanimate, dull look the flying
spindles. The roar of the machinery
drowned every; other sound-back
and forth paced the baby toilers in
their bare feet, an mended the broken
threads. Two, three or four threads
would break before they could patrol
the 20 feet-the threads were always
The noise and the constant looking
at the flying wheels reduce nervous
sensation in a few? months to the min?
imum. "The child does not think, he
ceases to suffer-memory is as dead as
hope; "no more does he long for the
green fields, the running streams, the"
freedom of the woods, and the com?
panionship of all the wild,, free things
that run, climb, fly., swim or burrow.
He does his work like an automaton !
He is a part of the roaring machinery ;
^memory is sered, physical vitality is
at such low ebb that he ceases to
suffer. Nature puts a short limit on
torture by sending insensibility. If
you suffer, thank God!-it is a sure
sign you are alive.
South Carolina weaves cotton that
Massachusetts may -??rear silk.
South Carolina cannot abolish child
labor because the mill owners, who
live in New" England, oppose it.
They have invested their millions in
South Carolina, with the tacit under
standing with the legislature and gov?
ernor that there sh&lKbe no State in?
spection of mills, nor interference in
any way. with their management of
employes. Each succeeding election
the candidates . for the legislature
secretly, make promises that they will
not pass a law forbidding child labor.
They cannot hope for election other
wise-the capitalists combine with the
crackers," and any man who favors
! the restriction of child labor is mark?
The cracker, the capitalist and the
preacher live on child labor, and the
I person who lifts his voice in behalf of
the children is denounced as a sickly
sentimentalist, endeavoring to discour
I age the best interests of the- State.
The cracker does not reason quite thus
far-with him it is ? question of
"rights, sah," and he is the head
of, his family and you must not
I meddle-his honor is at stake.
So at every election he jealously
guards his rights-he has nothing
else to do-he has lost everything but
"honor." If women could vote in
South Carolina they would wipe child
labor out with a sweep, but alas ! a
woman in South Carolina does not
even own her own boy. South Caro?
lina is the only State in the union
that has no divorce law- In South
Carolina the gracious, gentle woman
married to a rogue has him for life,
and he has her. The State objects
to their getting apart. The fetters
forged in South Carolina never break
(in South Carolina) and the key is
I say these things with no prejudice
against the people of South Carolina
as a whole, for some of the bravest,
gentlest, sanest, most loyal and most
hospitable friends I have in the world
live there. I make the mention mere?
ly as a matter of fact to show that the
majority of the people in South Caro?
lina have a long way to travel ?nd
are good raw stock for missi. a*ry
Unless all signs fail, Sumter will be
represented in Charleston on Wagener
Day by a very large crowd, for nearly
every other man you meet on the
street says he is going. This is just
as we would have it and we hope each
and every one who desires to visit the
Exposition on Wagener Day may be
able to do so. This city and county
has patronized the Exposition with
praiseworthy liberality, few counties
in the State having sent so many rep
resentatives, but we hope to see so
many Sumter people on the Exposi?
tion grounds on Thursday that none
of them will feel lost in a crowd of
Senator Tillman takes strong
grounds against child labor in cotton
mills and pledges his influence against
it. Senator Tillman is a shrewd read?
er of public sentiment, and, while we
do not question the sincerity of the
views he has so clearly and forciby ex- 1
pressed, we do regard his open letter ?
on the subject as a very reliable index
of the trend of popular sentiment
in respect to the child labor question.
This quetsion is already one of the im?
portant issues of the State campaign
and it bids fair to become the most
important, completely overshadowing
the many, minor matters that have
been, brought forward as campaign
issues. It is the only matter now
before the people of the State that
involves a vital principle and upon
the settlement of which the future of
the State in a measure depends. It is
a rather complex question and cannot
be decided off-hand, for it involves the
perplexing question of the right',of the.
State to supersede the parental right
of control of minor children and other
kindred questions equally as perplex-?*
ing. It is a question, however, that
can be settled by an appeal to the
highest of all laws-the safety of the
State, the public good. It behooves
every legislative candidate to study
this question I wi th care and to bring
to his study of it honesty of purpose
and a desire to serve his country as a
whole and not some particular interest
or industry. If any man of average
intelligence and ordinary honesty and
sincerity will study the .question calm?
ly and dispassionately, with a full
knowledge of the effects and results,
present and ultimate, of the extension
and continuance of child labor in
mills, where the hours are long and
the work confining, he will most as?
suredly arrive at the conclusion that
the time has come for the State to
exert its power and put an ^end to
child labor. It is not a matter that
can be compromised or put off by half
measures: it should be stopped.
^Columbia, May 20.-The .first part
of the week ending Monday, May 19th,
was warmer, the latter part cooler
than usual, making the average tem?
perature nearly normal at 73 degrees,
with a maximum of 95 degrees at Gil
lisonville and Saluda on the 14th, and
a minimum of 50 degrees at Heath
Springs on the 16th. There was less*
than the usual amount of sunshine; '
as the last half of the week was general?
Unevenly distributed showers oc?
curred throughout the week, and over
the entire State, with the heaviest
rains in the lower Savannah valley and
the Pee Dee sections, and with a maxi?
mum fall of 4.50 inches. at Sheldon,
Beaufort County. The showers were
local in character, and many locali?
ties had only sprinkles, or no rain at
all, while nearby localities had copious
amounts. Hail was noted in Berke?
ley, Greenville, Richland, Union,
Marlboro, Marion, Newberry, Chester?
field, Darlington, Kershaw, Chester
and Williamsburg counties, but in
only a few sections was the hail de?
structive to crops, although it necessi?
tated considerable replanting in
Union, Marlboro and Marion counties.
Farm work was retarded by too
much rain in a few, localities, and by
the dry and hard condition of the
ground in others,' but generally it
made fair progress. It was too wet in
some of the eatsern counties to 'kill
grass, although grassy fields are the
exception. Most of the field crops are
clean and well cultivated. The need j
of rain is especially indicated for;,'
Chester, Edgefield and Saluda coun?
ties, and generally for all the central j
and western counties, except Oconee,
and there |are many dry localities .in
the eastern counties.
The stands of corn were badly broken -
during the week by worms, necessi?
tating much replanting. ? consider?
able portion of the bottom land crop
remains to plant. Corn has a good
color generally, and in most places is
making rapid growth. It has received
its second cultivation.
Cotton is doing well,. with good
stands on sandy lands, wihle on dry
red lands the stands are not so
good, and some is not up. A little
remains to plant where the ground is
too dry. Cut ; worms injured stands
in a few places. \ Chopping ha? made
fair progress and is nearly finished
over eastern counties. Cultivation
has kept pace with the growth of the
plants, and only a few reports indi?
cate grassy fields. .Lice .have made
their appearance. The latter half of
the week was too cool for cotton. Sea
island cotton is in good condition.
Tobacco stands were broken [by cut
worms, but the plants look strong and
healthy, although undersized. Rice is
coming up to good stands, and has re?
ceived it first hoeing. Preparations
are under way for June planting.
Wheat lost condition, owins; to dry
weather, and is heading slowly. Oats
continue to vary greatly, but general?
ly stand in need of rain.
Harvesting is still confined to the
coast regions. Peaches,cherries and ap?
ples are dropping, but in places enough
peaches will remain to ripen an aver
age crop. Melons are doing well.
Vegetables are plentiful in the eastern
counties, and truck shipments con?
tinue heavy. Sweet potato slips are
being set ?out. Gardens are general?
ly poor. Pastures scant.
-Darlingon-Stokes' Bridge: Heavy
rain with hail on the lltb, that wash?
ed up much cotton and corn, some of
which has been replanted : since then
the weather has been too cool for cot?
ton ; corn doing well ; tobaacco small j
but stands are good; potato bugs
numerous.-J. H. Pate.
Florence-Lynch : The week has
been very favorable both for farm work
and the growth and development of
crops; the rains were light, but suffi?
cient for the crops, but the weather is
almost too cool; oats are heading
and promise to yield a fair crop;
insects still very destructive /to corn,
keeping stands broken.-E. J. Smith.
Kershaw-Camden : Heavy rain with
j hail on l?th, lands washed in places ;
some cotton being worked the second
?rtime, but much is not yet up; early
[ corn looks well ; sweet potatoes being
set out ; rains benefitted gardens
and pastures ; oats generally poor.-J.
Sumter.-Hagood: Fine rains dur
i ing the week: cotton chopped to
stands, and first working will soon be
?over; corn is small for the season, but
looks well and is growing rapidly;
wheat and oats have been much im?
proved by the rains, and average crops
of both will be made; peaches are
^dropping.-?. K. Sanders.
Union-Santuc : Rain was general,
but in some sections it was light, al?
though beneficial everywhere ; small
'grains recieved great benefit ; wheat
heading low, and is a poor crop;
I cotton, whree up, looks healthy; corn
growing nicely ; destructive hail storm
on the llth in places, necessitating re
planting corn and cotton.-E. W.
j Williamsburg - Kingstree: The
weather conditions were favorable for
the. growth and development of all
fields crops.-M. Cullen.
AN APPEAL FOR AID
From the Thornwell Orphanage, Clinton,
Good, kind Friend : Many faces of
dear little children look up unto you
today from-this your home for the
care of the fatherless.
You are their helpor, their bene?
factor, their earthly all.
Without your help what would be?
come of two . hundred little brothers
You can give but little, perhaps, but
! think of it : Five dollars will provide
for a child, its board for a month, or
I its schooling Tor a year ! Even a dime
will give the child its three meals a j
Just now we need you.
The time has come when summer
wants are multiplying, and even bread
is scarce and hard to get.
A little just now from each of a thou?
sand friends, would mean a great deal
to these ceildren.
It is a joy to know that you will not
forget us. You never do.
God's blessing is your only reward.
And is not that enough? God's bless?
ing and the grateful prayers of all this
multitude of orphans.
Send your barrels of flour simply to
Thornwell Orphanage, Clinton, S. C.
Send your gifts of money . to Wm.
P. Jacobs, Clinton, S. C.
After the Exposition. '
The Exposition's days are number?
ed. In two week's time the beautiful
picture, which for the past six months
has delighted the eye and the intelli?
gence of thosuands of visitors from ail
sections of the country will pass
away. Those who have not yet seen
the show should in its closing days
make every effort to do so. There is
much to be seen and the last days of
the fair will be the best days. Every
day from now until the Ivory City is
brought to a final end should be a
The work of destroying the Exposi?
tion will begin immediately after the
close of the gates to the public, and
within three or four weeks after the
close all of the exhiibtors and the con?
cessionaries will have left the grounds,
and the scene that will greet the eye
will be one of desolation and perhaps
ruin, for it. is expected that the work
of tearing down many of the buildings
will begin immediately. Many of the
State buildings have been sold to
parties in the city and it is under?
stood that they will be torn down as
quickly as possible after the close of
the show.-Charleston Post?
The State of South Carolina,
COUNTY OF SUMTEE.
By Thos. V. Walsh, Esq., Probate Judge.
Whereas, Dr. Rich'd B. Furman hath
made snit to me to grant him Letters of
Administration of the estate of and effects
of Dr. John H. Fnrman, deceased,
These are therefore io cite and admon?
ish all and singular the kindred and cred?
itors of the said Dr. John H. Fnrman, late
of said County and State, deceased, that
they be and appear before me in the
Court of Probate, to be held at Sumter C.
H.. on June 4th, 1902, next, after publica?
tion thereof, at 11 o'clock in the forenoon,
to show cause, if any they have, why the
said administration should not be granted.
Given under my hand this 20th day of
Mar, A. D., 1902.
THOS. V. WALSH,
May 21-2t Judge of Probate, j
A NEW BABY COUNTY
An Election to be Held on June 28
to Decide Whether the County of
Allendale Shall be Formed.
Columbia, May 19.-Governor Mc?
sweeney bas ordered a special election
to be held on June 28 to'. decide
whether Allendale County shall^be or?
ganized or not. t??S
This new county project developed
quite unexpectedly, although for some
time Allendale has been spoken of as
a desirable place for a county court
All of the papers in the case, -with
the affidavits and signatures, were
presented to the Attorney General's
office and Governor McSweeney re?
ceived the following- report :
The petition and accompanying pa?
pers of certain qualified ' electors of
sections of Barnwell. and Hampton
counties, praying for an election to be
ordered upon the question of forming
a new'county, referred to this office,
has been considered.
The correctness of the fact set forth
does not come within the province pf
this office, but evidence is presented
that all the requirements of Article 8
of the Constitution, providing the
prerequisites for an election for a new
county, have been complied with..
U. X. Gunter, Jr.,
Assistant Attorney. General.
Governor McSweeney saw no reason
to delay the election, but thought
that, as all the papers were regular
and the people evidently want to hold
the election and settle the matter, the
sooner it was done the better, and he
therefore- issued an order for an elec?
tion for a new county, to be held on
St. Petersburg, May 19.-An suc?
cessful attempt was made yesterday
evening to assassinate the Governor
of Vilna, Lieuti Gen. Von Wahio. As
he was leaving the circus at Vilna,
about midnight, a man stepped
np behind him and fired twice with a,
revolver, wounding the Governor in :
the left hand and right foot. The j
would-be assassin was pounced upon ;
by the police and bystanders and was j
thrown to the; ground, but he succeed- |
ed in firing a third shot harmlessly.* j
"When arrested the man gave the ?
name of fiirschel Derfc.
The South Carolina Pharmaceutical ?
Association meets in Charleston May
21-22. When the convention is not in
session the pharmacists will visit The
Exposition grounds and spend their
time in sightseeing.
We are sho
Prices very i<
Just opened J
sizes S to 9 1
attractive pr j
rai SIJMTBK WATCHM AN, Kitabliihed April, 1SS?.
Swated Aug. 2,1881.
"Be Just aid Fear not-Let all the Ends thou Aims't at, be thy Country's, thy God'slandBTruth's."
THE TB?E SOCTHKON, Established Jon? 1*6
SUMTER. S. C.. WEDNESDAY. MAY 21. 1902.
New Series-Vol. XXI. No. 42
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