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title: 'The watchman and southron. (Sumter, S.C.) 1881-1930, January 15, 1910, Image 7',
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ME FETOLIIEI fOl FARM.
SAVING OF FARM MANURES
CUTS DOWN EXPENSES.
Hemp la a Mean* of Multi?
plying a Supply o* Manure?Di?
rections Mr KstablWdng and
Maintaining a Com poet Heap That
til Accomplish What It Ought.
It la eeeentlal to their ultimate
?cccoss that the fanners of the
South be Impreeeed with the Import?
ance of giving more attention to the
savins oi farm manures. The conve?
nience of commercial fertilisers, the
eaee with which they can be obtain?
ed (they ean always be bought on
credit.) and the fact that their use
requires little forethought have led
most of our farmers to forget or
neglect the home supply. Another
reason way home manures have been
neglected Is that owing to the lack
of intelligent care of them the re?
sults following their use have not
>een satisfactory If much good has
hen obtained from them. It Is usally
reached only by chelr uee In such
sarge quantities as it Is difficult to t -
f cure upon the average farm.
We should not be understood as
opposing the Intelligent and econo?
mical use of commercial fertilisers.
Commercial fertilisers have proved
themselves of great value and are
destined to play even a greater part
in our farm economy; but It is only
when used as supplements to the
home product that thla will be so.
In the ftrst place, they are costly;
and, secondly, their exclusive use ln
ertead of effecting a permanent im?
provement of the soli actually has
mns the depletion of that soil of its
? plant food. It Is only when used with
green manure and barnyard manures
that the most permanent Improve?
ment can be accomplished.
Mnniirn Not Properly Handled.
The small vslue frequently realised
the use of barnyard manure
from the fact that it Is not
ly saved and handled and the
tare has lost the greater part of
11s plant food. Barnyard manure
mar be regarded as Just so much
?womb matter. It differs, how
over, fVom the food from which It Is
'n that, having been once
dtgvstr.i, its fertiliser elements are
m^fre avertable for plants.
' Available plant food means thai
plant fo?. .1 that la easily decomposed
vi d solublo la water. If the manure is
d to the elements, the wa?
rn rales easily and rapidly
leeches out the soluble plant food.
< her hand. If the manure
? *ed to heat a large amount of
the nitrogen Is driven off into the
*ttsno*pher? ; so In order t<r get t&e
de manure both of these
loss must be avoided,
are several ways ot accom
Ushlnir thin. Probably the beet plan
where It Is practicable. Is to haul the
manure direct upon the land and
plough It in?shallow on clay soils,
deeper on sandy loams. Again,
especially with horse manure, etc., it
Is Hood to allow the manure to re:
main In the stable, using plenty of
Piter. The animals tramp the ma?
nure down, thus excluding the air,
and se It Is kept dry it will keep with
practically no lose. The litter used
la bedding not only Is Itself of value
aa a fertiliser, but serves alao to ab?
sorb* all liquids and prevent their
lose If not practicable to pursue
either of these methods, then a
Cheap shed can be provided and th?
manure stored In It until ready for
There Is one precaution that must
SO observed when a ehed Is used, and
especially If the droppings, from
horses predominate. Under these
conditions the manure is apt to heat*
This should be prevented by dampe n?
ing It. For this reason It Is a good
plant to have a leaky shed?one that
Will not permit the entrance ?f
enough water to leach through, but
will leak enough to keep the ma?
nure moist. In case of protracted
drought there should DC artificial
means of watering the compost. The
question may arise with the farmer
whether It Is more economical to go
to this 1 Ounle and expense with his
manure or to depend upon commer?
cial fertilisers. This question Is soon
answered In the affirmative.
Bear In mind that while the farm?
er may- buy an e'pial number of
pounds of pi mt food he cannot get
It In as good a form, nor do the com?
mercial fertilizers have as great an
efTect. They do not add vegetable
matter, do not atart soil fermentatlo i
and do not corre< t mechanical de?
fects Of the \ ton .,f well pre?
served manure from a well-fed horse
contain* about JM pounds ?f nitro?
gen, 5.2 pounds of phosphoric sei i
and 1.6 pounds of potash plant food
that *ould cost 11.11 bought as
commercial fertilizer This Is OS
*a bari? of lr, cents a pound for nitro?
gen. 4 1-2 cents for pfcosptl >rlc SCld
snd 6 cents for potash,
12 Ton* for Otic Horse.
A horse weighing l.nuO ponndl
will produce about 12 tons of ma
nur?? In a year, and this manure Is
consequently worth 7 3-5 cents a day.
or about $27 a year. The manure
from the average cow Is worth
about 6 1-2 cents a day, or $23.20
per year. These values are based on
the presumption that the animals are
well fco*?* ^Vhere the common ma?
nure heap Is used for all animals and
for all farm refuse, while Its com?
position Is necessarily variable, It can
safely be assumed that a ton of it
will contain 12 pounds of nitrogen, 5
pounds of phosphoric acid and 6
pounds of potash. The plant fer?
tilisers in a ton of manure are worth
commercially from 12 to $2.25. These
values do not take into considera?
tion the indirect benefits to the soil.
While the actual plant food contain?
ed In a ton of bam yard manure !s
worth at least $2, it is safe to say
that the farmer will derive nearer
$3 worth of good from It.
When left In loose heaps, under
cover It has been found lhat manure
loses 1.4 per cent of its nitrogen.
When these heaps are not covered
'this loss amounts to 30 per cent, and
when exposed in thin layers, as 1j the
case when It is left on the barn lot,
this loss Increases to 64 per cent
Putting It differently, the same man?
ure that, when properly cared for, is J
worth $2.18 a ton, if allowed to re?
main in loose heapj for twelve
months, is worth only $2. When
those heaps are uncovered the value
falls to $1.70, and the unprotected
thin layer at the end of that time Is
worth only $1.10. This Is not the
extent of the loss, for that portion of
the fertilizer ingredients that Is left
is the least valuable, and what we
have Is really only the refuse o* the
formerly valuable manure. This tre
I mendous loss from improper hand
I ling easily explains why our farmerd
I And It necessary to use such large
quantities of manure to derive much
benefit from It It will be observed
I that even when the manure Is stored
In a shed there Is a loss. By cover?
ing the manure heap with certain
I substances it is found that not only
I can this loss be prevented, but that
I the stock of manure can be very
greatly Increased. A ton of ordinary
I loam will absorb 13 pounds of nitro
I gen, and if placed over the manure
I heap will prevent all loss of that sub
I stance. Sawdust will absorb 8 pounds
I per ton. Wheat straw will absorb
I nearly 4 pounds or the nitrogen. The
I necessary for absorbents brings us to
I the consideration of the compost
I By the compost heap the farmer is
I able to multiply his available manure
I many fold. We should remember
I that anything of vegetable or animal
I origin is a valuable fertilizer if put
I In proper condition. Th?; compost
I heap Is the means of doing this. One
I ton of leaves contains 16 pounds of
I nitrogen, 6 pounds of phosphoric
j acid and 6 pounds of potash, and at
1 ordinary values for these substances
I Is worth nearly 38. A ton of straw
I similarly Is worth 32.26 and sawdust
I 32.20. These values, of course, are
I based on their total composition. In
I actual practice It Is safe to assume
I that half of their values are avail
I able. But It Is only after undergoing
I fermentation In the compost heap
I that these values are available.
That It wtH pay the farmer to
I give more attention to the compost
I heap has been repeatedly proved by
I practical trails. At the North Louis
I lana experiment station, Calhoun,
I La., the following results were ob
I talned: The land normally would
I produce one-fourth of a bale of cot
I ton and 7 to 10 bushels of corn to
I the acre. By the annual application
I of 30 bushels per acre of a compost
I composed of stable manure, cotton
I seed, acid phosphate and loam, this
[yield ha? been Increased from 1 1-1
I to 1 1-2 bales of cotton and 50 to 60
I bushels of corn. The annual expense
J of applying this compost amounted
I to a little over $1 per acre.
Locate the compost heap In an old
shed, or build ,\ shed, with any kind
t old material for a roof. If the
shed leaks some, all the better.
Spread on the ground in a layer 10
inches thick 10 bushels of stable
j manure, wetting thoroughly. Over
this scatter 100 pounds of acid phos?
phate or 100 pounds of high grade
ground phosphate rock. Then follow
with another layer of manure and
phosphate, etc. Continue these alter?
nate layers until all the manure 13
used up. or until the pile has become
Inconveniently high; then cover the
pile, both top and sides, with 4 inches
of forest mold or good loam taken
from the fence corners. If stable
manure or mold Is not a\allable use
straw, leaves or any waste material,
even weeds. Be sure and wet all
thoroughly. After the heap has stood
from four to six weeks It should be
worked over and well mixed. This
If best done by beginning it one end
and cutting It down vertically, throw?
ing the manure In a pile behind. Wet
again and cover again With loam. It
will be ready for use In thre.- or four
The above proportions are for use
with cotton. When the compost is
daatfad fat sofa the Quantity of phos*
phate can bi reduced?use only 60
pounds instf.nl of 100 to each layr.
Thirty baattela or one two-horse wa?
gon load, per acre of this compost
will produce very marked results
When this quantity ts used. It 1? best
applied In the drill Just prior to
planting. If preferred, the rows can
be marked off and the compost ds
tributed in this furrow and then bed?
ded on. lie careful, however, not to
bury it too deep, especially on clay
soils. It I-* sate to estlma*?- that thlf
Quantity of such a compost will more
than doublo the crop on poor land
the first year. Thus the composted
'and can be related, and In tne
course of a very few y?ats all the
land will be pe.'manentl/ improved.
Bearing in mind the supplemental
value of the cowpea, it is safe to say
that at least 60 per cent can be ad?
ded to the productiveness of the av?
erage 100-acre farm, and that simply
at the cost of a few tons of acid
phosphate and a little labor. With
the compost and with the cowpea at
his service to save and gather nitro?
gen for him, the average farmer is
simply throwing his money away
when he buys that substance In com*
merclal fertilizer, for he could pro?
duce all his land needs upon his
farm. Economy should be his
watchword, and there Is no better
place for him to start than by stop?
ping the waste of nitrogen that is so
flagrant throughout the whole South.
The soil is the farmer's bank, and
the fertility stored therein by nature
is his capital. He can no more ex?
pect to draw indefinitely upon this
supply without ultimately exhausting
It than he could expect his check to
be honored without making fresh
The people of the South have been
doing this for years, and their credit
in nature's bank is getting low. Ev?
ery ton of hay sold from t>ie farm,
the manure from which Is not re
ijrned to the soil, takes off worth
of fertilizer, cotton seed about $11,
corn $6.75. This has beei\ goin^ on
tdi the farm responds reluctantly to
many of our drafts.
We trust that we have made the
value of farm manures sufFtclent'y
evident and that more farmers will
give attention to their saving.
S. A. KNAPP,
Special Agent in Charge.
A GOOD MAN DEAD.
Dr. Samuel M. Smith, of Columbia,
Columbia, Jan. 10.?Dr. Samuel M.
Smith, pastor of the First Presbyter
Ian Church, of this city, one of the
most eminent divines and scholars in
the State, died suddenly at 11:30
o'clock this morning at his home
here. The news of Dr. Smith's death
was a severe shock to Columbians,
for he has labored in this community
for more than twenty years, and it is
with a feeling of personal loss that
his death Is regretted.
Dr. Smith arose this morning feel?
ing unwell and complained of a se
, vere pain In his chest. He sent for
his friend and family physician, Dr.
R. A. Lancaster, and while convers?
ing with Dr. Lancaster in his bed
room at 11:30 a. m., he arose to go
into an adjoining room. He fell, dy?
ing Insantly. Apoplexy $ was the
Dr. Smith is survived by his wife
and one son, Prof. Reed Smith, now
engaged in teaching in Cincinnati'
Mr. Reed Smith was at home for the
Christmas holidays, and left only one
week ago to return to his work.
?Chamberlain's Cough Remedy Is
a very valuable medicine for throat
and lung troubles, quickly relieves
and cures painful breathing and a
dangerously sounding cough which
indicates congested lungs. Sold by
W. W. Slbert.
No, Alonzo, a pile of filthy* Incre
isn't necessarily a heap of dirt.
?Have you a weak throat? If so,
you cannot be too careful. You cannot
begin treament too early. Each cold
makes you more liable to another
and the last Is always the harder to
cure. If you will take Chamberlain'8
Cough Remedy at the outset you will
be saved much trouble. Sold by W.
Force without judgment falls by its
DO IT NOW.
Sumter People Should Not Wait Until
It Is Too Late.
The appalling death-rate from kid?
ney disease Is due In most cases to
the fact that the little kidney troubles
are usually negelcted until they be?
come serious. The slight symptoms
give place to chronic disorders and
the sufferer goes gradually into the
grasp of diabetes, dropsy, Bright's
Disease, gravel or some other seri?
ous form of kidney complaint.
ir you surfer from backache, head?
aches, dizzy spells; if the kidney se?
cretions arc irregular of passage and
unnatural in appearance, do not de?
lay. Help the kidneys at once.
Doan's Kidney Pills are especlc .y
for kidney disorders?they cure
where others fail, over one hundred
thousand people have recommended
them. Here's a case at home:
Mrs. Win. Bultman, 5 E. Calhoun
St.. Sumter, S. C, says: "I found
Doan'l Kidney pills to be an excel?
lent remedy, My back ached for some
time and I was in almost constant
misery. I llnally saw Dunn's Kidney
Pills advertised, procured a box at
Chlna'l drug store and used them in
accordance with the directions. They
relieved the pain.-- and atrengthened
my back and I have not been
troubled since, i gladly recommend
hoan's Kidney Pills."
For sale by all dealers, Price 50
cents. Foster-Mllburn Co., Buffalo,
New York, sole agents for the United
Remember the namo?Doan's?and
take no other. No. 16.
CENSUS KEPOKT OX GINNING.
Gives Amount of Cotton Crop Pre?
pared Up to Junuury 1 as 9,046,285
Washington, Jan. 10.?The report
of the census bureau issued today
shows that 9,646,285 bales of cotton,
counting round bales as half bales,
were ginned from the growth of 1909
to January 1, 1910, as compared with
12.465,298 bales for the crop of 1908;
9,951,505 for the crop of 1907, and
11,741,039 for the crop of 1906.
The proportion for the last three
crops ginned to January 1 is 95.3 per
cent, for the crop of 1908, 90 for
1907 and 90.6 for 1906. The number
of round bales included this year is
144,847 compared with 230,572 last
year and 179,694 for the season of
1907-08. Sea Island this year aggre?
gates 89,499; last year 86,528 and
73,425 for 1907-08.
The number of bales of cotton,
counting round as half bales and ex?
cluding Unters, for the crop of 1909
to January 1 by States and compared
with the crop of 1909 follows:
State. 1909. 1908.
Arkansas. 657,732 910,423
Florida. 60,136 66,855
Louisiana . . . 251,844 453,210
Mississippi . . .1,005,166 1,522,160
North Carolina . 606,196 647,509
Oklahoma . . . 526,602 585,010.
South Carolina .1,099,718 1,175,220
Tennessee . . . 226,791 317,010
Texas. 2,336,650 3,485,007
All Other States 54,530 67,777
Grand total .. 9,646,285 12,465,298
The distribution of sea Island cot?
ton for 1910 by States follows:
Florida, 27,482 bales; Georgia, 49,
886 bales; South Carolina, 12,131.
The statistics in this report for
1910 are subject to slight corrections
when checked against the individ?
ual returns of the ginners being
transmitted by mail.
KILLED IX CL?RENDOX.
Joe White, Fifteen Years Old, Fatal
ly Shot While Returning Home
Wilson, Jan. 11.?Joe White, the
15-year-old son of Henry White, was
accidentally killed by Pinkney To?
bias, 13 years old, on Saturday after?
The boys had been hunting and
stopped for a short while at a neigh?
bor's house. When they decided to
start again young Tcblas threw his
gun on his shoulder, wnen it went
off, the entire load tearing through
young White's neck. He died In a
For Infants and Children.
The Kind You Have Always bought
Loans negotiated upon improv?
ed farms, payable in annual in?
stallments. No Commission.
Borrowers pay actual cost of per?
fecting Loan. For further infor?
mation apply to
JOHN B. PALMER & SON.
P.O. Box 282, Phone No. 1085.
Office Sylvan Bldg.
COLUMBIA, S. C.
TAX RETURNS FOR 1910,
COUNTY AUDITOR SUMTER CO.,
SUMTER, S. C, Dec. 3, 1909.
Notice is hereby given that I will
attend, In person or by deputy, at
the following places on the days In?
dicated, respectively, for the purpose
of receiving returns of real estate,
personal property, and poll taxes for
the fiscal year commencing January
Tindalls, Tuesday, Jan. 4th.
Privateer, (Jenkins* store,) Wed?
nesday, Jan. 5th.
Manchester, Levl's, Thursday, Jan.
Wcdgefleld, Friday, Jan. 7th.
Claremont Depot, Monday, Jan.
Hagood, Tuesday, Jan. 11th.
Remberts, Wednesday, Jan. 12th.
Dalzell, Thursday, Jan 13th.
W. T. Brogdpn'i Store, Friday,
Mayesville, Tuesday, Jan. 18th.
Bhtioh, Wednesday, Jan. 19th.
Norwood's X Roads, Thursday,
08wego, Friday, Jan. 21st.
All persons whose duty It Is to
make returns should be prompt to
] meet me at these appointments. All
I returns must bo mado before Feb.
J. DIGGS WILDER,
Auditor for Sumter Ci.
SELLERS PAYS $500 FIXE.
Columbia "Blind Tiger King" Gets
Stiff Sentence for Allegrtl Selling
Columbia, Jan. 11.?Wade Hamp?
ton Sellers, familiarly known
throughout the State as the "blind
tiger king of Columbia," today paid
into the Richland Court of Sessions,
for selling one-half pint of whiskey,
the record fine for offences of this
character, handing to Clerk Walker,
when Judge Prince sentenced him
to pay a fine of $600 or serve six
months at hard labor, the sum of
$500 In cash.
Takes Jury Only Few Minutes to De?
termine Xegro's Fate.
Klngstree, Jan. 11.?Johnnie Rose,
alias John Wood, a hegro of about IS
years, was, upon the charge of as?
sault with criminal Intent, this after?
noon sentenced to pay the death pen?
alty for his crime on Feb. 4th.
A barber in the Bronx who halls
from Italy has a sign painted on his
window "Barbltonsorlal Parlor."
Col. C. A. Parkins was fatally in?
jured In Greenville Tuesday after?
noon by an electric car.
Two negro children
to death In a house
county Monday night.
God never shuts one door but he
TWENTY-FIVE VOTES FOR
g( Address.* 9, ..
K Subject to rules of Hie Osteen Publishing Co.'s Contest. Void
^ after January 25.
HORSES, MULES. BUGGIES, WAGONS, RAINESS,
Lime, Cement, Acme Wall Plaster, Shingles, Laths,
Fire Brick, Clay, Stove Flue and Drain Pipe, Etc.
TT j /-i ? All kinds, Horse, Cow, Hog and
Hay and Grain-Chick(:n Feed_ ;. :: .. ? _
SEED OATS, WHEAT, RYE AND BARLEY.
A car load or a single article. Come and see us, if
unable to do so, write, or phone No. io.
BEST LIVERY IN SUMTER.
ft a t*?t* mxr FOR THE FUNDS OF jj
S SAFETY OUR DEPOSITORS
Promptness in all transactions, and unexcelled
facilities for handling your business in every
department of banking is the basis upon which
this bank, the Oldest and Lar?st in the city of
Sumter, invites your account.
First National Bank, ?er <s. c. *
For what you want in Fancy and Heavy
Groceries. We are appealing to those
who appreciate good service, liberal
treatment, fresh goods and full weights
THIS WEEK WE WILL SELL THE
Famous Tennessee Eggs,
Candled and Graded, at
Red Cross Milk,
i6oz. Best Milk, Every
Ever tried Cherry Pie and Cherry
Dumplings in Mid-Winter? Makes one
of the finest deserts; beside^ you can use
the straight cherries.
Our Name is a Household Word."
?" QUALITY REIGNS"
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