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title: 'The watchman and southron. (Sumter, S.C.) 1881-1930, February 26, 1910, Image 3',
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THE URN8U8 Or OCCUPATIONS.
Bnameretor*' Questions Will Apply
to Everybody In the United
Washington. Feb. J2.?The "oc?
cupation ? question In the United
States eensus population sheduled to
be oerrled by the enumerators dur?
ing the Thirteenth Decennial Census,
beginning April IS next, applies to
^everybody living In the United States
Ron the date mentioned, which Is the
"Census Day," and all the population
schedule questions reiste to It only.
In Its printed Instructions to enu?
merators the Census Bureau holds
that the occupation followed by a
child or a woman Is just ss Impor?
tant, for census purposes, ss the oc?
cupation of a man. Therefore, the
f enumerators are told never to take It
for granted without Inquiry that a
woman or child old enough to work
has no gainful occupation.
It Is pointed out, however, that
only gainful occupations sre to be re
i ported. By this Is meant any em?
ployment work, profession, or voca?
tion by which the person working
regularly earns money or Its equiva?
lent, The fact that a person has no
gainful occupation U to be noted on
the schedule. If a pereon Is only
[ temporarily unemployed on account
of lack of work, or alckness, or other
temporary reason, the occupation
which that person usually follows is
to be reported.
If a p.rson has two occupations,
tike enumerator must return only the
i more Important one?that Is, the one
from which the person gets the more
money. It that can not be learned, then
he le to return the one at which the
nor sun apende the more time. As an
ilreetrettos. the enumerators are
told to return a man as a "farmer"
II he gets most of hie Income from
t* farming, although he may also follow
the occupation of a clergyman or
preacher; but they must return him
as a "clergymen" If he gets more of
hta Income from thst occupation.
In the csse of a woman doing
housework In her own home, without
? salary or wages, snd having no other
employment, the entry Is to be that
she has no occupation. But a woman
working at housework for wages
should be returned as "housekeeper."
"servant" "eook." or "chamber
meld." as the case may be. and the
* entry should etate the place where
she works as "private family," "bo?
tet" or "boarding house " Or if s
woman In addition to doing house
work in her own home, regulnily
earns money by some Hher occupa?
tion, whether pursued In her onw
\ home or outslds. that occupat io a
should be returned. For lnetance o
woman who regularly takes In a ash?
ing should be reported as "laundress"
Women Doing Farm Work.
A woman working regularly at
* outdoor farm work, even vnough ehe
worka on the home farm for her hus?
band, son, or other relative and d>e*
act receive money wages, should be
returned as a "farm Isborer." The
enumerators are to distinguish, how?
ever, the women who work on the
home farm from thoeo who work
away from home by writing either
"homo farm" or "working out" as
the caee may require. A woman
Who. herself, operates or runs a farm
should be reported as a "farmer,"
and not as a "farm laborer."
m I' any child, of whatever age, ia
r regularly earning money, the employ?
ment which he or ahs follows shou'd
be reported as an occupation. This
applies also to a child working for
his board swsy from home.
Children, or even adults, attending
school or colleges or any educational
institution, and following no other
employment, should be returned eel
having no occupation. But If any
person Is ettendlng school or college
end at the same time la regularly
eernlBg money as soms gainful oc
evpetlon. the enumeratori are to re?
turn that occupation. In either case
they must Indicate the fact of school
or college attendance.
Children who work for their par?
ents at home merely on general
household work or at odd times on
other work are to be reported as hav?
ing no occupation. Rut children who
materlslly assist their parents in the
performance of work other than
household work should be reported
as having the occupation in which
they are so employed, even though
they receive no wages. In the case
of children who work for their own
parents on a farm, that fact Is to be
entered as "h<>m? farm." Rut for
children who work as farm laborers
for others the enumerator's entry Is to
be "working out "
Employer ami Employee.
The Census Bureau Instructs the
census takers that an employer Is one
who emplys helpers, other than do?
mestic servants. In transacting his
own business. The term ernuloyer
does not Include the superintendent,
agent, manager, or other persons
employed to manage an eatabllsh
ment or buatneas; and It does not In?
clude the foreman of a room, the
boss of a gang, or the coal miner
who hires hie helper. All eu h
should be returned as employees, for,
whlls eny one of these may employ
persons, none of them does so In
transacting his own business. Thus
no individual working for a corpora?
tion, either as an officer or other?
wise, should be returned as an em?
A person employing domeatic ser
vanta in his own home, but not em?
ploying any 'helpers In his business,
is not to be considered as an employ?
er. But, on the other hand, a per
aon who la the proprietor of a hotel
or boarding houae and employs ser?
vants In running that hotel or board?
ing house, should be returned as an
employer , becauae he employs these
servants in his business.
An employee is defined as any per?
son who works for wages or a salary
and is subject to the control and di?
rection of an employer. The deciding
test is whether the person receives a
wage or salary and Is subject to
another's directions. If so, he la an
employee, whether he be president of
a large corporation or a day loborer;
whether he be paid in money or In
kind; and whether he be employed
by his own parent or another. The
term employee doea not Include law?
yers, doctors, and others who render
professional services for fees, and
who, In their work, are not subject to
the control and direction of those
whom they serve. It does include
actors, professors and others who are
engaged to render professional ser?
vices for wages or salaries. A do?
mestic servant should always be re?
turned as an employee, even though
as previously explained, the person
employing a domestic servant is not
always returned as an employer.
Other Schedule Questions.
Persons who have a gainful occu?
pation and are neither employers nor
employees are considered to be work?
ing on their own account. They are
the independent workers. They
neither pay nor receive regular
wages. Examples of this kind are
farmers and the owners of small
establishments who do not employ
helpers; professional men who work
for fees and employ no helpers:
newsboys; and generally speaking,
hucksters, peddlers, bootblacks, etc.
It la stated In the Instructions that,
the purpose of the schedule Inquiries
as to unemployment Is to ascertain
the measure of enforced unemploy?
ment?that is, the extent to which
men want work and can not find
The schedule question, ' home rent?
ed or owned." la defined a* meaning
whether a family owns the home In
which It Is living or rents It. If
a dwelling is occupied by more than
one family It Is the home of each of
them, and the question should be
answered with reference to each
A home Is to be classed aa owned
If it la owned wholly or in part by
the head of the family living In the
home or by the wife of the head, or
by a son, or a daughter, or other
relative living In the same house wtlh
the head of the family. It Is not
necessary that full payment for the
property should have been made or
that that the family should be the
Every home not owned, either
wholly or In part, by the family liv?
ing In It or by some member of that
family should be classed aa rented,
whether rent la actually paid or not.
All owned homes which are not ful?
ly paid for, or upon which there Is
an lncumbrance In the form of
a mortgage or of a lien upon which
Judgment haa been had In a court,
are to be reported aa mortgaged.
The inquiry aa to whether the per
aon enumerated la a survivor of the
Union or Confederate Army or Navy la
to be aaked aa to all malea over 50
years of age who were born In the
United states and all foreign-born
malea who immigrated ot this coun?
try before 1865.
The Inquiry aa to blindness ap?
plies only when a person Is either
totally or partially blind In both
eyes, so aa to be unable to read even
with the help of glasses. Only persons
who are both deaf and dumb are to
be reported under the queatlon
"whether deaf and dumb." The quea?
tlon concerning school attendance
any time since September 1. 1909
relates only to persons of school age
between 5 and 21 yeara old. In case
any person outside that age limit ac?
tually attended school, the fact Is to
be noted on the schedule.
Henry Brooks, a negro, has been
arrested In Dancaater on the charge
of criminally assaulting a colored
By Joining the boycott. Aunt Hetty
Green la alamming the meat trust at
the rate of 15 cents a day.?Houston
If the combination of Democrats
and Inaurgent Republicans were per?
mitted to go on with Ita tactics of ob?
struction. Congress might as well
pack up and go home, for all the
benefit that Ita dellberatlona would
confer on the country.?Plttsburg
It Is a wise man who doesn't for?
get to stop occasionally and wonder If
he Is making a fool of himself.
CORPORATIONS MUST ANSWER.
Returns of Incomes Must Be Filed
With Collector Jenkins.
There remains now only about a
week In which corporations have to
record their incomes, in accordance
with the Federal law, making the re- ]
turns upon the prescribed blanks to
Collector Jenkins at Columbia.
In a circular, the attention of col?
lectors of internal revenue and others
Is called to the provisions of Section
38, of the act of August 5, 1909, re?
quiring corporations, joint stock com?
panies, associations and Insurance
companies subject to the special ex?
cise tax therein imposed, to render
the prescribed return of their gross
and net income for the calendar year
1909, on or before the first day of
March, 1910; and to the pena'Cus
imposed by the eighth paragraph of
said section 38, for neglect or refuaal
to render such return, or for render?
ing a false or fraudulent return.
On receipt of this circular, collect?
ors will, as far as possible, and with?
out further expense to the govern?
ment, see that notice of these pro?
visions of the law are given through
the public press to all such corpor?
ations, Joint stock companies. <so
clations and Insurance companies.
Where the prescribed returns are
received after March 1, 1910, the en?
velopes bearing postmarks showing
the time of mailing shall be present?
ed, each attached to the return con?
tained therein and forwarded as a
part thereof to this office.
As stated In article 6 of Regulations
No. 81, blank forms for making the
required returns will be furnished, on
application, by collectors of internal
revenue; and a failure to receive
such balnk and to make the requir?
ed return within the prescribed time,
will not relieve the corporation, Joint
stock company, association or insur?
ance company from the penalties
Imposed for a failure to make s-ch
Greenville, Miss., Man Elected to
Jack ion, Miss., Feb. 22.?Leroy
Percy, of Greenville, was chosen j
United States Senator from Mississip?
pi tonight in the 58th ballot of the
Democratic caucus, by a majority of
five votes over Former Gov. James K.
Vardaman. When balloting was re?
sumed today all of the candidates
withdrew with the exception of Percy
and Vardaman, the vote showing
Percy 87 and Vardaman 82. The
nomination is equivalent to election.
^vTien the caucus met tonight it
was after a recess since last Friday,
fol owing announcement by Gov.
Noel that should no election be made
during the present legislative session
he would appoint Gen. James G?r?
den, the present temporary appoin?
tee, to serve during the unexpired
term. Withdrawals of the several
candidates having the lesser votes
came fast, Congressman Adaam
Burd, John Kyle, and H. H. Street
following In turn, and the fight nar?
rowed to the two leading candidates.
The votes controlled by these candi?
dates who withdrew went almost
solidly to Percy, giving him 87
votes to 82 for Vardaman on the first
In several respects the fight In
caucus has been one of the most re?
markable political contests ever held
In the South. From the start partl
zan feeling has been Intense and the
contest early resolved Itself Into a
factional struggle between the ad?
herents and opponents of the former
governor. Throughout Vardaman
has maintained his original vote, at
times gaining enough to bring him
within a few votes of the goal. How?
ever, the majority was always distri?
buted among the other several can?
didates. Mr. Percy retained second
piace also throughout the contest.
When announcement was made of
the result pandemonium broke out
among the large crowds in represen?
tative hall a pent up enthusiasm of
weeks was given vent and it was with
difficulty that brief addresses by the
victor and vanished could be heard
above the cheering. Mr. Percy prom
Ished a faithful service, while Mr.
Vardaman formally served notice
that he would be a candidate for the
? ffice at the election two years hence.
The action of the caucus will be
ratified at tomorrow's session of the
two branches of the legislature.
No one man prefers to give his or?
ders to a crouch. No one selects a man
with a grievance to make a sale. No
one chooses to do business with a
A smile removes obstacles, over?
comes obstacles, inspires faith, and
paves the way for business.
Cheer spells confidence. Confidence
spells success. Men who succeed are
Gloom spells trouble. Trouble spells
failure. Men who fall are gloomy.
Cheer Is an asset. Gloom Is a lia?
bility. It Is good business to associate
with men who are solvent.
Be cheerful?as a business proposi?
SOCIAL LIFE'S WEAR AND TEA It.
Depletes One's Store of Physical Vi?
tality and Nervous System.
It is not always dissipation that is
meant by the phrase, "the pace that
kills." Diversion that is morally In?
nocuous may come in time to deplete
one's store of physical vitality and
nervous energy almost as seriously
as flagrant persistence in vicious
People who are "in society" may
pretend that they can turn night in?
to day, burning the candle at both
ends in their protracted festivities,
with no fear of the arrival of a day
of reckoning, but nature with severe
impartiality arraigns at length not
merely the hardened roue or de
bauche, but the person whose "rec?
reation" has been of an entirely In?
nocent nature and yet excessive In
It looks as though "society" would
soon have to come to an understand?
ing regarding the number of engage?
ments its devotees are expected by its
unwritten laws to make and to keep
within twenty-four hours. Societies
for the prevention of cruelty have
been formed, but what organization
Is there to prevent cruelty to society?
It Is a real hardship to many a busi?
ness man, who has to arise betimes
in the morning, to be compelled to
stay up until the small hours of the
night In order to perform the funct?
ion of escort home from the opera or
the ball. The brilliant occasion Itself
obliterates for the time being the
anxieties of the working day, but
with "the chill gray dawn of the
morning after" the bread winner of
the household finds himself facing
his clients or his associates with his
resevolr of vitality depleted; he has
to make a conscious effort to keep
wide awake In order to meet the de?
mands made upon his shrewdest and
most alert attention.
Even when It is not the captain of
industry who is concerned, but the
lady of elegant leisure, whose hours
are regulated at her own sweet will,
It is plain from the flourishing state
of the sanatoria for nervous invalids
that the normally constituted woman
can not be "on the go" incessantly
without grave danger of overdoing
and having to do penance, If not in
sack cloth and ashes, at least with
malted milk and enforced seclusion.
The modern debutante has a really
formidable gauntlet to run, with all
the Invitations her social position
and family traditions compell her to
accept. The ordeal Is not so much
the attendance at two or three balls
In as many days, with luncheons and
teas interspersed, as it Is the in?
evitable preparation, making it nec?
essary to spend hal:! of the waking
hours in consultation with modiste
and milliner. Sure y society is wait?
ing, eagerly expectant, for the for?
mation of some sort of protective
league to make organized resistance
against further encroachments upon
the twenty-four hours of the night
and the day, which are at present
j who;ly Insufficient: for both ar?d
I business and pleasure.?Philadelphia
You Can Not Get Something for
Did you ever see one of those dar?
kies who when he went to do a hard
Job would play a little on one side of
It and then fool a little on the other
side, doing this and that and the
other, and concerned chiefly with
keeping out of the real work just as
long as possible? If you have, you
know how much he Is really worth
when downright hard labor Is de?
Well, we have often seen farmers
who se?med to us to think just like
such darkles work. They would won?
der and debate over and plan for a
peanut or a potato patch, but they
never did a good half-hour's really
h?rest, concentrated thinking about
their farming as a whole?never con?
sidered the various lines of work in
relation to each other or to their own
subEtantial and permanent welfare.
They farmed without plan or system,
with no definite goal in view and,
therefore, no certain course in any
To succeed at farming a farmer
has got to think, honestly, earnestly,
persistently and bravely. He must,
when he finds a problem that needs
solving, put his mind to work on It
and keen It there until he has master?
ed It, just as he puts his team Into a
field and keeps It there until the field
Is plowed. The man who is afraid to
work his brain a little must expect
to do a lot of work with his muscles
for which he will get very little pay.
The question is as to what will be?
come of the Atlantic steamship lines
when balloons undertake the whole
ocean transportation. What, too. Is
to become of the custom house??
Goodness does not consist In great?
ness, but greatness In goodnes.?
Dr. Cook positively declines to
talk without box-office encourage?
Tho Forte of Public Opinion.
(From tht Indianapolis News.)
It is difficult for practical politici?
ans to realise that public opinion
can be aroused to such a degree that
It will insist on having something
done. Their notion of public opinion,
generally speaking, is merely some?
thing to talk eloquently about on the
stump. When the practical politi?
cian says "the people demand" he
merely means that tlxe party mana?
gers desire. And on all ordinary oc?
casions his position is well taken.
The people usually are content?en?
tirely too content!?to let the politi?
cians manage their affairs for them
and take the best they can get with
only mild grumbling as a result.
But once in a while the people do
make a demand. They want some?
thing done, and they propose to have
it done. Then the politicians lose
their reckoning. They cannot gauge
the meaning of the popular rumbling,
which, as is their custom, they con?
strue as merely popular grumbling;
something that will soon pass away
and be forgotten, crowded out, as it
were, to make room for more In?
This explains why th^ standpatters
in Congress (who are among the
most practical of the practical politi?
cians) have be.en so dense about un?
derstanding the public demand for
lower prices. They realize, of
course, that there was a general
complaint, but they assumed that It
was mnely the popular grumbling
that breaks forth every once in a
while, something of no particular
consequence, and something which,
if ignored and not dignified by offi?
cial attention would soon blow over.
And so, with the interest of the
high tariff schedules ever at heart,
they thought It better to pay no at?
tention to the popular demand for
fear it might bring on another tariff
struggle?which, indeed, it Is very
likely to do.
But thve discontent did not "blow
over." On the contrary, it culminat?
ed In the meat boycott, which in?
stead of blowing ov.er is likely to
blow something open before it ends.
And now, as our Washington dis?
patches show, the less practical of
the politicians, who somehow have
a way of always reading the state of
the public mind a good deal better
than the more practical politicians,
have not only realized that some?
thing must be done, and done very
soon, but they are bringing their
standpat brethren to an appreciation
of the necessity. It is not a pleasant
task for a standpat Congressman to
inquire into the causes of the high
prices after having so persistently
and ably forced through a tariff law
that was designed to make prices
high. During such an investigation
he will be in Imminent danger of
finding out things he does not want
the public to know. Nor is he com?
forted by the report that the Presi?
dent has said that if an investigation
tends to show that the tariff is in
any way responsible for the extra?
ordinary high cost of living he will
be in favor of a reconstruction of
some of the schedules.
All over the country Legislatures
or State officials are Inquiring into
this question which is uppermost in
people's minds, and as a result of
the investigation by th# Agricultural
Department Secretary Wilson has
already made some declarations that
add nothing to the tranquility of the
standpatters. So there seems to be
no other course than for Congress to
Investigate the subject of high prices,
however disagreeable the process may
be to the- Congressional managers.
What the result of such a difficult in?
vestigation will be it is impossible to
foresee, but with reasonable assur?
ance we can take comfort in one
thing and that is that such an In?
vestigation will have no tendency to
make prices any higher.
Answered an Emergency Call.
A youni? matron in Oyster Bay has
a maid who Is as original an adept in
matters of domestic emergency as any
Japanese. A few days ago a. trio of
college girl friends arrived unexpect?
edly to luncheon. The young house?
keeper WM in despair.
"What are we to do? There Isn't
enough of anything to go around,"
she cried in desperation, rushing out
into the kitchen.
"Oh, don't bother at all," said the
quick-witted maid. "Just, you ro sit
In the parlor with your company and
let me manage?only," she added,
"don't be surprised at anything you
The bride gladly obeyed, and when
the luncheon was served she partook
untllnchlnRly from her plate of con?
somme?smoking hot black tea?
while the soft-shell crabs, browned to
perfection, on her guests' plates, were
well imitated in potato and flour on
Her friends warmly congratulated
her upon her excellent cook, which
sentiment she echoed.?Success Maga?
Some day, perhaps, book store
clerks will know what you mean the
first time?another way to spot the
millennium.?New York Mail.
Only The Missionaries Arc Carrying
Thither Western Ideas.
(From the London Spectator.)
To most people the word Hsln-hwa
merely conveys something quite un?
pronounceable, but hearing it I have
a vision of a walled city of some 25,
000 inhabitants set In a n< t work ef
canals in inland China, girt round on
every side by yellow waters. In and
about it passes the never-ending
stream of Chinese life; traders, fish?
ers, carriers, faring up and down the
Grand canal and its branches?and
once a week for token that China 1?
av.ake, a puffing steam launch. Hsln
hwa lies some hundred miles or so
north or north and east, of Chlnkiang
?which you will find on the Yangtze
?and is to be met with on but one
English atlas?which shall be name?
less. Yet its population runs into tens
of thousands, and its trade is by no
1 means inconsiderable. For the rest,
lit Is, if you will, a tyi'cal Chinese
1 town of the lesser sort; 'emote and
sequestered, moved now an \ again by
I the doings in coast towns aid treaty
ports, but for the most part \ ving its
I own life. For its fellows, theh name
Is legion, scattered up and down the
I Yangtze valley and the basin of the
I Hoangho; unconsldered by the ordi?
nary Englishman, Ignored by the
globe-trotter with his "Future of
I Hsin-hwa is only typical of thou
I sands of other cities, and so one's
I view of China must largely be ln
I fluenced by these tiny settlements.
For good or ill they are there, and It
I is scarcely likely they will be broken
up, short of that event deai to the
heart of the sensaticnal novelist?a
sudden rising of' the East. One has
then u> reckon with them in forming
I any estimate of the future of China,
I and unfortunately they are almost
wholly neglected by the ordinary
I writer. He will tell you In perfecetly
vague terms that the missionaries are
I a nuisance, excite the Chinese, were
I the cause of the "Boxer" trouble, and
I so forth. Now every one of these
statements is demonstratbly false. The
I "Boxer" rising was very certainly di?
rected against foreign, not merely
Christian, influences. It was precipi?
tated, as anyone who knows China
will admit, by the system of "land
I grabbing" which gave Kisao-chow to
I G?mai.y and Wei-shai-wei to Eng
1 land, and it was aggravated by that
commercial Jealousy which Is so much
in evidence today in the Pacific. And
while it Is perfectly possible vo make
out a plausible case for the total ex?
clusion of the foreigner, you must, if
you admit anyone, admit the mission?
ary. He is not there for selfish mo?
tives; he is, from his principleti, op?
posed to any sort of violence, and he
is generally speaking, a man who re?
fuses to support his own converts
against the "unconverted" Chinese.
And, on the whole, setting on one
side the religious question, one feels
certain that these tiny mission stations
are working for good. They are very
slowly, but none the less surely, bring?
ing about that "waking of China"
wh*ch is the work, not of one year,
nor of two, but of many decade8.
These people living among the Chineae
are gradually accustoming them to
Western ideas, gradually preparing
China for the great change which
must come. So far it is only the great
centers that have really been Influen?
ced; there are still hundreds of mil?
lions who have not yet seen a white
man. It is by means of the mission?
aries that these inland towns are
brought, in any measure at all, into
contact with the new order. In an?
other way, too, they are doing useful
work. If China is to be civilized, it is
well the West should take some part
in it. Japan has her agents, qnd
these foreigners in Inland China are
of great importance in reminaing the
Chinese that Japan has no monopoly
of energy and enterprise. Where En
? gllsh goods are scarcely to be met
with, there you will find the mission?
ary slowly doing the work of the pio?
neer. That is to put the case on its
lowest level, to omit all mention of
the religious element. It is only one
side, and the least Important of the
missionaries' work, but it is a side
the outsider is apt to neglect. And
one may say with absolute confidence
thai: this quiet, slow work is a factor
of almost supreme importance in the
Chinese problem, and a factor neg?
lected by 9 out of 10 even of those
who write comparatively intelftgent
hooka about China. At the most,
they deal with the missionary in the
treaty port; they .eave out of account
the missionary pioneer, though he be?
longs to a class at once more numer?
ous and infinitely more important.
Mr. Henpeck has hesitated a long
while abcut doing this bold thing,
but he felt that now was the time or
never, according to the Catholic
Standard and Times. "Dear," he
said, in a. very timid voice, "I wish
you wouldn't call me 'Leo any more/
"Why not?" demanded his wife ex?
plosively. "Leo" is your given
name." "I know, my dear, but it
makes my friends laugh when you
call me that. I was thinking you
might call me 'Job' just for a pet