u Iis Ii.
Tells Congress Germany's Broken Pledges
Have Brought on Break.
Can Not Believe That Berlin Has So Far Forgotten Itself as to
Force a War Upon a People With Whom it Has No Quar
*4 rtl?Will Go Before Congress and Ask for Means to Sup?
port American Rights in Case of Overt Act.
flg/nshlngton, Feb. 3.?The severance
of diplomatic relations with Germany
wos formally announced to the coun?
try and the world by President Wilson
at a joint seaelon of ocngress today
at I o'colck.
' TFervently Invoking the guidance of
Almighty Ood in the step he had tak?
en, Pvealdent Wilson detailed to the
congress why the United States could
not continue relations with a warring
power which repeatedly Invades
jjjmerica'e sacred rights and takes the
Area of Its clttsens.
vCalm, with a sense of right, the
Idant stood in the historic hall
the house of representatives, and
|th Senator? and representatives be
him, spoke ths words which may
the country Into the world con?
st, not for aggression and not for
>wer; only for law and humanity.
? Silent and attentive the grim com
Pusy of the nation's lawmakers Iis
led with rapt attention while Pres?
ident Wilson told of America's course
In the bow unsuccessful diplomatic
struggle to dissuade Germany from
her campaign of ruthleesness.
"We wish to serve no eelflsh ends,"
the president stated. "We eeek mere?
ly to stand true alike in thought and
In action to the im memorable prin?
ciples of our people . . . eeek mere?
ly to Vindicate our right to liberty
and justice ard an unmolested Me,
Those are the bases of peace, not war.
Ood grant that we may not be chal?
lenged to defend them by acts of wii
Uli injustice on the part of Germany.'
There was an unusual attendance of
mgsnsaata Pra rtleally all ths South
Americans erf re represented, and many
other neutrals cams to their reserved
% Places to listen to the history-making
ni| ?MI The gravity of the occasion
of the sunrtnns court
nag ntambere of the cahlner.
A committee representing both
sscerted the preeldcnt to the
The assemblage arose as he enter*. 1
the chamber, and then it burst into
cheering as the president bowed and
began reading very slowly.
There was tense silence as he pro?
ceeded, outlining first the negotiations
with Germany, her pledges to the
United States after the destruction of
the Sussex and the new naval order
of Germany declaring for unrestricted
submarine warfare after February 1.
The president spoke as follows :
"Gentlemen of the Congress: The
imperial German government on the
81st of January announced to this
government and to the governments
of the other neutral nations that on
and after the 1st day of Fcbrun ry
the present month, it would adopt
a policy with regard to the use of
submarines against all shipping seek?
ing to pass through certain designa
ed areas of the high seas to Which
It Is clearly my duty to call your
"Let me remind the congress on
the 8th of April last In view of the
einklng on the 24th of March of the
cross-channel passenger steamer Sus?
sex, by a German submarine, with?
out summons or warning and the
consequent loss of the lives of several
citizens of the United States who
were passengers aboard her, this gov?
ernment addressed a note to the im?
perial German government in which
It made the following declaration:
"'If it is still the purpose of ho
relentless and indiscriminate war?
fare against vessels of commerce by
the use of submarines without rasj
gard to what the government of the
United States must consider the sacrecj
and Indisputable rules of International
law and the universally recognized
dictates of humanity, the government
of the United States is at last forced1
to the conclusion that there is but
one course it can pursue. Unless
the imperial government should now]
Immediately declare and effect an
abandonment of Us present method'
of submarine warfare against pas?
senger and freight carrying vessels,
the government of the United States
can have no choice but to sever diplo?
matic relations with the German em?
"In reply to this declaration the
imperial German government gave
this government the following assur?
ance: 'The German government is
prepared to do its utmost to confine
the operations of war for the :rest of
its duration to the fighting forces of
the beligcrents, thereby also Insur?
ing the freedom of the seas, a prin?
ciple upon which the German gov?
ernment believes now, as before, to
be in agreement with the government
of the United States.
" 'The German government, guid^u
by this idea, notifies the government
of the United States that the Gor?
man naval forces have received the
following orders: In accordant
with the general principles of visit
and search and destruction of mer?
chant vessels recognized by interna?
tional law, such vessels, both with
and without the area declared as
naval war zone, shall not be sunk
without warning and without saving
human lives, unless these ships at?
tempt to escape or offer resistance.
" 'But,* it added, 'neutrals can not
expect that Germany, forced to fight
for her existence, shall for the sake
of neutral interest, restrict the use of
an effective weapon if her enemy is
permitted to continue to apply at
will methods of warfare violating the
rules of international law. Such a
demand would be incompatible with
the character of neutrality, and the
German government is convinced that
the government of the United States
does not think of making such a de
mand, knowing that the government
of the United States has repeatedly de?
clared that it is determined to restore
the principle of the freedom of the
seas, from whatever quarterJk has
been violated.' $
"To this the governments of the
United States replied on the 8th of
May, accepting, of course, the assur?
ances given, but adding: 'The govern?
ment of tho United States feels it nec?
essary to state that it takes it for
granted that the imperial .JOpfrmun
government does not intend pimply
that the maintenance of n\ 'ly an?
nounced policy is in any way*.contin?
gent upon the course, or rosulj?pf*dip
lomatie negotiations between ttg gov?
ernment of the United StatesiKa oth?
er belligerent government, Notwith?
standing the fact that certain pas?
sages in the imperial government's
note of the 4th instant might apperir
to be susceptible of that construction.
In order, however, to avoid any mi*
understanding, the government of the
United States notifies the imperial
government that it can not for a mo?
ment entertain much less discuss, a
suggestion that respect by German
naval authorities for the rights uf
citizens of the United States upon the
high seas should in any way or in the.
slightest degree be made contingent
upon the conduct of any other govern?
ment affecting the rights of neu?
trals and non-combatants. Respon?
sibility in such matters is single, not
joint; absolute, not relative.'
"To this note of the 8th of May the
imperial German government made
"On the 31st of January, the Wed?
nesday of the present week, the Ger?
man ambassador handed to the secre?
tary of State, aiOiiE with a formal
note, a memorandum which contain?
ed the follow:;..: statement:
" 'The imperial government, there?
fore, does not doubt that the govern?
ment of the United States will under?
stand tho situation thus forced upon
Germany by the entente allies' brutal
methods of war and by their deter?
mination to destroy the central pow?
ers and that the government of tho
United States will further realize that
tlie now openly disclosed intention of
the entente allies gives back to Ger?
many the freedom of the action which
she reserved in her note addressed to
the government of the United States
on May 4, 191C.
" 'Under these circumstances, Ger?
many will meet the illegal measures
of her enemies by forcibly prevent
ing after February 1, li) 17, in a tone
around Great Britain, France, Italy
and in tho eastern Mediterranean,
all navigation, that of neutrals includ?
ed, from and to England and from
and to France, etc. All %ships met
within the zone will be sunk.'
"I think that yqu will agree with
me that in view of this declaration,
intimation of any kind, deliberate'.)
withdraws the solemn assurance given
in the Imperial government's not.- of
the 4th of May, 1916, this govern
ment has no alternative consistent
with the dignity and honor of the
United States but to take the course
which, in its note of the 18th of
April, 1916, it announced that it
would take in the event that the
German government did not declare
and effect an abandonment of the
methods of submarine warfare w hich
it was then employing and to which
it now purposes again to resort.
"I have, therefore, directed the see
suddenly and without prloi
retary of state 10 announce to Iiis
excellency, the German ambassador,
that all diplomatic relations between
the United States and the German
empire are severed and that the
American ambassador at Berlin will
immediately oe withdrawn, and, in
accordance with this decision, to hand
to his excellency his passports.
"Notwithstanding this unexpected
action of the German government,
this sudden and deeply deplorable re?
nunciation of its assurances, given
this government at one of the most
critical moments of tension in tho
relations of the two governments, I
refuse to believe that it is the inten?
tion of the German authorities to do
in fac t what they have warned as they
will fool at liberty to do, I can not
bring myself to believe that they will
indeed pay no regard to the ancient
friendship between their people and
our own or to the solemn obligations,
which have been exchanged between
them and destroy American ships;
and take the lives of American citi- J
y.ens in the wilful prosecution of the
ruthless naval programme they have
announced their intention to adopt.
Only actual overt acts on their part
can make me believe it even now.
"If this inveterate confidence on
my part in the sobriety and prudent
foresight of their purpose should un?
happily prove unfounded; if Ameri
I can ships and American lives should
in fact be sacrificed by their naval
commanders in heedless contraven?
tion of the just and reasonable un?
derstanding of into! national law, and
the obvioi s dictates of humanity I
shall take the liberty of coming again
before the congress to ask that au
, thority be given mo to use any means
' that may be necessary for the pro?
tection of our seamen and our peo?
ple in the prosecution of their peace?
ful and legitimate errands on the
high seas. 1 can do nothing loas.
I take it for granted that all neu?
tral governments will ta!<e the same
"We do not desire a hostile con?
flict with the imperial German gov?
ernment. We are the sincere friends
of the German people and earnestly
desire to remain at peace with the
j government which speaks for them.
We shall not believe that they are j
hostile to us unless and until we are
obliged to believe it; and we purpose
nothing more than the reasonable
defense of the undoubted rights of
our people. We wish to serve no
selfish ends. We .seek merely to
stand true alike in thought and in
action to the immemorial principles of
our people which f have sought to
express in my address to the sen
ate only two weeks ago?seek mereljp
to vindicate our rights to liberty and
justice and an unmolested life. These
arc the bases of peace, not war. God
grant that we may not o challenged
to defend them by acts of wilful
injustice on the part of the govern?
ment of Germany."
FLORIDA HARD HIT.
Cold Wave Has Played Havoc With
Jacksonvile, Feb. 5.?Florida fruit
and truck growers were hard hit by
the cold wave that enveloped the
South Friday and apparently reaching
its climax in the high winds and snow
Sunday in most sections, with con?
tinued freezing weather today as far |
south as middle Florida. In the
north central counties the joss of
fruit still on the citrus trees is heavy.
Young trees were cut down. The
truck growers in some sections lost
practically their entire crop. The
temperatures in the South this morn?
ing, after moderate weather Sunday,
reached two below zero at Asheville,
five above at Atlanta and twenty-six
at Jacksonville and New Orleans.
Berlin, Feb. 5.?The Associated
Press has learned authoritatively that
Cermrr.y will propose the re-ratifica?
tion of Prussian-American treaties of
1828 allowing nationals nine months
to leave either country in case of
New York, Feb. &.?The American
line was notified today that the steami?
er New Vork, the first American pas?
senger ship to sail since Germany's
new submarine order, left Liverpool
Saturday. The American liner Phite
delphia arrived at Liverpool Sundna
and the liner Finland this morning.
Washington, Feb. 5.?Henry Ford
announced today that in the event of
war he will place his factory at the
disposal of the government and oper?
ate it without profit. * I stand by thn
president," Ford said.
With the British Armies in France,
via London, Feb. 2.?Nearly fifty
thousand Americans are fighting for
tho allies and nearly four-fifths of
this number are with the British.
Petrograd, Feb. 2.?Germans dress?
ed in white overalls yesterday broke
through the Russian first line of
trenches southwest of Brzexaay, but
were driven back by Russian coun?
ter attack, according to the official
Fruit and Truck.
4 a ' I ff? v
We wish our many friends and the public in general to know that we have purchased the
half interest in the D. J. Chandler Clothing Company, formerly owned by the late James H.
Chandler, from his estate, and the business will be continued urider the same firm name.
The business will be conducted on the same high plane as in the past, and we will strive
at all times to merit the continued confidence of the public, giving them the best goods and
service possible, whenever they f?vor us with their business.
We also wish to thank you for the very liberal patronage that you have given us in the
past, and we solicit a continuence of the same generous patronage in the future.
The D. J. Chandler Clo. Co.
W. Alfred Bryan,
Vice Pres. and Manager,
Geo. W. Hutchseon,
President and Treasurer
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