Newspaper Page Text
h ^lii bman mib 5out|jr(m.
SATWOAYy OCTOBER 2, 190?.
The tiumtfit Watchman was found
^?j 1410 and ins Trut Southron In
Two wtconitn and Southron
baa tlis combined circulation and
nee of both Of the old pipers,
Is imantfestir the boat advertising
in in 8u inter.
The tone >< tut editorial comment
On the the iu*ult ef the Farnum trial
hi the Cetmmbia State and the Char
lentea News and Courier Is so differ
on* that we reproduce both editorials
to Mil far comparison The 8tate
editor**! is to the point and freely,
feeurlessly and candidly expresses its
opinion, wh.le the News and Courier
does neither The News and Cour?
iers editorial Is a notable achieve?
ment is t?<? art of saying nothing and
li worthy of being died along with
too* euua#ty as artistic achievement.
Ms editerial?"Vote for South Car?
olina,'' wh?~h woo printed on the eve
of the pcinrvy In which Jim Tillman
won n cartibdste for Governor of
? ? f
The WeAcv Pair Association should
pay afti the expense* of President
Tafts vi Mil t* Columbia, since he Is
to be esadc the premier attraction of
Iii? coconien km a drawing card to
swell the gate receipt*, out classes
n balloon ascension, a two-headed
wamis sr a wild man from Borneo.
0 'O ? 0
MnJ Jean Black was evidently a
rolssMo swd useful man to ths liquor
nouses, ffeey certainly paid him llb
?rsJly re* his services.
? I ?
Is thai c any law that can he so
construed as to convince a Jury that
there is nothing unlawful in reviving
?ruft, rehatee or commissions?
? ? ?
The Governor's contingent fund
helps est the state Fair's Taft elde
show ?tu action to the extent of $150.
A oentt ibutton by the State for the
?nterth'imu mu of a visiting President,
ojsjsjld be rigtit and proper but
when the President Is to be con
vnrteJ Inl I s midway attraction on
the fair grounds the use of the con*
tlngetit fund ii open to criticism.
Wov?? contingent fund chip In,
It Pr^ i.'in Tart wss festured as th ?
sftax etirocttQu of the Sparta nburg
? i i
Je? II Vfytl* the grafter, is earn- |
g Ui? -MR''v
? e ?
The icf?>ri of Expert Accountant
HarrstMMi snd the commute report
there** have been generally discussed
by dti'<ma snd a majority of them
mi <ii ? opinion that the commit*
(.??UcPtm of Mr. Harralson's re?
port wun net too severe. Almost ev
orybeJv <hjnk? the city paid $tt00 for
n gets Urtck
utggMIHlOP COLLEGE OPENS.
? ?loooUi Term WIUi Over TOO
K ? . Hill, Sept. U.?Winthrop
t*olle<,.? began its fifteenth session this
mornio ; with ? grest attendance of
over stuii nts. The exact num?
ber V?*? tie given in a day or two.
The fort* to take care of this large
enre'i? c ?nslsts of 73 office rr and
tcui> m The course of study has
Loe* bio* lened and strengthened
*err iow h tins year by the creation
fif r?**r 1-p n tments and the addition
Os* |n?4re)c4ofa in others.
? ?Ppivtin vit of pedagogy Ivj^
bee* a ?' ??nod by the election of
an safes*lute prof, ssor of p->dagOK>
mnt rmtendent of the Training
ts ?1 th ? ii ?w department of blolo*
I It he-.mi organised; the model
?? I gang provided as a pffJOtloO
n( fuy the departments of
g< science and arts, etc. the
opb* ?' new appointments of the
no) i: >-t tormltory. dlnia.? room,
Mtvfc ?? laundry, dairy barn. etc... to.
?s *ltn enlarged and . tiv'-igrh
HP I Nettling force and bfOOdOnod
Ni SJ hint make it sqn.il lOMl
is ? i <m <?< its kind In th coun
ei ?rtrbxttlon of the gOllogt is
to i fc< I than It has ever he n,
frU%4 i the additional 200
*tu I i li itted thl* year. Sei I
? b* >ri. Junior*, sopho
SC' . ? ?? 1 rreshnsOS were annuur. 1
Ink ? I < !o- M the ?piming lay and
?i will be at work t ?
\fter Montis of ill
' in Hnitliuore Ho* all li
* *i hn ?! nt j.. s..pt. it, PorsjK r
CJ? I ssOWWttttl Of H ?;.|?
*??n > il>> I c u ,y thla m >t -.in ; a'
**> ? n >i> ., Irani aftof tu I Ilm
?r Sjfwerat g u i gj , ,m.- ht
Julj in 4 *<in ? health and gr?'.
until 1? Snd, His widow m I bsjH,
tsggj?Sj4 M Swern. > v?er?? with
Sim ? ib ? I,an (/i ni^ ,|, .,(ii. l h.-v
will the body sent to Hampton,
ft. C ?bt / ?einer home of the ex-gov
Farmers' Union News
Practical Thoughts for Practical Farmers
(Conducted by E. W. Dabhs. President Farmers' Union of Sumter
The Watchman and Southron having decided to doable its service by
semi-weekly publication, would improve that service by special feature**.
The first to be Inaugurated is this Department for the Farmers' Union and
Practical Farmers which I have been requested to conduct. It will be my
aim to give the Union news and official calls of the Union. To that end
officers, and members of the Union are requested to use these columns.
Also to publish such clippings from the agricultural papers and Govern?
ment Bulletins aa I think will be of practical benefit to our readers. Ori?
ginal articles by any of our readers telling of their successes or failures
will be appreciated and published.
Trusting this Department will be af mutual benefit to all concerned,
All communications for tl Is Department should be sent to E. W. Dabbs.
Mayesville, 8. C.
Inoculation for Legume*.
There seems to be a great deal of
misunderstanding In regard to the
matter of Inoculation, or the intro?
duction of the bacteria that live on
the roots of legumes and enable them
to get nitrogen from the air. Many
people have the Idea that the pres?
ence of these bacteria is essential to
the growth of the legumes. The fact.
Is, that no inoculation will avail any?
thing If the soil Is In such condition
that the bacteria cannot thrive In It.
If your soil Is acid and deficient in
lime, :io amount of Inoculation will do
any good, for the acidity of the soil
will destroy the bacteria; and the le?
gumes, with the single exception of
the cowpea will not thrive In acid con?
ditions In the soil.
But If the soil Is sweet and abun?
dantly supplied with plant food any
legume will thrive. Inoculated or not.
But without the Inoculation It will
not be able to get and combine the
free nitrogen from the air, and will,
like other plants, get its nitrogen
from that which la plentiful in the
soil. Inoculation aimply helps the
plant to get nitrogen and thrive
where nitrogen Is deficient in the soil,
but uny legume plant may grow and
'.hrive in a aoil abundantly supplied
.ith lime and plant food even if the
a tcria are entirely absent.
Inoculation is an aid simply be?
came if enables the plant to get nitro?
gen. But if the soil Is sour, no inoc?
ulation will avail. Therefore, to get
the full value of the legumes in the
improvement of our soil we must as?
certain the condition of the soil, and
If acid, we must restore Its alkalinity
*y applications of lime before making
an effort to inocualte it with the nl
I saw a beautiful piece of alfalfn
'ast week, which was Just ready for
the third cutting, it was growing on
?x deep sandy coll near the barn and
bad been made solely by liberal ap?
plications of stable manuie that keeps
the soil sweet and productive, but I
do not believe that It is doing any?
thing towards getting nitrogen from
the air, though making large crops of
hay. It is simply taking the plant
food that is abundantly supplied to it
The greater part of the failures ot
clover to grow have been due more
to lack of plant food in an acid soil
than to the lack of inoculation, fer
clover will not thrive in ucid condi?
tions any more than the bacteria will,
ond the first thing to be done Is to
sweeten the soil. I do not mean to
discourage the efforts to get the soil
inoculated, for the ilxing of the free
nitrogen from the air is the greatest
'eature connected with the growing
of egume crops, and if we want to
cet th. best results Iron the legUKtts
it is Important that they gi t the inoc?
ulation. Lagt summer 1 wus shown a
?mull part of a field of peas on which
the oWnet had applied some nitratt
?I so 'a. The growth was Immensely
superior, but the plants were .-imply
? ttlng the abundant nitrogen in the
soil and were not doiiig ai much fix?
ing of the free nitrogen as tin* other*
that ha 1 not so muri, in the aoil. '.t
; t sen found in i>. Ian an- that on
land whi-r,- the crimson clove: form?
erly acquired ? great deal of the tren
nitrogen, as the sol] becamt hitter
upplled with nitrogen from the re
i Sted turning under of the clover in
t'/.e peach orchards, the plants Axed
ill less nitrogen because there was
I Id ly In thS SOU for Mem and the
j 'l',;:, I oi?.
Ii Cat th ? land n\??^^\ and well sup
< ! . .\.\ ,?".?* ifi, .;?..., a t , .it.t
I id the bacteria Wtfl thrive ami the
I gumeS v. ill ?et lh< nitrogen troiu
I fas air. Make the land SWCCt and
ch with, nitrogenous manures and
Is inues will thrive, but win gel
He nitrogen from tin- air. Pro ares
? VC Farmer,
The elty's crop of corn has been
I irveeted and the out-turn was quite
. itlsfactory, when the fact that the
eoffl was considerably Injured by the
I July drought. The ten acres pro?
duced a little more than 36 bushels
to the acre.
NOT ENOUGH COWS AND NOT
Southern Dairy Cattle Largely Under?
fed?Maintenance Comes Before
Milk Production, and Unless the
Cow Has Feed Enough for Both,
The Yield of Milk Falls Off.
(By Prof. John Michels. West Ra?
leigh, N. C.)
This State loses annually about
four and a half millions of dollars for
want of enough cattle to consume the
cottonseed meal that is now thrown
directly upon the land as a fertiliser.
Feeders should understand that in
general about 75 per cent of all the
fertilizing ingredients in feeds are re?
covered in the manure. But in spite
of the fact that about 26 per cent of
the fertilizing ingredients of the feed
go to make milk, it has been shown
by actual tests that a ton of cotton?
seed meal will make the same amount
of cotton whether put upon the land
in the raw form or after it has been
fed to cattle and the manure supplied
to the land. The passage of the cot?
tonseed meal through cattle renders
the fertilizing ingredients more I
available and the manure also lm
I proves the mechanicai condition of
I the soil.
There is no greater waste in agri?
culture, I believe, than the destruc?
tion of the feeding value of cotton?
seed meal at $35.00 per ton. The best
proof of this we have in the fact that
for many years Denmark and Ger?
many have been importing large
quantities of cottonseed meal from
the Southern States for the purpose
of butter production, and while this
meal has cost the foreign farmer
T30.00 or more per ton. he and his
lands have become greatly enriched
from butter produced on imported
Southern Products Making European
Denmark imports annually eight
hundred million pounds of oil cake
which is unground cottonseed meal
and linseed meal after the oil has
been pressed from it. Germany im?
ports over one billion pounds of tills
meal annually. Both of these coun
ries have been importing this meal
primarily for the or tduction of but
?er; but Incidentally, by virtue of the
tact that the feeding has not lessened
its fertilizing value, the lands In these
two countries h ive become enormous?
ly rich, idling in many instances at
from $1,000 to $2.000 an acre.
A natter which is beginning to ap?
peal strongly to the farmers is the
growing of leguminous crops. But
the reason no more of these crops are
grown at the present time. I think, is
uue to the lack of live stock to which
to feed these crops. Leguminous
erons as well as other crops are hand?
led in the most economical manner
by feeding them to stock.
Another matter of importance to
remember in connection with feeding
Stock is that there Is nothing that has
lUCh ? beneficial effect upon the soil
as well made manure. This is not
? !y rich In available plant food bul
ll also rich in humus in which most
our soils are sadly deficient; and
'A'hat l> Of HO little importance, mnn
' ure Is rieh In bacterial life which !? as
neci ssary to the soil as water and air.
Cottonseed Meal ami Ullage Bconoml
< ai Feeds.
To feed dairy cattle economically
we must 't ed only stock of the dairy
i r >ods. it does not mattet so much
wh< ther this stock be purr bred or
high grade, bul it mast be stock
ftofc ?'??? ri' business to make
milk, A beefy cow. which nature In
l nded for lm ef purposi s, cannot be
m tde a high milk producer under any
system of feeding. Having solet t< I
the proper cattle, the next Importanl
matter is to select the proper feeds,
Cottonseed meal i:; the cheapest dairy
fred we have, and hulls are the most
pensive. Therefore see to it that no
hulls are fed and that the cow* re?
ceive a liberal allowance of oototn
There Is perhaps no feed with
which cottonseed meal can be fed so
successfully as with corn silage, and
the latter is also the cheapest rough
oed that can Le fed to dairy cattle,
lit those who have no silage to feed,
md those who do not handle enough
ows to warrant the erection of a silo,
may feed corn stalks, cowpea fcay, or
almost any other roughage more
economically than cottonseed hulls.
For a number of years I have fed
from five to six pounds of cottonseed
meal per cow daily, supplemented
with some wheat bran or dried brew?
ers grains, when the roughare con?
sisted chiefly of corn silage. Where
no corn silage is available and the
cows must be fed on dry forage, I do
not think it would be safe to feed
more than three or four pounds of
cottonseed meal per cow daily. My
advice to every farmer who has ten
or more cows, is to build a silo, an i
to do it at once, even if he has to
borrow the money to do it.
Moat Dairymen Feed Too Little.
Another point in connection with
feeding dairy cattle is to remember
i that it pays to feed a cow to the limit
of her capacity. It can be safely de?
pended upon that a. cow which re?
ceives only three-fourths of a full ra?
tion will yield only one-half aa much
milk as the same cow receiving a full
ration. The reason for this is that
about 50 per cent of all the food that
a cow consumes is required for her
maintenance. The other half goes to
form milk- When we withhold one
fourth of the full allowance of feed
for a cow we are supplying only one
half the amount of feed which is ac?
tually required for the production of
milk. Yet 1 hin that It is safe to
say that at nine-tenths of our
dairymen fail to supply the final quar?
ter of the cow's ration. Always feed
a cow to her full capacity and this
means to supply feed as long &d there
is an oconomical response In milk. Of
course it would be perfectly useless
to feed a cow whos** milk production
is limited to two gallons per day, a
four-gallon ration, because the feed
for the two gallons would be wast?
My Ideas on Saving Corn Forage.
While I am thoroughly convinced
that the best way in most sections to
save corn and corn stover is to cut
i It off at the ground and cure it in
I shocks, I am also certain that in some
climates It is very uncertain in many I
seasons. I have known cut down
stover and corn seriously damaged on
the College farm at Raleigh in a bad
season, and the farmer in Beaufort
Co.. N. C, who wrote that he had had
his crop damaged three years out of
live is nwt a native Tar Heel, but un
Intelligent Scotchman who is perfect?
ly used to the most advanced method.
of farming. Hence, it will not do to
say that it is folly to say that corn
cannot always be safely cured in this
way in the South. Doubtless there
less loss of corn in cutting the crop
at the ground, but so far as the qual?
ity of the feed saved is concerned, it
is far better stripped and topped and
cured as thousands cure It in the
South. There is not the slightest
doubt of the superior quality of the
blades and top? saved In this way,
while there is certainly a loss In tin
corn. But in sections where in three
years out of five, the cut down corn
will be seriously damaged, the ques?
tion may be, Is it not better to stand
the loss of grain and get better for?
Now, I am not arguing against the
value of the cutting down as a gen?
eral practice, for I believe in it. But
intelligent men in these humid coast
regions find that the practice there Is
incertaln. and 1 am not going to tell
'hem they do not know what is good
for them. I believe that well cureu
stover shredded is excellent feed am'
and pays for all the labor of getting
it. But I cannot say that these men
are entirely wrong, and I do not be
lleve they arc.
There is no sort of comparison be
twoen this curing of fodder and the
curing of legume hay. for this is or
should be done largely after it has
boon removed, from the field to the
barn under cover. Then, as in the
Isle of Wight County in Virginia
where the hog is a leading industry
and high-priced bacon and hams are
produced on all the farms, they have
pens among the corn and they want
them eaten by the hogs, and hence
cannot leave the com in ?hockl I I
cure in the tield. but strip the stall ;
and gather the corn before turning
the hogs In to clean up the peas and
then to glean the peanut fields.
Hence, the longer \ live the more len
lent i am with practices that have
arisen out of local conditions, The
Isle of Wight farmere make big crops
of corn and big crope of peanuts, and
are prosperous, making money on
land worth $100 an acre notwith?
standing they do not cul and shock
their corn, And I am n<>t going to
tell th. m that it Is nonsense, and
that they should cut their corn off al
The practice ?>i stripping blades
grew up out of the lach of other for?
age, and where one grows an abun?
dance Of hay it does not matter BO
much that the corn stover la nol of
?UCh good quality as the stripped
blades, and I would like to see every
farmer where the conditions favor the
practice, cut his corn off at the
ground and get the land into small
grain as speedily as practicable. But
we cannot make hard and fast rules
that will fit every man's conditions,
and we cannot say that our way is in
all cases the best and only way of
doing anything on the farm.?Pro?
Better Plowing an a Guide Post to
"$500 More a Year Farming."
When you come to think of it se?
riously, it would be hard to find a se?
verer criticism of Southern agricul- I
tural methods than the simple state?
ment of Dr. Butler's on page 3 that
he saw last March 189 one-horse
nlows at work and only 19 two-horse
,)lows. This means that ten out of
every eleven farmers were doing prac?
tically twice as much work?walking
twice as many miles as necessary?to
plow an acre of land, and that when j
the plowing was done it was not well !
done. In other words, in ten cases!
out of eleven the labor of a man is
considered of less value than that of
a mule, and in ten cases out of eleven j
the crop is reduced below what should j
reasonably be expected on that land I
by poor work in the initial prepare- !
I tion for it.
j Did you ever think that to produce
i a maximum crop all conditions must
be at their best?soil preparation, j
seed, cultivation, season and all the j
other factors which go to the making i
of the crop? When the land is poor?
ly broken the farmer is at once as?
sured that he Is not going to make
the crop he should. Xo matter what
else he may do, he has, by this impro?
per breaking, made it a settled fact
that he is not going to get as large a
yield on that land as it is capable of
producing. Is it not strange, then,
that we are content to go on doing
such poor plowing year after year?
"It is impossible to do good plow?
ing with the tittle one-horse plows
commonly used in our territory." We
cannot say this too often or stress it
i too strongly. Until you get a plow
and a team with which you can break
up your land thoroughly and to a re?
spectable depth you are not going to
make the crops you should. Good
plowing is the very basis of pood
farming, and until we do better plow?
ing we are going to be regarded, and
justly, as poor farmers.
We believe in deep plowing as
much as anyone, we think; bui. good
plowing is not a mere matter of
depth. Good plowing means plowing
that leaves the soli uniformly loose,
well pulverized, and thoroughly mix?
ed to a reasonable depth. We do not
want the furrows flopped flat over,
nor do we want patches and stripe all
over the field where the plow ia al?
lowed to come half out of the ground,
leaving hard, unbroken place?.
The fine, mellow seed-bed which is,
next to a good soil, the first requisite
of a good crop, can be obtained only
by a bright, properly-adjusted plow,
that has power enough ahead of it to
draw it steadily through sods, roots
j "drags-up" or "runs on the point," or
hard places. The plow which
j tries to stay out of the ground puts a
needless strain upon the team and the
! plowman and steldom does good work.
Here are some good pijws doing good
work. Contrast them f, ith the one
\ horse makeshifts that run two or
three inches deep; and contrast the
! teams that draw them with the little
mules th%t couldn't pull a plow that
was really plowing.
Good farming is impossible without
good plowing and good plowing ia
impossible with the sort of plows
commonly used in the South.?Pro?
The W. M. ?. of South Carolina
will hold a Missionary Institute in the
First Baptist church, Allendale. S. C
Oct. 6-7 for Southern division, and
asks that one delegate be sent from
each Society in that Division. The
object of the Institute is to present
plans and methods, which will en?
able leaders to work more effectively
in W. M. S., T. W. A., and Young
People's societies. Those wishing en?
tertainment should jend their names
at once to Mrs. R. P. Searson. Allen
dale, S. C.
Six citizens of Greenville refused
to serve as jurors In a case before a
magistrate and were fined $10 each.
To Pittsburg, Pa.,
Atlantic Coast Line.
Account Centennial Celebration International Christian Society
Churches of Christ in America. October Uth-19th. Round trip
rate $27.25. Tickets on sale October 9th, 10th, 14th, and Octo?
ber 15th, final limit returning, October 25th, 1909.
For further information, call on Ticket Agent or write:
W. J. CRAIG, T. C. WHITE,
Passenger Traffic Mann gor. General Passenger Agent.
WILMINGTON, N. C.
? of the?
O'DONNELL 6 CO.
These Chilly Mornings
Are gentle reminders of the near approach of Winter,
and that means more bed covering. When you find
that you cannot longer defer the purchase of blankets,
do not forget that this is the
Home of the Tar Heel
The Greatest Blanket Ever Put on the
(Market for the Money.
13 cent cotton has not affected the price of
of them because they are strictly
Iii fact we are selling them now m cheap
we did when cotton was ; ce nt-.
We have cheaper Blankets from 75c to $3 pair.
Children's Crib Blanket! $1.50.
A Fall !.: teof ComfcrtSb!? from 75c to $7.30 each