Newspaper Page Text
Cjjt ft&aUbman nub jSoutbton
* WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 4, 1909.
The Sumter Watchman was found?
ed In 1110 and the True Southron In
lift. The Watchman and Southron
?ow a a* the combined circulation and
Influence of both of the old papers,
and Is manifestly the best advertising
gnedlum In Sumter.
COTTON Q RAD KS S TANDARD12KD
Department of Agriculture Completes
Washington. August 1.?In the act
?of congress making appropriations for
the department of agriculture for the
year ending June 30. 1909. the secre?
tary of agriculture was authorised "to
establish a standard for the different
grade* of cotton, calling to his assist?
ance for that purpose expert cotton
classifiers, by fixing a standard of
middling cotton and, using the same
as a basis, establishing a standard of
?nine different grades to be designated
enlddlln* fair, strict good middling,
strict middling, middling, strict low
middling, low middling, strict good
?ordinal v. and good ordinary. The
secretary of agriculture was further
authorised "to prepare In practical
form the standard of said grades and
furnish the same upon request to any
person, the cost thereof to be paid,
when delivered, by the person request?
ing the same, and certified under the
signature of the s..Id secretary and
the seal of his department."
Carrying out the provisions of this
Act. the secretary of agriculture con?
vened In the city of Washington In
February. 190ft. a committee of cot
son exeprts Including, besides the de?
partment experts, representatives of
the different interests of the trade. ?
Committee consisted of Mr. Joseph A.
'Array, of John if. Parker A Co., New
?Orleans, <La.. Mr. James Akers, of In
snan. Akers A Inman. Atlanta, Ga.;
Mr. F. M. Crump, of F. M. Crump A
*Co. Memphis. Tenn.; Mr. C P Baker.
-ef the ?Lawrence Manufacturing Com?
pany. Boston. Mass; Mr. Lewis W.
Partner, of the Olympia Mills, Green?
ville; Mr John Martin. Paris. Texas;
Mgr. Nstbanlel Thayer, of Barry,
Thayer A Co.. Boston, Mass.; Mr. O.
W. Neville, of Weld A Neville. New
fork City; Mr. Charlee A. Vedder. of
John D. Rogers A Co., Oalveston.
Tex ; sod Dr. N. A. Cobb and Mr. R.
L Bennett, of the department of agri?
culture The committee was assisted
try the following expert cotton classl
Asra Br. W. P. Kar bot. of the classi?
fication committee, New York Cotton
Bschange. Mr. Jules Msserat, ehair
snaa of ths classification committee.
New Orleans Cotton Exchange, and
Mr. J. R. Taylor, with the firm of
Wolf A Co.. Dallas, Texas.
The department furnished the com?
mit'** every facility for Its work, hi v
Ing on head types of cotton fro.it
lbs diYerent exchanges and market*
and materials for making up the
grades as provided by law. The com?
mittee after due deliberation submit?
ted a unanimous report, which the
secretary has approved, fixing the
grades and making certain recom?
mendations In connection therewith.
In v+-r of the fact that contracts sre
made tor cotton In advance of the
ensuing cotton season, the committee
recommended that the grades agreed
upon by the committee be not pro?
mulgated for general use In trade
transactions prior to September 1.
1110. In order, however, for the cot?
ton trade to become fully acquainted
With the grades, the department of
aigrlcult jre will In a r.h >rt time place
sets In the hands of a limited number
of itl ins, organisations, ex?
change* and agricultural colleges-for
Inspection These sets will enable the
cotton producers, cotton merchants,
and spinners to become familiar with
Till*. Fl UK SATT" 11 DAY.
Mr. .1 W M< Kelter Sustains Slight
An alarm from Box 37 was rung In
Saturday ihont 2 o'clock. When the
Ihre AVigAltgsegd arried they found the
engln" hou*,- of the Sumter Door.
Sash A Blind Factory ablaze. The
flames were soon checked and with
very lit*!? damage done, exe pt to the
angle ? house which was a total loss.
It eon d not be ascertained the exact
amount of the lo.tM, hut I?? something
lese th in $100 dollars Slight dnmage
was done to the engine, which was
tally seeetad with insurance. The ori?
gin oi ihe fire Is not known but It Is
sapp.? I to hi e originated In the
dast room. Theie was no Insurance
on the burned building.
A negro Ice-cream festival In July
esems to be as dangerous as a hot
sapper in cotton-picking tlm n Judg?
ing from reports from Tlndal's.
At a meeting of men representing
the various denominations, at the Y.
M. C. A In OeHtmbig Thursday, a
committee was appointed to consider
sanding a formal Invitation to the
Maii's Missionary convention to hold
eae of Its meetings In Columbia this
Farmers' Union News
Practical Thoughts for Practical Farmers
(Conducted by E. W. Dnbbs, President Farmers' Union of Sumter
The Watchman and Southron having decided to double its service by
semi-weekly publication, would improve that service by special features.
The nrst to be inaugurated is this Department for the Farmers' Union and
Practical Farmers which I have been requested to conduct. It will be my
aim to give the Union news and official calls of the Union. To that end
officers, and members of the Union are requested to use these columns.
Also to publish such clippings from the agricultural papers and Govern?
ment Bulletins as I think will be of practical benefit to our readers. Ori?
ginal articles by any of our readers telling of their successes or failures
will be appreciated and published.
Trusting this Department will be of mutual benefit to all concerned,
All communications for tl la Department should be sent to E. W. Dabbs.
Mayesville, S. C.
Some Random Thoughts.
In my selections from other papers,
I do not always agree with the views
of'the writers, but reproduce them
because they contain food for thought
In every article some ideas are sure
to be advanced that are not in accord
with the pre-conceived notions of some
reader, but that is no reason why
valuable Information is not contained
in the article, nor why it may not
There are some inspiring ideas in
the two selections for this Issue. It is
the time when these matters should
be studied and discussed, and the
school programme mapped out for
the next term.
Children are educated as much by
environment as by text books?nay
are educated more by environment
and associations than by any train
ins; of the text books?hence the
necessity of better and more attrac?
tive school houses, better homes* bet?
ter roads. While many great men
came out of log school houses. It was
In spite of and not because of, the
log school house.
I believe that where there la the
least culture In the homes of the
people there, especially, should the
school house be made most attrac?
tive. If a school term should have
to be omitted to build a comfortable
house, better by far do so, than have
children and teacher half sheltered
In a building not fit for a stable.
These remarks may not seem ap?
propriate to the farmers' columns of a
paper, but if there Is anything farm?
ers need more than another it is ED?
UCATION, and the Union needs to
lay more etress upon education than
any other feature of its work. If It
would bring about diversification and
co-operation. There will never be a
financing of the cotton crop, by farm
era and foe farmers, until the rank
and nie pf as are better eduoated.
There may be some improvement In
our condition by etandard warehouses
and bond and trust companies for
cheaper money, but so long ae they
are organised and owned by outsiders
it will be a case of financing the cot?
ton by speculators and for specula
We as a Union can not finance the
cotton crop from the top downward,
but we can finance it from the ground
upward. We can do as we have plan?
ned to do Ifi Sumter County and as
the farmers of Lancaster County have
done. And whore we have shown our
ability to finance our own farms, to
successfully conduct a small co-oper?
ative business, then we can undertake
these larger things, for then we will
have the trained men to manage
,them. and larger enterprises will be
the natural growth.
Some people seem to think the Far?
mers' Union can be a Standard Oil
Company or a U. S. Steel Corporation
In a day Just by passing resolutions to
that effect. They forget that these
Immense businesses are the slow
urowth of a generation of continuous
effort by as smart men as the world
I was truly glad to see in the meet
In?? of the State Union last week that
this idea of growth is gaining strength
and there is less disposition to finance
and control cotton by long rage reso?
lutions. When we have got down tO
i s irir business basis we will hear le?s
about farmers sticking. They will
stick all tight when there Is some?
thing business-like to stick to, but
will never stick to impossible resolu?
tions. Mi W. D.
way. Watermelons are always wa?
termelons, but the varieties will mix,
of course. But watevinelons will not
mix with cucumbers or gourds, nor
with mu8kmelons, or cantaloupes mix
with cucumbers or squashes, but all
the squashes and gourds will mix
I think that R. A., who made that
absurd hopothetical proposition in re?
gard to stock, has something to think
about, and If he Is a farmer, some
ideas that may help him to better no?
tions in regard to cattle feeding and
manure making. |If Mr. French can
make hay for $4.48 per ton in a sec?
tion where it is worth three times as
much, and can feed it and get the
market price of the hay through the
feeding, he has certainly got a good
profit from the feeding, and has the
manure thrown in. It has certainly
been shown that the growing of cot?
ton with fertilizers year after year
has not made tbe farmers rich, and a
change to more feeding of stock cer?
tainly will not make them poorer than
they are. The Southern lands have
been reduced In fertility mainly be?
cause our farmers have ignored - the
fundamental idea in the cultivation,
of the soil, the maintenance of the
humus, the new land conditions,
through the growing of forage and
the feeding of stock; and there will
be no permanent improvement In
Southern agriculture until all our
farmers fully realize that stock feed
ig In some form is the very founda?
tion of such improvement, and that
the restoration of the humus wasted
In constant clean culture with com?
mercial fertilizers is the most Impor?
tant matter on the Southern lands to?
day. Talk about gambling In futures,
the worst gambling that has been
done In the South is the annual
gambling on the chances of a crop
from the use of a little low-grade
complete fertilizer, and as la all oth?
er gambling, the gamester has been
the loser, and should reform and stop
gambling and get down to legitimate
business methods.?Professor Mas
sey In Progressive Farmer.
Nop s and Comments.
iu a reply to ? correspondent In a
recent Issue I am made to say "the
seed that made the bitter squashes
may have been crossed with cucum
bers or melons." I certainly did not
mean to pay anything of the sort, for
squashes will not cross with melons
or cucumbers, and It would hardly
make them bitter If they should
What 1 said, or meant to say. was
that they might have been crossed
with gourds, There is a great deal
of misunderstanding In regard to
these eucurbitaeeous plants, and some
think that they will mix In a general
Better Schoos* as a Business Propo?
Now we all know that good sohool
h oases, good equipment and good
teachers cost money, and that If we
have good schools we must pay for
them. The money thus spent would,
In almost every case, be a good in?
vestment If it never brought back one
cent In actual cash returns to the
taxpayer, because it helps to develop
real manhood and womanhood?the
two most valuable things In this
world; but all this aside, let us look
at the matter from a purely business
standpoint and see if a good school
will add enough to the material wel?
fare of a community to make the
money spent for it a profitable invest?
It Is impossible in such a case to
give acutal figures showing Just what
return the school makes to the com?
munity, because no one can tell In
dollars and cents Just how much
more the boy or girl, the man or wo?
man, Is worth with his or her school
training than he or she would be
worth without It. Put this Is not
necessary. There are other ways of
getting at the matter.
Taking a general survey of tbe
World, or of our own bind, it is indis?
putable that the countries or sections
where there are good schools are far
in advance, financially as well as oth?
erwise, of those whleb have poor
schools or no schools at all. There is
a still surer test: Let every reader
takt his own neighborhood and give
it a roomy, convenient and attractive
school house and good teachers for five
years, and what will be the result? Is
there one who does not believe there
will be at the end of that time finer
houses, bigger barns, better stock,
more productive farms, and a more
prosperous i.pie In that nelghb >r
hood? Then, on the other hand, lei
the school be allowed to k<> steadily
down for tbe same time-let the
buildings be neglected, the grounds
allowed to mow up in weeds and
bushes, the furniture left to go to
pieces, and the commissioners en?
couraged to employ the cheapest
teacher available?and what will the
result be? Does anyone believe that
the people of his neighborhood will
have much progress?
It is a plain business proposition.
The difference between the cost of a
good school and a poor one is really
a small matter to any individual; but
the difference between the effects of
the two schbols on the life of the
community may be the difference be?
tween progress and stagnation.
A good school, then, is a source of
profit to the people who invest in it.
It is the best advertisement a com?
munity can have, adding to the value
of every acre of land and always at?
tracting to it the better class of citi?
zens. It Increases the earning capa?
city of every boy and girl who attends
and opens their eyes to opportunities
which they never would have seen
without it. It educates, too, in a de?
gree, proportionate to his own will?
ingness to learn, every adult within
its sphere of influence, and by this
education enables him to do better
and more profitable work. Td> pay
taxes cheerfully for school purposes;
to take an interest in the teachers se?
cured and in the work they do; to
aid in obtaining better buildings and
equipment, longer terms and more
practical courses of study; to help
keep up the attendance and the in?
terest; to assist the children with
their studies?to work for better
schools, in short, is a public service,
but it is also a hgihly profitable way
of investing time, thought and. money.
CONDITION OF COTTON VERY
Journal of Commerce's ltepact Gives
Percentage of 73.1.
>~?w York, August 1.?Tim Journal
of mmerce, in its montftfy cotton
report tomorrow, will say: The con?
dition of the cotton crop,, according
to 1,655 replies of special correspond?
ents, of an average date of July 24,
was 73.1 against 76.8 last month, or a
decline of 3.7 points.
Comparison with previous years
makes the present percentage condi?
tion the lowest in the series o' reports
compiled by this Journal, which In
11)08 showed 83.6 per cent, 75.5 In
1907, and 81.7 in 190?. In 1.905 the
condition wee 75.4; 1904 it was 84.4;
In 1903 it was 76.7; In 1901 it was
79.?. and In 1901. It was 76.3.
The table of condition- presented
shows a decline In all States, except
Arkansas, Tennessee and Missouri,
where so Improvement took piece.
Conspicuous deterioration occurred
In Texas, condition declining 9.8
points. Continued drought and high
temperatures were responsible for this
loss, the damage by boll weevil being
reduced to a minimum. The large
amount of grass which infested the
fields during June, owing to exeesstve
moisture In nearly all States except
Texas end Oklahoma, was not thor?
oughly disposed of during July, prhv
pleslly beeause of continued heavy
rains in widely scattered areas. Even
where weather conditions allowed of
clearing, the crop was considerably
Injured by working. Mississippi,
Louisiana, Arkansas, Tennessee and
Mlssurl fared better, where drier
weather enabled farmers to mske
more favorable progress in cultiva?
tion; but etands have been almost uni?
versally Injured and the plant ts
small end only fairly fruited. Many
correspondents, however, report the
plant strong, and with favorable
weather may make a fair crop. A
late froet will be necessary, a? the
crop is etlll two to three weeks late;
in Texas, however, it appears to be
Boll weevils threatened serious
damage in Texas, Louisiana and Ark?
ansas, but dry, hot weather largely
destroyed them, except In Louisiana
where they punctured squares in
large numbers. Other insect damage
throughout the State has been prac?
The D. J. Chandler Clothing Co.,
trunk and suit case advertisement will
undoubtedly be of interest to those
who are in need of these requisites
for traveling in comfort.
A suit against the City of Columbia
for $44,277.33 has been filed in the
United States Circuit Court by the
Georgia Engineering Company,
through their attorneys. Messrs.
Thomas <fc Thomas and I). W. Robin?
son, growing out of an alleged con?
tract made for the paving of Main
street. Columbia, which contract the
plaintiff claims was violated, causing
The first regiment of State military,
in camp at Greenville, engaged in a
?ham battle on Paris Mountain.
Mr. Samuel Welchel, who is oper?
ating a gold mine on a snutll scale on
lands belonging to the Gaffney Land
and Improvement Company, this
week took out a nugget of gold which
is worth $43. Mr. Welchel has taken
a number of valuable nuggets from
this mine. Arrangements will soon
be made to operate the mine on a
large scale, as the owners feel sure
that it will pay to put In machinery
gnd a large force of hands.
THE TARIFF BILL SUBMITTED
law, but provision is made for a
countervailing- duty In case it becomes
necessary to protect this county
PAYNE PRESENTS REPORT OF against Canada's inhibitions upon th?
THE CONFERENCE COMMIT
exportation of w.'iods to the United
Hides of cattle comes i free an
The Majority Leader Presents an Ex- | there is a corresponding reduction on
hnustive Analysis of the Bill in I leather and leather goods. The house
Which He Seeks to Show That the
Hates on the Necessaries of Life
Have Been Decreased?Abstract of
The Conference Ke|>ort.
Washington, July 30.?When Ma?
jority Leader Payne, head of. the
house conferees on the tariff bill
which bears his name, rose in the
house of representatives today to pre?
sent the report of the conference
committee of the two houses on the
liill, the measure had been in confer?
ence for just three weeks.
Proceeding on the theory that the
bill marks a general downward ten?
dency from tbe present rates of duty,
Mr. Payne presented, but did not
read, an exhaustive analysis of its
provisions. This statement, he said,
had been prepared personally by him?
self, and he asked to have it printed
as an offlciaT document. There was
objection, however, from the Demo?
cratic side, and the printing was pre?
vented for the time. In this state?
ment Mr. Payne undertook to show
that there had been a marked de?
crease in the rates on the; necessaries
of life, while admitting that there had
been an increase on some of the lux?
Probably the most marked reduc?
tions throughout any schedule in the
bill as a result of the action of the
two houses and of the conference
committees are found in the metal
schedule.. Beginning with a decrease
in the rate of iron ore to 40 to 1!?
cents per ton, there is a general re?
duction throughout that portion of
the bill, pig Iron going down from
$4 to $2.50 per ton, and scrap iron
from $4 to $1.
The reduction on many of the Items
in this schedule amounts to about 50
per cent, and this reduction includes
steel rat!*. Thcr?? Is an increase on
structu!*1 steel ready: for use and also
rates are practically retained on sole
? it her, leather for uppers, boots and
shoes and harness, but the free hide
provision is based on the condition^
that on and after October 1, 1909,
sole leather from the hides that are to
he admitted free will pay e duty of 5
per cent; grain, buff and split leather,
7 -12 per cent; boots and shoes, the
upper leather of which is made from
such hides, 10 per cent; and harness
and saddlery, 20 per cent. This sched-,
ule of rates will result in a reduction^
of 15 per cent on boots and shoes, 20
per cent on harness and saddlery, II
per cent on sole leather, and 12 1-2
per cent on leather for uppers, if
made off the hides that are put on the
free list by the provision.
Binding twine is retained on thej
Cotton ties are made dutiable at
three-tenths of a cent per pound an3
cotton bagging at six-tenths of a cent
per square yard.
On quebracho, the tanning extract,
for a stifr duty on which Senator
Daniel made such a strenuous fight,
the house rates of one-half anc. three
fourths of a cent per pound are re?
tained, which is almost all that the
Virginia senator asked.
Campaign for Education..
Today at Spartanburg and Darling?
ton a speaking campaign for educa?
tion will tegin, to continue for five
weeks. There has been muxr^ pre?
liminary work and there will be many
speakers, including teachers, preach?
ers, Journalists, doctors, bankers,^
manufacturers, and merchants. Oc?
casionally, perhaps, a politician may
This energetic canvass of South
Carolina in the interest of education
is noteworthy. It marks a distinct
advancement It is the practical
method of reachir.?r the people and"
pressing upDn them the great need
of the hour, the need of the hour in
order that the State's future may be
To keep pace with the on-rush, our
a slight increase on rasors, nippers
and pliers, and on such new metals
Rough lumber goes down from 92
to $1.25 per thousand feet, with a cor?
responding reduction in the differen?
tial on dressed lumber.
The entire cotton schedule wae re?
constructed and the phraseology
greatly changed In the hope of pre?
venting reductions through decisions
by the courts such as have character?
ised the administration of the Dingier
law during latter years. In many in?
stances the rates intended to be im?
posed by the Dlngley law were cat by
these decisions, the reductions in some
instances being from 60 per cent to
8 per cent advalorem. It is estimated
that the rates fixed by the bill ere
abent 8 per cent higher upon an av?
erage then those collected on cottons
last year. The rates on cotton hosiery
are genesally increased.
In the much contested matter of
the rate on gloves the high protec?
tionists fail to score.
Sugar and tobacco duties remain
substantially as they are under the
There is a uniform Increase oa
spirits, w4nee and liquors of 16 per
cent. ' j
There Is sn increase In lemons, figs,!
almonds and plneapplles.
Common window glass of the lower
sizes. In which the Imports are heavy. *
is given a reduction, and where
changes were made in the chemical lD8 Kind TOU H3Y8 AridjfS HOUgM
schedule there was a general de- ,
crease, except upon such articles as
fancy soaps and perfumes, which 8lgaature of
were incrensed. p?b^^???
The publishers win their fight for NOTICE?All persons are forbidden
lower wood pulp and print paper, the tQ hnnU flre.hunt or trespass in any
late on the ordinary new print paper j manner whatsoever on my land sit
being fixed at $3.75 per ton, instead j uate(J ,n shiloh xownsnlp, Sumter
of $6 as under the Dingley law, and County. Rebecca Poole. 8-2-lt
on the higher grade of print paper at' ?-?
Mechanically FOR SALE?Seed rye and oats, will
people ir.ust have more general edu?
cation and better instruction. The'
percentage of illiterates must be
greatly reduced. The illiterate is a
factor In our social scheme as useless,
ae impotent, ae is an unarmed sol?
dier In battle. And hie personal con?
dition is mor? deplorable, for the sol?
dier may eareh lmself by running
sway, while there le no eecape for the
illiterate frra the yoke.
Those men and women who are en*
gaged in this patriotic movement for
the educational uplift of the people
will have their reward in the fruits of
their lsbor. We ask them all to re?
member that no educational system
Is effective unless ths pupils are in the
schools, and that no schools, however
excellent, have ?ver of their own in?
herent strength drawn nearly all the
children into them. Ik every coun?
try on earth and in every State ia
this union where schools are properly
utilised, a compulsory attendance law
te in force. To hope for different re?
sults In South Carolina to to hops
blindly, without reason.?The State.
For Infants and Children.
$3.75, instead of $8.
ground wood pulp Is to come in free
of duty instead of paying 1-12 of a
cent a pound as under the Dingley
have seed wheat, barley etc., later.
Booth-Harby Livestock Co., 8-2
Thirtieth Annual Mountain Excursion Via
AUGUST 18th. 1909.
Very low round t ip rate* to the principal resorts in North Car?
olina, South Carolina. Tennessee, Washington, D. C. and Norfolk,
Va including Ashevllle, Brevard, Plat Rock, Hendersonvtlle, Hot
springs, Lenotr, Lincolnton, Marion. Selude, Shelby, Tryon and
Wayncsville, X. C, also Abbeville, Anderson. Glenn Springs.
Greenville Laurena Spartanburg, Walhalla and White stone
LlthlS Springs. S. C, have been authorized. Tickets will be on sale
for all trains on August 18th, 190*, from Barnwell, Camden, Ches?
ter, Denmark, Summervllle, St. George. Branehville, Orsngeburgi
St. Matthews and Sumter. S. C.
Tickets will be good returning on any regular train up to und
Including September Und. 1909.
Children between flvs end six years of age. half fare
For detailed information, tickets, etc., apply to Southern Rail?
way tlckel agents or address.
j. L. MEEK,
Asst. Gen. Pee, Agt.
L. D. Ll'SK.
Div. Pass. Agent.
Charleston. S. C.