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title: 'The watchman and southron. (Sumter, S.C.) 1881-1930, August 28, 1909, Image 2',
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ft i)c f?flattbmau atto Sontjjron
SATURDAY, AUGUST 28, 1900.
The Sumter Watchman was found?
ed In 1*19 and the True Southron in
III?. The Watchman and Southron
now ha* the combined circulation and
Influence of both of the old papers,
and Is manifestly the best advertising
medium in Sumter.
If a county treasurer can swipe
eight or ten thousand dollars of pub?
lic funds and then get a clean bill of
health upon payment of ft\e thousand
dollars, a premium Is being paid for
dishonesty. Why not make the
bondsmen of the defaulting official
pay In full and send the embezzler to
the cbalngang for good measure? A
county treasurer who steals the funds
Of which he is the custodian Is a
worse rarest snd deserving of greater
punishment thsn the house-breaker
who robs a store or bank. If the leg?
islature approves the compromise in
the Wdgcneld county case it may as
well pass a taw permitting all thieves
to go free upon repayment of seven?
ty-live per cent., of the amount sto?
len. There have been entirely too
many emhesslements, shortages or
mistakes in bookkeeping. call
them w|kst you will, in South
Carolina. within the last few
years, and the only way to
put a stop to It is to prosecute a few
of the rm beul era to the limit of the
law and put them In stripes. There
would be a marked and Immediate
Improvement in bookkeeping, where?
by the State and counties would save
some tbor.sands of dollars every
? ? i
It is the duty of the County and
City officials to inaugurate immediate?
ly a syst um of curtailment of expenses
and the practice of the most rigid
economy. When the dispensaries close
on November IK the annual Income of
the County will be reduced by more
than $16,000 and this deficit cannot be
made up by Increased taxation un?
til the legislature meets in January,
gnd the proceeds from this Increased
levy will not be available until taxes
pre collected in the fall of 1010. Hence
the most rigid economy in County ex
pendltoie? is absolutely necessary, un?
less a large and burdensome floating
debt Is to be Incurred within the next
twelve months. This applies to the
city with even greater force, for the
deficit cannot be made up by addi?
tional l nation, Inasmcuh as the max?
imum iv vy for ordlnaT city purposes
Is now being collected. Economy and
retrenchment are the watchwords.
? I ?
If the prohibition law enacted by
the Legislature of South Carolina 1?
good law, how much better is the or?
dinary cftlsen who orders his liquor
and stores at home for personal use
than the Mind tiger who orders his
liquor and sells It to the thirsty boose
artist? To obey this law to the let?
ter would render prohibition too much
like tel it abstinence to suit many who
believe in prohibition for the masses
but have a decided aversion to total
abstinence for the individual.
g, ? i
Senator Tillman, astute politician
that he U, recognizes that the prohi?
bition wave is a political movement
eosely akin to that which was inau?
gurated by the Farmers' Alliance In
1118-00. and realising that his politi?
cal future may depend upon Identify?
ing himself with It, has abandoned his
profitable lecturing tour in order that
he may procure a seat on the band
wagon. He does not propose to be
shouldec d out of his easy berth In the
Senate t?y a newly arisen leader of the
A MKAT SIJCF.lt.
A. A. HoausM A Co. Have Installed an
A. A Strauss it Co. have Just in?
stalled one of the latest grocers' con?
veniences In the shape of a meat
sheer This machine is found in all
the up-io date grocery stores in large
eitlen and Sumter has reached the
size wh< re these machines can ope?
rate snd ptease customers. This ma?
chine hmdles And slices dried beef,
break fa t bacon, boneless ham, sau
sages and In fact any meats without
Its work seems nigh perfect as the
feeding attachment can be regulated
to cut aliens ranging in thickness
from 4H slices to the Inch to large,
thick sb ea.
Straus*' grocery is to be congratu
lstec* in being the first firm to recog?
nize what the housekeepers pf Sumter
require and they tell us that they are
always Sffj tu purchase any fixture
that aids the housekeeper in work
The arrival of this machine means
1 lot to the grocery buying public of
Sumter. You can gat what you are
getting and fuf thet M iff 000 It siloed.
It |? worth the trip t ? Str.iu--" store
to see the rnaehltie u ,,, k
The automobile hlghwaj I i Colum?
bia, paralleling the Atlantic Ooail
Line, would afford gftOl sport for the
autolsts who enjoy sp.hug against
express ti .im
Farmers' Union News
Practical Thoughts for Practical Farmers
(Conducted by E. W. Dabbs, President Farmers' Union of Sumter
The Watchman and Southron having decided to double its service by
semi-weekly publication, would improve that service by special features.
The first to be Inaugurated is this Department for the Farmers' Union and
Practical Farmers which I have been requested to conduct. It will be my
aim to give the Union news and official calls of the Union. To that end
officers, and members of the Union are requested to use these columns.
Also tf> publish such clippings from the agricultural papers and Govern?
ment Bulletins aa I think will be of practical benefit to our readers. Ori?
ginal articles by any of our readers telling of their successes or failures
will be appreciated and published.
Trusting this Department will be of mutual benefit to all concerned,
A"' communications for tl is Department should be sent to E. W. Dabbs.
Mayeavllle. S. C.
A letter received from Mr. E. W.
Dabbs, editor of this department, in?
forms us that he is laid up with a se?
vere attack of neuralgia and unable
to write anything for this issue. We
trust he will soon be well.
Members County Union will please
bear in mind the Sept. 3rd meeting at
Oswego. I have a card from Dr. S.
C. Mitchell from Lake George, N. Y .
promising to be with us that day to
deliver hjs lecture on "Community
Life.' I trust we will also have with
us President Perritt, of the State
E. W. DABBS.
Pres. Sumter County Union.
(In Four Chapters?Chapter II.)
At the risk of repetition there is
one more experiment that T would
like to make to further Illustrate the
theory of underdrainage.
Suppose we take a cubic yard of
clay as It rested unbroken in its nat?
ural bed; a part only of this cubic
yard, as I have before shown, con?
tains clay. The remainder of the
cubic yard of space is made up of
voids existing among the particles of
clay, and these so-called voids are
filled either with air or water accord
ing as the soil is drained or not
drained. For example, fill a barrel
with dry earth. You still have room
In the barrel for a large quantity of
water. Let water run on to the earth
In the barrel no faster than the earth
can absorb it. For a long time the
water will not run off from the top
of the barrel, but eventually it will
begin to flow over the surface of the
soil and off the top of the barrel, and
now you have the condition of a wa
ter-logged soil. Every farmer knows
that it would be useless to plant a
grain of corn in that barrel of watei
soaked earth with the expectation of
capillarity and there exposed to rapid
evaporation. Soil when very loose
loses Its capillarity and becomes th*
very best of all mulches.
The constant tendency of a drain
four feet deep to to have' four feet of
porous soli above it. A soil of four
feet will absorb more rain than a soil
of two feet. The auger hole in the
barrel four feet from the top will dis?
charge more water In a given time
than the same size hole two feet from
the top; so will a drain four feet deep
discharge more in a given time than
one two feet deep; because they are
both acted on by the pressure of the
water in the soil above them.
Every one knows that the only
way by which the rain that has soak?
ed Into the soil can escape where
there is no outlet for it below, Is by
evaporation at the surface. It may
not be equally plain to all, though It
is equally true, that when water is
converted into vapor a certain amount
of heat is removed or made latent. It
is this effect that causes the cool sen?
sation when the moistened skin Is ex?
posed to the air, and precisely the
same effect is exerted upon the sur?
face of a wet soil by the sun and the
wind. The application of this bit of
philosophy has led to the manufac?
ture of ice in the hottest climates, and
I once made use of it to cool my
drinking water in a country where it
was necessary to keep our supply of
this in overland cisterns. I would sus
pend by a cord a porous earthen ware
Jug of water where the air could cir?
culate freely about it, and the evapor?
ation of the water from the oater sur
face as it slowly exuded through the
wall of the Jug, had such effect on cool?
ing the water in the jug as would make
it pleasant to drink, while that taken
directly from the cistern would be
warm and unpalatable. When we
wrap a wet napkin around the head
and hasten evaporation by fanning,
we cool the head. When we sprinkle
the floor of a warm room with water
it is the evaporation of the water that
cools the atmosphere within the
By way of reducing the cooling ef
Its producing a healthy plant. The,
seed would rot. Again, suppose this j fert of evaporation to tangible figures:
} it has been proved that for every gal?
lon of water removed from a soil by
evaporation the soil has been robbed
barrel, instead of being two feet deep,
to be as deep as a good soil. Bore a
h?le in the barrel four feet from the
top; the water will now run out slow?
ly, down to the level of this hole. But
the soil above the hole will be rei?
ther wet nor dry. but In a condi?
tion that we call moist. That is to
sa>. each soil particle will be encased
in a film of water and the soil will be
wet only in the sense that the pebbles
In our sieve were wet after the sur?
plus water had drained from them.
Now let us see what takes place
when the water is withdrawn through
the auger hole. When the water be?
gins to leave the Interstices in the soil,
the atmosphere, of whose pressure I
have already reminded you, begins to
force itself in to take the place of the
water; and now you have the condi?
tion required for healthy plant
growth. However, If the water has
been allowed to stand In the soil for
a long time, the soli will have so run
together as to need stirring if best re?
sults are expected, and this stirring of
the soil would be analogous to the
breaking of the field before seeding.
To those objectors who claim that
the crop will now suffer for water un?
less It gets frequent rains I will say
that our barrel was not limited as to
depth, and that the water will run
down only to the level of the auger
holo. and no further. All the soli be?
low the hole is still saturated with
I WatST which is being continually \
drawn upwards about the roots of the
erop by the capillary action of the
Had the bob- in the barrel beet
bored before the water was tur ned on
the soil would have (lib d with Water
only tip to the level of the hole, and
ail additional water would have pass?
ed out. This explains why, after wet
weather seta in. deep drains begin to
discharge water sooner than shallow
Our object in stirring Ihe surface
of your ii? hi in cultivation la t<> pro
Ivide a mulch ? prevent the molstur<
of as much heat?heat that would be
beneficial to vegetation?as would
raise 5 1-2 gallons of water from
freezing to the boiling point. Dr.
Madden found that the soil of a
drained field from which most of the
water had been removed by the drains
below, was 6 1-2 degrees F. warmer
than a similar soli undrained from
which the water had to be removed
by evaporation. This difference of
temperature corresponds to nearly 2,
000 feet difference of elevation.
The foregoing explains why a wet
soil, though exposed to sun and wind,
is still a cold soil. Heat can not pass
downward through water, and if the
soil is saturated the warmth of the at?
mosphere can not penetrate it. Heat
is propagated through water by circu?
lation. The warm water rises as the
cooler water passes downward to take
Those lands where the water col?
lecting in slight depressions of the
surface, remains for some time after
a rain need draining. A very good
test as to the advisability of draining
any land would be to dig a hole three
feet deep, and notice if any water
comes into the hole out of the sur?
rounding soil after hard rains. If it
does that land needs draining. Bome
Judgment is required in making this
test, as the soil below the bottom of
the hole may be dry enough to absorb
a large quantity of the descending
water before it is tilled, and thus
cause the belief that the water Is
passing out below. It the water is
not finding an outlet below it will at
b ngth till the soil below the hole, and
eventually rise into the hole, which, u
Ihe rains continue, may Anally be fill?
ed to ihr surface,
To the former who sees his land
under every Vicissitude <>t weather,
th. re aie other indications of the
need of drainage, Those dark damp
spots that appear on the surface "t his
from being drawn to the surface by (plowed fields after the surrounding
and has dried, indicate that the wa
er is being sucked up from below as
ast as it is taken up by evaporation
u the surface. Those placet where
i s<?rt of semi-aquatic vegetation
springs up in his crops are unmistak- j
ible signs of .the need of drainage. Tn
Iry weather, those largo cracks that
appear in clay soils, showing that the
ground had been cemented together
and swelled by the presence of too
much water; the twisted corn, show
ing that the plant had not been able
to send its roots deep into the subsoil
on account of the presence of water
that it now needs but can not reach
because its roots are too shallow, all
indicate the need of drainage.
Farming on retentive soils without
adequate drainage is always a hazard?
ous occupation. Work that might have
been done in winter or early spring is
often delayed until late in the season,
or if the farmer succeeds in getting
in a good winter's work the rains,
coming later, upset all his calcula?
tions; and he may find himself almost
as much behind at seeding time as he
would have been had he succeeded
in accomplishing no work at all. Th?
land has been run together by the
heavy rains and has become as hard
in the rapidly lengthening days as it
would have been had it not been
broken at all. The farmer, at this
stage in the year's work, and often
before he has a single acre of crop
started off to growing, has already
given up all hope of making a good
crop, and will content himself with
doing "the best he can" and trust to
"luck." It is true, that the seasons
are sometimes favorable, and he may
make a fair or even u good crop; but
too often the seasons are unfavorable
and his year of patient effort may be
without profit to him. He looks upon
failure this year as one of those nec?
essary evils that must be encountered
in any business, and over which he
has no control, and hopes that the
next year may be a better one. Sup?
pose he makes four fair crops and
loses the fifth crop; he still makes
some shift to continue his business.
What other vocation could stand such
losses? Suppose he could have saved
that fifth crop by drainage is that all
he would have saved? By no means;
the drainage that would have saved
the fifth crop would have made all
j the other crops better. The cops which
in those rainy years hardly repaid
the cost of cultivation might have re?
turned a good profit; and that
drought year when only a fair crop
was made might have been remem?
bered as a year of abundance.
Underdrainage is not in its experi?
mental stage. In England after the
good effects of draining retentive toffs
became generally known, the work of
draining went on very rapidly, and it
soon became difficult to rent those
soils in their undrained state.
Whether underdrainage does or
does not pay is the question that
comes to the mind of the farmer
when contemplating such work. I
shall give no long array of figures to
show that underdrainage pays, but
will merely call his attention to some
effects of underdrainage, perhaps in
his own field, that he may have no?
ticed without referring them to their
The difference between the fine corn
iringing a deep ditch cut through
some rich bottom and the stunted
corn a little further out where the
land has been made almost a marsh
by excessive rain, is the effect of un
dtrdralnage. The promising crop
growing on the well cultivated banks
of your creek or canal, while a little
further out from the creek you have
given up trying, has been made possi?
ble by the soil drainage effected by
the deep channel of the creek.
Perhaps the good crop extends a
hundred feeet or moie from the creek
and then dwindles down to nothing.
What if there had been another deep
channel out there, and parallel to th<
creek? It would have made good an
other belt a hundred feet wide, and so
on across the field. But in the place
of the open channel a line of small
lilcs placed at the seme depth would
have answered the purpose just as
Some swampy lands that In their
undrained state were worthless, have
become the most valuable of lands af?
ter drainage. Of course all that such
lands make above nothing at all, must
be imputed to drainage. But it is
safe to say that underdrainage alone
has Increased the yield of the average
farm lands at least twenty-tive per
cent. This seems to be a conservative
estimate, and the twenty-five per cent
of the total yield, before draining,
may be considered at having been ad
d-d to the farmers' profltt.
A field on my own farm that 1 have
drained, in a series of years before
drainage did not repay the cost of
cultivation. The same land after
drainage has for twelve years been
the most reliable land on the farm. 1
shall lat.a- on, give all details of the
work of draining this land.-?Jesse Gt
Whltfteld In Southern Cultivator.
if Supervisor Owens, of Rlchland
county, insists that the highway Bhall
go by earner's Kerry and declines to
adopt the Wedgefleld route, the plan
to connect Sumtcr and Columbia with
a good road bids fair to fail.
? Tuesday, August 31st, 1909 i
Afternoon and Evening.
Sumter, S. C.
I \X7" ?E are cleaning up stock prior to
going to market. If you need anvthing
in Muslin Underwear now is your time to buy. This
is the opportunity to save money.
.50 Muslin Skirts .39
75 " M .57
1.00 M M .87
175 44 1.39
.50 M M .39
75 M 44 -59
1.00 M M .83
O'Donnell & Co.
A Fair Proposition
In the daily routine of business the banker should be
reimbursed for actual outlays; and not only for this,
but lor the rseof^?^capitaj, t i mc and labor he should
4WtKBB*+mw v^n the basis of this prop?
osition, w jr^o tender you our very best service.
First National Bank, of Sumter