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T1LF DRAIN AO R.
(I*) Four Chapter*?Chapter One.)
I propose within the space of four
agaatne articles to tell how to un
rdraln farm landa. I ?hall not en
gs upon the neceeeity of drainage
every farmer knows that the mag
ude of his crops, othe" things be
equsl. bears some aort of propor
to the degree of thoroughness
which the surplus water has
n removed from the will,
o those landholders who love
r soil wail enough to give their
nal attention to ita cultivation,
make their home* upon It, sell
gh to wlah the son to continue
e on It.?continuing or maln
ing the Improvements begun Of
carried out by the father?well
enough to encourage the aon ahould
hs make such choice, these papers
The men who would prefer to con
fins htmsslf to forty acres of land,
making a forty or fifty bale crop, to
spreading out over eighty or a hun?
dred acres to make the same amount
of crop, belongs to the clasa of men
that I wish to reach.
By the drainage of a soil to a giv?
en depth la meant the removal of all
water that will flow out from the soil
by grsvitatlon Into underground con?
duits placed st that depth below the
For ths asks of convenience I will
divide nolle into two classes:
First.?Frss tolls, or soils that
readily admit ths wster of rslns.
which pssalng down through them
from a higher to a lower level, finds
outlet at the aurface or In the beds
wafer courses. To thta clasa be?
long ths asndy soils, the loams and
Sscotd.?Retentive soils or clay
soils, msda up largely of clay, and
through which (especially In their
undrainsd atsta) water flowa alowly
or net at all.
Pres aolla do not need artificial
drainage except as they may be un?
derlaid near ths aurface by imper?
vious material. Sand in a sieve
drains perfectly. Hand in a basin
doso ne t drain at all. Clay soli In a
slsvs drslna perfectly.
fSWfhe isssrlptlon of retention soli*
H sbovs given, would seem to dla
^nmrage. sny attempt towsrds their
flmprovsment by drainage and may
[appear st vsrlsnce with the ftate
jgnent Just made that clay would drain
Ikfert v Lst us examine Into the
^r* of the clsya snd understand
I c sy aolla have by the aid of
LfBnrtui e become the equal in pro
Bctlvs capacity of any other aolla.
|aw Clay absorba from 40 to 70 per
cant, of Ita weight of water. It is
probable that It will hold within it
mam ?galnat gravitation. as much
aa hall Its weight of water and will
part slth thla only to evaporation.
A sampls of day dried by sgposilfi
to sir snd sun weighed 12 ounc- -
The same after four days absorption
of water plsced In reach of suction
weighed 17 1-2 ounces. Weight aft i
sgsln exposing the same to air and
aun 1 ! ounces. It was then Imme?
diately broken up Into powder and
atlll weighed 12 ouncea. but after ex?
posure to the air gained over an
younce. We aee from this experiment
that day can hold in suspension
nearly one-half Its weight of water
snd that it can absorb from the at?
mosphere more than one-twelfth of
Holl? are formed by the weathering
of the rocka. The action of water
and air on the rocks, aided by
chsngea of temperature and frost,
csuse their grsdusl disintegration.
The action of the weather Is aided
by the vegetation that begins to grow
In the broken down material after?
wards sddlng Its own decaying mat?
ter to it.
When examined under the micro?
scope soils are found to be mad" up
of particles of Irregular shape and of
varying degreea of fineness. Leaving
out the coarser aands. and gravel, we
gather as s reault of these ex.:mm i
tlons that the diameter of soil parti?
cles vary from 1-100 of an inch In
fine aand to 1-10.000 of an Inch, an I
leas. In clay.
If you dip a sieve filled with ru ?
bles Into water and withdraw It the
pebble* come out wet. and remain
wat for sometime afb'r the water hnS
stopped flowing from the mass of
pebbles. That Is to aay, the gejrfecs
of each pebble Is covered with a thin
film of water which is held to the
pebble sgalnst the force of gravity
by s force which w?> will call sun i
If the same volume of sand be
stltuted for the pebbles It will bi
found that th<- sand will withhold
more a/nter than Ho- pebble* The
amaMer th*? anftsolsi toga peeing i
the greater will b*? the free *pa<
within the mass of soil th vj,????.??
a ill bo the aggregate of the gapfaV
s if the particles. and cogg
.I'O Mtiv Iba greater will bi UM quiin
tlty of wster held within the soil by
If now you fill the sieve with a^ll
Instead of p- bble? or sand, and Hin
I the sieve over the water M that
only the bottom surface of the con?
tent* will Just touch the water, the
force that X have called surfuce ten?
sion will further i manifest Itself by
causing motion In the water drawing
U up into the mass of soil; that Is to
say. into the free spaces among the
soil ^articles. An easy experiment to
make illustration of the foregoing is
t<> take a hard cubical loaf of sugar
and merely touch the corner of the
<ube to the surface of your tea. and
observe how rapidly the tea rises Into
Tluse ver> small free spaces exist
big in a ma.N ot soil are what we
???II pores. The voids In a mass of
broken stone or pebbles or coarse
s md. ^differ from pores only in mag?
nitude. That propertv of porous mass?
es by virtue of which they can obsorb
du Ids even against the force of grav?
ity, we call capillarity, and is no other
than the surface tension above al?
luded to. It Is the same force that
cauees the oil to rise In the lamp
wick, or the sap to rise in trees.
The more compact a clay soli be?
comes, up to a certain extent it 'east,
the greater I? lt? capillarity. If the
soli In the seive Is loose the wattr
will rise Into* it very slowly; and it
wt do not limit the soil to depth,
Lhe 'Viter may not appear upon the
soff ace even af?cr long contact with
the bottom ol the sqJ. as the warei
may be taken up and carried off by
the atmosphere, which f circulates
ihroigh the soil as fast as it is suek
e*l up from below. On the otrer
hand, if you could fit into the sieve a
lump of dry clay soil just as it comes
i'rom come hard undained field, it
wt uul draw up the water more rapid?
ly, and the water would rise much
higher into the soil; probably many
feet. If the soil la of only moderate
depth, the water would soon show It?
self on top of the soil by dampness of
the surface, and the mass would ap
pear quite saturated with water.
Even If the soil extends in height
four or more feet above the surface
of the water, but for evaporation the
: i; t race would appear always damp.
This four or more feet of clay soil
then Is in exactly the same condition
of the same class of soil out of yc.ir
undralned field, retention by nature,
and always either water logged or
baked hard by the sun. Instead of
the water running out of it the soil is
sucking *he water up into itself al?
most to the point of saturation, and
giving it up only to evaporation ut
the surface. x
How can we drain a soil if the wa?
ter will not run out of It? If the wa?
ter will not run out of this muss of
soli in our experiment how can it
ever run out of the field Into the
drains under the field?
I was once approached by a farmer
of life-long expei" .nee in his voca?
tion upon the subject of draining his
clay lands. He was afraid that water
would not run out clay land, and
did not believe that such land could
be drained. I have endeavored In the
foregoing to describe the mechanical
condition of clay soils In their natur?
al state, In order further on to meet'
the argument of this class of objec?
tors. This gentleman saw the s't
i.ation Just as 1 have seen and at?
tempted to describe It, and had
drawn the same conclusions from the
facts given above and already ob?
served by him that I shouid have
deduc3d tor myself had I not had the
opportunity r>f seeing further.
Through fre* soils the pe-colatlon
of water goes on a.> evenly as through
a selve. but of course thes.i ?oils.
v Mt ?i underlaid by a comparatively
Impervious material may become
filled with water to the surface. It is
easy to understand how such soils
may bo relieved of their successive
wetnesj. by a few drains, at wide in?
tervals, through them. The water de?
scending entirely fills the mass of soil
below the drains, and in rising to the
levels of the drains begins to flow on
through them just as it would over a
dam. In the drainage of these soils
the mechanical operation of the
drains is all there is to it. But the
drainage of clay soils is more com?
plex. It is true that, when we have
constructed the drains we have done
our part but the mere presence of
underground conduits though they
perform their duties efficiently where
called upon, would never as our ex?
periment has shown completely drain
clay soils; for It Is also true, as we
have seen* that clay when completely
- urn cited will give up to gravity only
? small percentage of it water.
11 H erere not Pn the fact that
Clays expend When wet and contract
While drying. IhS believers in illl
permeal lllty would gain ground. The
great capillary power possessed by
th ?->?? soils eii ilde them to draw wa?
ttr up from greet depths to the sur
foce where it is token up by evopora?
tion During the dry seasons the
moss "f soil is robbed of so mu< h <-i
Its water in thll way that it shrinks
and becogooi completely Intersected
by tracks of groat depth, ramifying
and cross!im each oth? r in every d|
rectlon. Ill this condition the toll
greedily Obsorbe the rains until fill?
ed; the c a< ks close and the land
can dry only by evaporation. Cloy
lands m tiii, condition though they
he very fertile can not produce max*
Imuni crops. They are too wet foi
early cultivation. and When dry
enough to plow they are too bard. It
is impossible to pulverize them when
wet. and It Is impracticable to pul?
verize them when dry; and a lai\ne
per cent, of their fertility is sealed
up in clods. Neither the big clods
nor the little ones are of any use to
the crop. The crop has to live in the
little loose dirt that exists between
the clods, and the roots can with dif?
ficulty penetrate the subsoil. A wet
season now ruins what little crop
there is in the land.
The gloomy prospect that I have
attempted to depict is one that has
come within the experience of all
who have had to cultivate clay soils.
When your land was in the condition
above described?hard, dry and
cracked?what would have been the
effect of tile conduits laid deep below
The water descending through the
cracks in the soil to the depth of the
drains, would have passed off through
these, and only enough of it would
have been left to moisten the mass
of soil above the drains. The lumps
of soli between the cracks would have I
fallen apart, closing the cracks but
not cementing their walls, thus leav?
ing permanent passages for the wa?
ter. Successive seasons would have
broken the ground into smaller
cracks, and so on until you would
have had a mellow soil extending
down to the level of the drains.
This process of melioration goes on
for a long time after drainage has
been installed, and while It is seen
that the drains can not have their'
full effect, at first, in lowering the
subsoil wr.ter down to their level the
crops at once send their roots down
into the better drained soil. These
rot year after year leaving passages
in the soil filled by their decaying
mold. These small passages become
the receptacles of other manurlal
matters washed into them by the
rains. So the parasite of the soil In?
creases as time goes on, leaving noth?
ing to he desired In this respect In
what were once stiff clay soils.
Of course it is not to be under?
stood that clay soils, like light
sandy soils, ctfn ever be put into
such' condition as to be handled al?
most immediately after heavy rains.
Drainage affects the condition and
not the constituents of clay. The
texture of clay soils which enables
them to retain moisture and ma?
nurlal matters and so become In time
the most productive of all soils, also
renders them the Nolls me L?ngere
among soils when wet.
Don't force your acts 'gainst Nature'*
Though drained the land 'tis clay
?Old English Rhyme.
Two "cuts" in the same creek
"bottom" that I have drained illus?
trates very forcibly what I have just
said relative to the melioration of
clay soils subsequent to drainage.
The'soil of these two cuts is the same,
the fields being part of the same clay
formation. One cut contains 9.000
feet of drains having but one outlet,
laid twelve years ago. The other
contains 7,000 feet laid this spring be
fore our recent prolonged rainy s?.ell,
and these also have but one outlet;
so I have been able to compare easily
the volumes of water delivered by
these two systems, and I can not say
that the older system has not dis?
charged twenty-five times more wa?
ter during the recent rains than the
new ones has, and I know that the
pipes of the new system are still
Lest this may discourage the pros?
pective drainer, I will say that the
outlet pipe of the older system was
fully charged with water within a
year from the completion of the sys?
tem, and I expect to find the new
drains working almost up to their
full capacity after the dry weather
of next fall.
Jesse G. Whitneld.
?In Southern Cultivator.
?There is more Catarrh in this sec?
tion of the country than all other dis?
eases put together, and until the last
few years was supposed to be incur?
able. For a great many years doc?
tors pronounced it a local disease and
prescribed local remedies, and by con?
stantly failing to cure with local
treatment, pronounced it incurable.
Science has proven catarrh to be a
constitutional disease and therefore
requires constitutional treatment.
Hall s Catarrh Cure, manufactured by
F. J. Cheney & Co., Toledo, Ohio, Is
the only constitutional cure on the
market. It Is taken internally in
?loses from 10 drops to a teaspoonful.
It acts directly on the blood and mu?
cous surface! Of the system. They of?
fer one hundred dollars for any ?ase
it fails to cure. Send for Circulars
Address: F. J. CHBNBY & CO., To?
Bold by Druggists, 7f>c
Take Hall's Family Pills for const;
There was a homicide in Sumtti
county, bul the dispensary nun ar<
not charging it to the accounl of
prohibition, although a state ol sta?
tutory prohibition prevails, although
th< y could do so a Ith i B.I ? wson
as the prohibitionists charge all
tiiine^ committed In dlspensa"y
comities to ths dispensary, even
though the crlmei are oommltted iy
BUMTER HAS BLIND TIGERS?
An Ardent Prohibitionist Says They
Are Selling Dispensary Liquor.
An ardent prohibitionist stated to?
day that blind tigers are selling liq?
uor in Sumter and that the liquor
they are selling was certainly pro?
cured from the dispensary before it
The statement was accepted as a
fact, the writer not being in a posi?
tion to dispute it, not having seen
any liquor of any description since
the dispensary was closed, or for
several weeks prior to the closing,
for that matter, he being what might
be termed a "near-prohibitionist" in
practice, although a dispensary ad?
vocate in politics. Not being overly
inquisitive or given to asking search?
ing questions of a personal nature,
the inquiry was not pressed as to
how the ardent prohibitionist be?
came possessed of the knowledge
that the blind tigers are retailing
whiskey in dispensary bottles. It
was taken for granted that the pro?
hibitionist knew whereof he spoke
and was qualified to differentiate be?
tween dispensary liquor and the oth?
er sorts. It was a matter of little
concern that the tigers have the
poor taste io sell dispensary liquor,
instead of some other sort, but a
feeling of sorrow and amazement was
produced when it was realized that
blind tigers are carrying on their ne?
farious trade in Sumter in defiance
of the prohibition law which became
effective on August 2d. How can
such things be and an ardent prohi?
bitionist have full and exact informa?
tion of the facts? If prohibition will
prohibit after the dispensary is voted
out on August 17th, why does it not
prohibit now while the dispensary is
closed and the sale of liquor forbid?
den by the same law that will prohi?
bit and is expected to prevent the
sale of liquor after the dispensaries
are closed finally in November? This
matter of statutory prohibition Is a
queer thing?a puzzle and an enig?
ma?it is so full of contradictions and
kinks and twists that a believer in
plain old temperance or total absti?
nence gets hopelessly entangled
in the mystic maze of moral and po?
litical subtleties that the prohibition?
How a Monkey Pleaded.
In Barbados the monkeys frequent?
ly Injure the sugar cane. As a gen?
eral thing, however, they are Inoffen?
sive creatures and the average plant?
er regards them with good-natured
tolerance. Once In a while, however,
they commit a little too much dam?
age on the growing cane, and an ex?
ample has to be made of one poor
culprit by shooting a member of any
particular troop of monkeys that may
be found near the scene of destruc?
tion. Exposing the dead body as a
warning is usually sufficient and the
cane is no longer attacked.
On one occasion great damage had
been perpetrated, and the planter
Clarence Agard, now residing in St.
Lucy, Barbados?went out with his
gun to act as executioner. He suc?
ceeded in isolating one stray simian
in a tree that was detached from all
adjacent shrubbery. The poor ani?
mal, realizing that it was trapped,
rushed up to the topmost branch,
and then to the utmost end of the
branch, and looked In the mo:?t ap?
pealing manner at the man below
The latter finally raised his gun, and
was on thte point of pressing the
trigger when the mor'<ey suddenly
took a little infantile replica of itself
from its back and held it ou' n the
most supplicating way u -ole.
The planter, who Is fond of ani?
mals, had his heart quite touched,
and he promptly lowered his gun. A
companion, however, in his endeavor
to see what else the poor animal
would do, raised his gun, and ap?
parently once more its life was in
danger. Then ensued a most strik?
ing exhibition oi animal reasoning.
The monkey at once grasped the fact
that her first claim for consideration
had apparently failed, and the only
reason her intelligence could suggest
for the failure was that the infant
simian was not regarded as her own
What was to be done? How could
she convince these two human brutes
that she really was a sad and distress?
ed mother? A happy thought occur?
red to her. She plucked a leaf from
(be tree, held it close to her breast
and then pressed the breast till a few
drops of milk exuded. Then she drop
p? d the leaf, and again held up her
baby to the gase Of the astounded
men below, Needless to say, she es?
caped with her life,?London Globe.
The past few days have been the
hottest and most oppressive of tho
summier, and a combination of high
temperature and humidity has taken
? be starch out of everybody,
For Infants and Children.
The Kind You Have Always Bought
aw of (^/y^M^^:
CURED HAY FEVER AND SUM?
*A. S. Nusbaum, Patesville, In?
diana, writes: "Last year I suffered
for three months with a summer cold
so distressing that it interfered with
my business. 1 had many of the
symptoms of hay fever, and a doctor's
prescription did not reach my case,
and I took several medicines which
seemed only to aggravate it. For?
tunately I insisted upon having Fo
ley's Honey and Tar. It quickly cur?
ed me. My wife has since used Fo
ley's Honey and Ter with the same
success." W. W. Sibert.
?People with chronic bronchitis,
asthma and lung trouble, will find
great relief and comfort in Foley's
Honey and Tar, and can avoid suffer?
ing by commencing to take it at once.
W. W. Sibert.
EPWORTH LEAGUE OFFICERS.
Officers for Ensuing Year Were Elect?
ed Thursday Night.
The . Epworth League of the First
Methodist church held its regular
monthly business meeting Thursday
evening. After a short devotional
servioe the League was turned over
to the president and went immediate?
ly into the business?the principal
part of which was the election of of
fleers. The following are the officers
elect for the ensuing year:
President?Robt H. Keels.
First Vice President?Miss Mamie
Second Vice President?Mrs. Geo.
Third Vice President?Miss Lola
Fourth Vice President?Miss Arrie
Treasurer?Miss Mabel Parrott.
Secretary?Miss Nellie Chandler.
Epworth Era Agent?Miss Lola
The League hopes to accomplish
much good during the coming year
and the public is always welcome to
any and all meetings of the League.
Watch for announcements.
?The best remedy we know of in
all cases of Kidney and Bladder
trouble and the one we always can
recommend. Is DeWltt's Kidney and
Bladder Pills. They are antiseptic
and at once assist the kidneys to per?
form their important work. But when
you ask for these pills be positive
that you get DeWitt's Kidney and
Bladder Pills. There are imitations
placed upon sale to deceive you. Get
DeWltt's. Insist upon them, and if
your dealer cannot supply you?re?
fuse anything else in place of them.
Sold by all druggists.
today and but for absence of cotton
wagons, the streets wore a fall-like
IT'S a good plan to visit
all the salesrooms avail?
able and not decide
which piano to buy un?
til you have seen them all.
We'll take our chance then
on you buying a
The best Piano to be
had for as little mon?
ey as a good Piano
can be sold.
Direct from maker tq user,
without agent's or middle?
man's profits. Every cent of
the price you pay is ac?
counted for in the instru?
ment itself. ,
Chas. M. Stieff
Artistic Stieff, Shaw and
Stieff Self-Player Pianos,
5 West Trade St.
CIIARLOT'FE, - - N. C.
c. B. .viimotii.
(Mention this paper.)
CO?GKS Ute* bo* a $ioo
Of? MONEV ???FUNO?D.
Good to Jtemomber.
A church somewhere, no matter
where, prints on the hack of little
slips?programs denoting the order of
of service?these words:
I will not worry.
I will not be afraid.
I will not give way to anger.
I will not yield to envy, Jealousy o?
I will be kind to every man, woman
and child with whom I come in con?
I will be cheerful and hopeful.
I will trust in God and bravely face
Read them again. They are worth
while. You might cut them out and
paste them in your hat, indeed. If
you wdll resolve to I've by them?
even for one week?you will be a
great deal better for it. This is not a
Monday morning" sermon?not at all.
It is just a Monday morning sugges?
tion. "Blue Monday," you know, is a
good time to begin a new order of
If you will get these words Into your
mind?good and strong?you will find
that living up to them supplies you
with all the religion, all the philoso?
phy you need. You can not go wrong
If you follow these precepts.?Wash?
ington Herald. 1
Much Depends on Decision.
Rock Hill, Aug. 13.?Attorneys
who appeared before the special ses?
sion of the Supreme Court in Colum?
bia Thursday state that argument on
the motion to compel the commis?
sioners of public works of Rock Hill
to sell the sewerage bonds issued by
this city, developed the fact that th<?
bonds issued by Charleston and Flor?
ence are exactly analogous, and that
whatever decision is given in this
case will affect the above named!
It will be remembered that a spe?
cial clause was inserted in the Con
stition of 1895 to govern the issue
of bonds for piublic utilities by Char?
leston, Rock Hill, Florence and
Georgetown, and what affects one af?
fects the others equally. Flor&ice
bonds having already been sold, \t
would be very unfortunate should
the decision which is expected in tent
days be adverse.
?For indigestion and all stomach
trouble take Foley's Orino Laxative as
it stimulates the stomach and liver
and regulates the bowels and will pos?
itively cure habitual constipation. W.
Where ignorance is bliss 'tis folly
to be one of those fellows who know
From Sumter Backs?Relief Proved
By Lapse of Time. \
Backache is a heavy burden,'
Nervousness wears one out;
Rheumatic pain; urinary ills;
All are kidney burdens?
Daily effects of kidney weakness.
No use to cure the symptoms,
Relief is but temporary if the cause
Cure the kicneys and you cure the?
Relief com<?s quickly?comes td
Doan's Kidney Pills cure kidney
Prove it by your neighbor's case ' t
Here's Sumter testimony. jj
The story of a permanent cure^ W
J. A. Burgess, 317 W. Liberty St.,
Sumter, S. C, says: "About five years
ago I suffered severely from back?
aches and my kidneys were much dis?
ordered. I used Doan's Kidney Pills,
procured at China's drug store and
they cured me. I gave a statement
for publication recommending them
in 1902 and at the present time, after
five years have elapsed, I can say
that I have not had a return of rny
old trouble. Doan's Kidney Pills are
the best remedy I ever used for my
back and kidneys and I am glad to
confirm all I previously said about
For sale by all dealers. Price 50*
cents. Foster-Milburn Co., Buffalo.
New York, sole agents for the United
Remember the name?Doan's?and
take no other. No. 8.
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