II tVJMTEK WATCHMAN, Established April, 1850. "Be Ihm and Fear not?riet an ?ne end? Tbon Alant at ho ttiy ?Jonuwj a Ihy God'? ?ad IMV VHSt TBUK nOUTUKON, BMaMIdna? tmm, MW
Consolidated Aug. 2,1881. 8UMTER, S. C, WEDNESDAY. MARCH 14. 1917. Vol. XLIV. No. 8.
?AT MOOT DM SIGHT
AWBRICAK rESSELS DEEM GER?
MAN SUBMARINE HOSTILE
CRAFT IN BARRED WAR
Protection by President?
Is Taken on Germany** De?
af Old Law of Visit and Search
Teasel to Prove Its Hostility.
Ington. March 10.?The mere
of a German submarine
periscope in the presence of an
a armed merchantman will
thv merchantmen to take all
of prou tion on the pre
xaptlon the submarine is hostile,
ruling of the 8tate department,
that American mer
could fire on German sub?
tree moment it was sighted,
on Germany's declared Inten
of sinking on sighr all Vviels In
United States holds that denial
f Germany of the old rule of visit
rch make* all u-boats actual ?
i hostile. Whether the I'm ted States
rules for the instruction of
shipping la not known.
Secretary Lansing denied that the
farted States la preparing a whlto
of Germany's plots in this coun
What American ships will be arm
first and when they sail will bo
secret In order to avoid end an
I Jives of Americans aboard. Of
circles are confident Secretary
ilels* appeal to newspapers not to
iblieh ship movements or arming of
dps will be observed.
9m Be HeM In Columbia March 14th
Columbia. March 8.?Columbia's
annual automobile show,
opens Wednesday, March It,
g||sa promise of being one of the big
; geet' and best that has been held in
the South. It prognlses to far eejffij?'
the maiden effort last yoar wnich wasj
ddgiared by "those who know" to
hsrVi been' one of the most attractive
la tH.S section
L ' One- of the features, aside from
the exhibits themselves, will be a cou?
ple of young women who will enter
fala the audiences every afternoon
and evening with songs and bal-1
lads. Miss lsea Leland is known as
the "personality girl," and Miss Jo?
sephine Herman as the character,
Singer. Miss Leland was formen
With the "Everywoman" company.
Mksj Herman has appeared In vaude- j
Another feature of the musical pro?
gram will be the Instrumental music,
furnished by Schumacher's orchestru
each evening. This guarantees good
Many cars will be on exhibit. One
J af the nifty models will be a new
model Sedan which Is built according
to latest Ideals and one of the most
up-to-date on the market. Each
dealer and exhibitor will be repre?
sented by one of his best and newest
The room with automobile acces?
sories will also be filled with attrac?
tive exhibits, such as seen In the la
teat automobile shows.
Craven hall has been enlarged for
the show and this will sllow more
room for exhibits and for tho specta
The show will open on Wednesday
evening, March 14. and will continue
through Saturday night from 11
o'clock each morning until 11 O'clock
at night. Account of the Stajle Teach?
ers* association and other attractions
In Columbia at that time. It is expect?
ed that there will be large crowd*
from all sections of the State.
The show has been planned along
modern methods and will cope with
any of those in the larger cities.
RERN'STORt't' IN NORWAY.
German Ambassador to Amer?
ica X earing Germany.
London, March 10.?Count \ >
Bernstorn* has arrived at Christ ..ma
Norway, according to a Copenhagen
New York. March 9.?One meal I
day for seven days wus gunrant .
to 1,200,000 destitute Belgian ch l
dren today when The Literary Dip si
handed Herbert C, Hoover, chairman
of the commission for relief In Bei?
glum, a check for $300.000 0sail lb
uted to the magazinex rollef fund.
Ottawa, March I.?The British gov?
ernment Is negotiating for the por
ehase of the entire wheat crop
of Canada, It was announced here to.
WILSON CALLS EXTRA SESSION
FROM SICK DED PRESIDENT
ORDERS ARMING OF MER?
Take? Stops for Protecting Vessels in
Order to Maintain Freedom of Sens,
Despite German Submarine War?
Step Is Regarded as Unavoidable.
Washington, March 9.?President
Wilson, from a sick bed, today order?
ed the arming of American merchant
ships against Germany's ruthless sub?
marine warfare and at the same time
Issued a proclamation calling an ex' rr.
session of congress to meet April 16.
The president's decision came sud?
denly late this afternoon, following
the action of the senate yesterday in
rovlslng its rules to permit prompt ac?
tion on Important questions and the
submission of formal opinions by
Secretary Lansing and Attorney Gen?
eral Gregory that he has the power
to arm merchantmen without action
by congress. Details of the govern?
ment's armed neutrality plans for de?
fending the merchant marine were
withheld to avoid endangering Ameri?
cans and their ships by permitting the
information to reach Germany.
The only statemnt at the White
House and the navy department was
that the president had determi: 1
fully to protect American rights.
The decision, coming at the end of
a period of tense waiting, was gen
orally hailed as the natural and un?
avoidable next step in the policy
adopted by the president when fee
broke off diplomatic relations With
Germany, and gave warning that the
United Statt*? could not tolerate at?
tacks on American ships and citizens
In violation of international law.
Fraught with the grave possibility
of war with Germany, tho action was
taken by President Wilson only after
he was convinced that Germany ac?
tually was proceeding with her cam?
paign of ruthlesMncss and had made
efforts to plot with Mexico and Japan
against the territorial Integrity of the
Long before the order was given
from the White House, all necessar?
preparations for the arming of mer?
chantmen had been completed at the
The president's declrion sent a thrill
through the senate, meeting in special
session, and In government depart?
ments. Still hoping that war with
Germany will be avoided officials de?
clared that the Issue rests entirely
Formal announcement of the gov?
ernment's policy was given in the fol?
lowing announcement issued from tho
"Secretary Tumulty stated In con?
nection with the president's call for
an extra sh;3lon of congress that the
president Is convinced that he has the
power to arm American merchant
ships and he is free to exercise It at
once. But so much necessary legisla?
tion Is pressing for consideration that
he is convinced that it is for tho best
' Interests of the country to have an
early session of the Sixty-fifth con?
gress, whose support he will also need
In all matters collateral to the de?
fense of our morchant marine."
Tho proclamation calling the extra
session of congress follows:
"Whereas public interests require
that tho congress of the United States
should be convened In extra session at
12 o'clock, noon, on the 16th day of
April, 1917, to receive such communi?
cations as may be made by the execu?
"Now, therefore, I, Wood row Wil?
son, president of the United States of
America, do hereby proclaim and de?
clare that an extraordinary occasion
requires the congress of the United
States to conveno in extra session at
the capltol In the city of Washington,
on the 16th day of April, 1917, at 12
j o'( lock, noon, of which all persons
j who shall at that time be entitled to
I act as members thereof aro hereby
requested to take notice.
"Given under my hand and the teal
of the United States of America the
Oth day of March in the year of our
l>>rd one thousand nine html 1 and
seventeen and of the Independence of
tho United States the 111st."
The president sinned the proclama?
tion calling the extra session of con?
gress and authorized publication of
the e xplanatory statement ? i?h Sec
retary Tumulty standing at hll bed
side. A severe cold h ?s kept him from
seeing callers for three days and he
was put to bed by his physician yes?
In deciding that he had power to
at m merchantmen, the president took
the position that an old statute passed
In 181!?. cited in the senate debate M
prohibiting such step without con?
gressional action, has no application
to the present situation. He Is satis
DECISION LEFT TO WILSON.
GERMANY HAS SPOKEN HER
Foreign Minister Zimmermann De?
clares His Country Still Stands
Ready to Head Peace Move.
Amsterdam (via London), March 9.
?Dutch newspapers publish the fol?
lowing statement made by Dr. Alfred
Zimmerman, the German foreign
secretary, to a representative of a
"As far as the United States is
concerned, we have spoken our last
word and the decision is in President
"We are determined to carry
through the submurine war to the
end. The results of unrestricted sub?
marine war thus far have been very
"As to peace I may say that de?
spite the refusal of our peace offer
Germany still stands by the words o'
the imperial chancellor and is pre?
pared to place herself at the head of
an alliance of states for the mainten?
ance of the world's peace.
"As to European neutrals I be?
lieve there will be no change in their
present relations with us in the
course of the war. Neutral ship own?
ers should give up their trade with
England. They have made enough
m^ey and can afford to bear the loss
of English trade. They will 30on rec?
ognize that it is to their interest to
keep their ships at home so that they
may use them to the best advantage
after the war."
Dr. Zimmermann added that the
military situation is entirely satisfac?
tory to Germany.
PRESIDENT Midi DETTER.
still roninm Himself to His Room.
However, and Makes No Engage?
Washington, March 10.?President
Wilson has practically recovered from
tho cold which kept him In bed for
four days. Ho remained in his .room
this morning, however, and has made
MANY UNFILLED ORDERS.
I'nited States Steel Corporation Ha
Record Licakuig shell Business,
Xew York. March 10.?Unfilled or?
ders with the I'nited States Steel Cor?
poration February 2Sth amounted to
11,570,01)0 tons, breaking all record
bed that the nation stands behind
I hin und accepts the overwhelming
vote in the house on the armed neu?
trality bill and the opinion of a large
majority of the senate as proof of the
attitude of congress.
Although the bill -which failed of
passage in the senate provided for a
bond issue of S 100,000,000 to pay the
expenses of armed neutrality the
government has sufficient money
available for its immediate purposes.
I Congress will be asked to provide
j more when the extra session co:i
Under a bill passed during the last
days of the last congress, the funds
at the disposal of the federal war risk
bureau to insure American ships was
increased to $15,000,000.
Armed neutrality is expected to re?
move the practical blockade of Amer?
ican ports and place the issue of
eventual war squarely upon Ger?
many. An attack upon an armed
American vessel will precipitate a
fight If tho ship gets sight of tho sub?
marine and an unwarned attack will
be regarded by the United States as
an act of war.
Germany and Austria both have de?
clared armed merchantmen war ves?
These declarations were based
largely on the charge that British
merchant ships used their armament
offensively and it remains to be seen
whether Germany will so class and
treat American craft with defense
The whole of German press com?
ment and unofficial utterances since
the question was raised in this COUn
try has indicated the conviction that
any armed vessel should be consid?
ered hostile and sunk in the same way
as a belligerent war veasel. There
has bo?.?n no official expression on the
Germany's exact policy towards
American vessels sailing through the
war Rone since Its proclamation Feb?
ruary 1 has been quite clear, ow?
ing to the fact that less than a dozen
such voyages have been made and It 1?
possible that all the vessels that es?
caped succeded in avoiding the sub?
It has been suggested that Ger?
many probably Issued instructions to
her commanders not to sink Anierl
GERMAN SAILORS GOUTY.
EIGHT MEMBERS OP LIEBEN -
FELS CHEW CONVICTED.
Charge of Sinking Ship Sustained
With Acquittal on Allegation oi'
Conspiracy?Defendants Offer No
Florence, March 9.?Eight officers
and men of the Cferman Hansa line
steam freighter Liebenfels, which be?
gan sinking in Charleston harbor on
the night of January 31, were this
afternoon found guilty of sinking the
vessel in a navigable stream, by a
jury here in the United States district
court, Judge Henry A. M. Smith of
Charleston, presiding. They were
found not guilty of conspiracy to sink
her. The jury recommended mercy.
Sentence has not been passed.
Capt. Johann R. Klattenhoff, master
of the Liebenfels, was the only one of
the indicted men whose trial was post?
poned. He is confined to a Charles?
The convicted men arc: Johann
Luhken, chief officer; George Sunkel.
third officer: Jonas Edward Jansen,
chief engineer; Heinrich Wattenberg,
assistant engineer; Johann Wilhelm
Buse, second assistant engineer;
Moritz von Th?len, third assistant en?
gineer; August Neuse, fourth assist?
ant engineer; Wilhelm Schawarting.
machinist. All are Germans except
Jansen, who Is a Danish subject.
Several of the men are German naval
Counsel for the defense argued
strongly that the men should not be
punished, Intimating that they were
only carrying out orders. The defense
offered no testimony.
The government Introduced testi?
mony to show that the seal of tho
United States government had been
broken on the wireless apparatus
which had been wrecked, that the ma
! chinerv had been seriously disabled
and that the seacocks were open. Mftj
Gilbert A. Youngbcrg, corps of engi?
neers, IT. S. A. in charge of this dis?
trict, said that, in his opinion, the
wreck of the Uebenfels constituted
a possible menace to navigation of
the channel leading to the U/nitcd
States navy yard at Charleston.
The Liebenfels began to sink on the
night of January 31. The plight of
the freighter was observed early on
the morning of February 1 by tho
tugs Cecelia and Wal-an, which
; promptly offered assistance Which
1 was refused by chief Officer Lubkcn.
I on the ground that Capt. Klattenhof?
was not on board. Later In the r\
the collector of the port. Fred C
Peters, and a party of United States
officials visited the wreck and as no?
body was aboard the collector took
charge, leaving deputies on guard day
and night. Warrants were sworn out
against tho nine defendants charging
them with sinking the freighter.
United States Marshal J. L. Sims
thereupon took charge. The Liehen
fels is being floated under the super?
vision of Maj. Youngherg.
It is expected that she will be given
necessary repairs at the Charleston
navy yard, after which she will rid'
at anchor in the Cooper rivei.
IMPRISONMENT AND FIXE.
I Officers of Liebcnsfels Must Serve One
Vcnr in Atlanta Prison und Pay Fine
of $500?Case is Appealed.
Florence, March 10.?The eight of?
ficers of the German freighter Liben
fels, sunk in Charleston harbor Jan?
uary 31st, were sentenced to a year
each in the Atlanta Federal peniten?
tiary and fined $f)00 each. They
were convicted yesterday of sinking
the vessel in a navigable stream. The
cases have been appealed and bonds
fixed at $0,000 each. They are being
held under guard because the.\ were
not able to give bonds immediately.
can ships without every precaution
for those on board, as a last hope of
keeping America out of the war. The
ruthless destruction of passenger
liners like the California and the La
conia. however, is felt here to render
this belief Improbable.
The effect of America's action noon
otherineutral nations will be awaited
with keen interest. Vessels of those
countries too have been holding to
port through terror of the German
The throttling of neutral shipping
both British and German exports have
stated to be the most serious result
of the German campaign to date and
has exceeded in effects the actual
amount of tonnage destroyed. Several
German authorities, have indicated
that so long as thev could terrorise
neutral vessels and continue their at?
trition on British shipping the even?
tual starvation of England was cei
MANY DROWN IN COLLISION.
BRITISH TRANSPORT SUNK OFF
ISLE OF WIGHT.
Ten Europeans ami six Hundred and
Fifteen Native South African La?
London, March 9.?The British
transport Mendt, carrying South Af?
rican native laborers, was sunk after
a collision on February 21 and 625
persons lost their lives.
Ten of the persons lost were Eu?
ropeans, according to the announce?
ment by Premier Botha. The col?
lision occurred off the Isle of Wight.
The official announcement says:
j "Premier Botha stated to the South
I African parliament today that the
transport Mendi, carrying the last
batch of South African native laborers
contingent (the rest of whom were
landed safely in France) collided with
another vessel cn route from England
to Havre and sank in 25 minutes.
"The collision occurred Off the Isle
of Wight February 21. The escort's
searchlight could not penetrate the
fog, but the survivors were rescued
! by passing vessels. Twelve European
officers and 191 natives were saved.
Ten Europeans and 615 natives were
"Difficulty in obtaining authentic
information caused the delay in mak?
ing the announcement public. Premier
Botha said that the relatives of those
natives who are presumed to have
been drowned would be advised. He
added mt the magistrate and native
commissioners had heen Instructed to
inform the chiefs, head men and the
people so that they might know the
truth and not heed idle and mis?
chievous stories which experience
proved might be circulated. The im?
perial authorities, he declared, would
pay compensation to natural benc
I The Mendi was a British steamer
j of 4.230 tons gross, built in Glasgow
; in 1906 and owned by the British
end African Steam Navigation com
; peny Ltd., of Liverpool (the Elder,
i Dempster company), the last entry
in shipping records regarding her
movements was on December 27, last.
when she was reported at arriving a4
j Port Natal from Dar-es-Salaam.
NINE STEAMERS SUNK.
Many Men from Italian Transport
Lost in Rough Seas When Vessel
I Berlin, March 10.?The admiralty
i announced that nine steamships, three
vessels with an aggregate tonnage of
thirty-two thousand, had been sunk
in the Mediterranean. The list given
was as follows: The armed Italian
steamer Morino, the Indian transport
Rosalie, the armed British Reamers
Wathtield, Tojanprince, Brunby and
Craigendoran, a French steamer, an
armed hostile transport and the
Greek steamer Victoria. The an?
nouncement said that two Italian sol?
diers from the Italian transport Mi
nas, sunk February 15th, declared
thousands of soldiers aboard the Ml
nas perished because of the rough
ERECTING BIG RADIO STATION.
, Americana Say Mexicans Plan for
Wireless Connection With Ger?
Galveston, March 10.?American
passengers arriving on the Wolvine
liner.Harald from Vera Cruz de?
clare that a powerful radio station is
being erected near Mexico City under
direction of German engineers. They
said they had positive information the
station was expected to establish di?
rect connection with Berlin.
SMUGGLING EFFORT! DISCOVER?
Efforts Alleged to Have Been Made
to Remove Articles From Interned
Philadelphia, March 10.?Alleged
attempts to smuggle goods on and off
the German commerce raiders Kr?n-1
prlns Wilhelm and Prince Eitel
Friedrieh here arc being Investigated
by federal authorities. A sergeanl In
the United States marines is said t<>
be involved. Arrests are expected as
the outcome of the Investigation.
MORE MEN JOIN ARMY.
Recruiting of Regulars Shows Big In?
Washington, March 8.?Recruiting
during February resulted In 1,852
men being added i?? the regular army,
the war department announced today.
Officers behoved the army can be
brought to its authorized strength be-j
fore Juno o0.
ATTITUDE OF BERLIN IS ANX?
IOUSLY AWAITED IN NEW
I?ossible Thnt Action of German Sub
marine Commamler May Bring on
Conflict Despite Efforts to Avoid It.
Washington, March 9.?Armed neu?
trality will be the status of the Unit?
ed States the moment the first mer?
chant ship under the American flag
puts to sea with cannon mounted for
President Wilson made this clear in
his address to congress February 26
when he asked specific authority to
arm merchant ships for defense
against submarines?the steps he or?
dered today upon his own responsi?
Writers on international law have
held that armed neutrality consits
in placing the country in a position to
defend itself and its neutrality against
threatened attacks or inroads by bel?
This state of preparedness may last
an indefinite length of time, through
good fortune in avoiding contact with
belligerent forces afloat or ashore, or
to confine its declaration of purpose
to infringe the neutrality of a coun?
try to mere threats unsupported by
On the other hand, the status of
armed neutrality may change to one
of actual hostility through a col?
lision?such as submarine attack on
an armed merchantman.
President Wilson has said that It
may not be necessary to put armed
forces anywhere into action. All will
depend upon the future attitude of
Germany and the treatment of Amer?
ican ships by German submarine
In his address to congress the
president said: "I am not now propos?
ing or contemplating war or any steps
that lead to it. I merely request that
you will accord me by your own vote
and definite bestowal th? means and
authority to safeguard in practice the
right of a great people who are at
peace and who are desirous of ex?
ercising none but the rights of peace
to follow the pursuit of peace in quiet?
ness and good will.
V. S. FORCES AT SANTL\GO.
American Marines and Sailors Land?
ed, Causing People to Regain Their
Santiago, Cuba, March 8.?With
the rich cane fields and the big Union
Sugar mill at San Luis, ten miles
from Santiago burning, 400 American
marines and sailors are in charge of
Santiago tonight and fighting in this
city has ceased.
The American forces were landed
from the mine-layer San Francisco,
the cruiser Olympia, the gunboat Pet?
rel and the gunboat Machias. The
people of Santiago have regained con?
fidence since the landing of the
At San Luis, however, the residents
are greatly alarmed and have built
barricades in the streets expecting at?
tack from the rebels.
Heavy fighting is reported in the vi?
cinity of Palma Coriano.
Many civilians are leaving the city
to join the constitutionalist army, it
was reported tonight.
SCORES GERMAN GOVERNMENT
Socialist Member of Diet Says Public
Food supplies are Unfit to Ent.
The Hague, March 10.?The Ber?
lin Vorwaertz quotes Herr Hofer, a
Socialist deputy, in the recent food
debate in the Prussian diet as saying
that food served in public kitchens
is unfit for consumption. He asked
the government if it is not satisfied
in our hatred by the whole world
without causing a revolution at home.
APPOINTS HOME BOARD.
Governor Names Confederate Commis?
Columbia, March 10.?The throe
members of the board of eommis
Stoners of the Confederate infirmary
were appointed yesterday by Go v.
Members of the board are: H. E.
rhompson Of Columbia. S. R. Dendy
>f Walhalla and S. E. Welch of
Charleston. The appointments take
dVect March 16. Mr. Dendy was ap?
pointed to succeed the late W. H.
London. March 9.?Count von Zep
iclin was suffering from dysentery
Or some time prior to his death and
inderwent an operation, according to
l Berlin dispatch. He appeared to
ie recovering when mumps developed
md iator infiammution of the lungs.
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